Biodiversity in Forest Fragments under Different Forms of Environmental Conservation, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

Main Article Content

Juliana Christovam
Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Patrícia da Silva Costa
Constantino Antônio Cavalcante Júnior
Franklin Alves dos Anjos
Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa
Fernando Oliveira Franco
Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães
Aldair de Souza Medeiros
Alberto Soares de Melo


Characteristic environments of forests generally harbor significant biodiversity, which is considered an important indicator of local environmental quality, so that the analysis of this indicator can subsidize the decision making on areas for legal reserve. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodiversity of forest fragments at different levels of anthropization in the municipality of Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The related research was carried out in three forest fragments, an area under reforested conditions, a natural remnant area and an area under natural regeneration. Each fragment was divided into three sampling units of 240 m2, constituting the replicates. The total frequency of insects, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles and trees was evaluated. Cluster analysis indicated that there were differences between the three fragment types. The analyzed variables were summarized in two main components, which explain 87.1% of the accumulated total variance. It was concluded that the areas of natural remnants and reforestation presented higher frequencies of species and, consequently, greater biological diversity than the natural regeneration area.

Environment, ecology, fauna, flora, frequency of species

Article Details

How to Cite
Christovam, J., Souza Ferraz, R., Costa, P., Cavalcante Júnior, C., dos Anjos, F., Barbosa, M., Franco, F., Magalhães, I., Medeiros, A., & Melo, A. (2019). Biodiversity in Forest Fragments under Different Forms of Environmental Conservation, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 23(4), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Ashby MF. What is a “Sustainable Development”? In: Ashby MF, editor. Materials and Sustainable Development. Amsterdã: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2016.

Powell LL, Stouffer PC, Wolfe JD, Johnson EI, Hines JE, Nichols JD. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data. Biological Conservation. 2015a;188(1):100-108.

Arcilla N, Holbechc LH, O’Donnell S. Severe declines of understory bird follow illegal logging in Upper Guinea forests of Ghana, West Africa. Biological Conservation. 2015;188(1):41-49.

Cordeiro N, Dampf CJ, Borghesio L, Joho MP, Monoski TJ, Mkongewa VJ. Forest fragmentation in an African biodiversity hotspot impacts mixed-species bird flocks. Biological Conservation. 2015;188(1):61-71.

Pavlacky Jr DC, Possingham HP, Goldizen AW. Integrating life history traits and forest structure to evaluate the vulnerability of rainforest birds along gradients of deforestation and fragmentation in eastern Australia. Biological Conservation. 2015; 188(1):89-99.

Rocha WO, Dorval A, Peres Filho O, Vaez C dos, Ribeiro ES. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) bioindicadores de degradaçãoambientalem Poxoréu, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Floresta e Ambiente. 2015;22(1):88-98. Portuguese.

Velazco SJE, Galvão F, Keller HA, Bedrij NA. Florística e fitossociologia de umaflorestaestacionalsemidecidual, reservaprivada de Osununú-Misiones, Argentina. Floresta e Ambiente. 2015; 22(1):1-12. Portuguese.

Silvério Neto R, Bento M de C, Menezes SJM da C de, Almeida FS. Caracterização da coberturaflorestal de unidades de conservação da Mata Atlântica. Floresta e Ambiente. 2015;22(1):32-40. Portuguese.

Fiorentin LD, Téo SJ, Schneider CR, Costa RH, Batista S. Análiseflorística e padrãoespacial da regeneração natural emárea de florestaombrófilamistanaregião do Caçador SC. Floresta e ambiente. 2015;22(1):60-70. Portuguese.

Powell LL, Cordeiro NJ, Stratford J. Ecology and conservation of avian insectivores of the rainforest under story: A pantropical perspective. Biological Conservation. 2015b;188(1):1-10.

Vogel HF, Cardoso O, Watzlawick LF, Campos JB. Pesquisas em unidades de conservação urbanas no Paraná: conhe-cimentos raramente divulgados ou aplicados. Ambiência - Revista do Setor de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais. 2015; 11(1):75-93.Portuguese.

Summers DM, Bryan BA, Nolan M, Hobbs TJ. The costs of reforestation: A spatial model of the costs of establishing environmental and carbon plantings. Land Use Policy. 2015;44(1):110-121.

Cunningham SC, Mac Nally R, Baker PJ, Cavagnaro TR, Beringer J, Thomsonb JR, Thompsonb RM. Balancing the environ-mental benefits of reforestation in agricultural regions. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 2015; 17(4):301-317.

Botello F, Sarka S, Sánchez-Cordero V. Impact of habitat loss on distributions of terrestrial vertebrates in a high-biodiversity region in Mexico. Biological Conservation. 2015;184(1):59-65.

Medeiros HR, Bochio GM, Ribeiro MC, Torezan JM, Anjos L. Combining plant and bird data increases the accuracy of an Index of Biotic Integrity to assess conservation levels of tropical forest fragments. Journal for Nature Conservation. 2015;25(1):1-7.

Mussury RM, Scalon S de PQ, Gomes AA, Batista MR, Scalon Filho H. Flutua-çãopopulacional da mesofaunaem-fragmentos de matanaregião de Dourados MS. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Lavras. 2008;32(2):645-650. Portuguese.

Laake P, Fagerland MW. Statistical inference. In: Laake P, Benestad H, Olsen BR, editors. Research in Medical and Biological Sciences. 1st ed. Amsterdã: Academic Press; 2015.

Moen K, Middelthon AL. Qualitative research methods. In: Laake P, Benestad H, Olsen BR, editors. research in medical and biological sciences. 1st ed. Amsterdã: Academic Press; 2015.

Lorenzi H. Árvores Brasileiras: Manual de identificação e cultivo de plantasar-bóreasnativas do Brasil. Nova Odessa: InstitutoPlantarum; 2009. Portuguese.

Depoy E, Gitlin LN. Collecting data through measurement in experimental-type research. In: Depoy E, Gitlin LN. Introduction to research. 5th ed. Amsterdã: Mosby; 2016.

Pimentel-Gomes F. Curso de estatística experimental. 14th ed. Piracicaba: Degaspari; 2000. Portuguese.

Santos JW, Almeida FAC, Beltrão NEM, Cavalcante FB. Estatística experimental aplicada. 2nd ed. Campina Grande: Embrapa Algodão/UFCG; 2008.

Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL. Análisemultivariada de dados. Porto Alegre: Bookman; 2009. Portuguese.

Stratford JA, Stouffer PC. Forest fragmentation alters microhabitat availability for Neotropical terrestrial insectivoreous birds. Biological Conserva-tion. 2015;188(1):109-115.

Visco DM, Sherry TW. Increased abundance, but reduced nest predation in the chestnut-backed antbird in costa rican rainforest fragments: Surprising impacts of a pervasive snake species. Biological Conservation. 2015;188(1):22-31.

Pollock HS, Cheviron ZA, Agin TJ, Brawn JDAC. Absence of microclimate selectivity in insectivorous birds of the neotropical forest understory. Biological Conservation. 2015;188(1):116-125.

Boyle WA, Sigel BJ. Ongoing changes in the avifauna of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica: Twenty-three years of Christmas Bird Counts. Biological Conservation. 2015;188(1):11-21.

Filgueiras BKC, Tabarelli M, Leal IR, Vaz-de-Mello F, Iannuzzi L. Dung beetle persistence in human-modified land-scapes: Combining indicator species with anthropogenic land use and fragmentation-related effects. Ecological Indicators. 2015; 55(1):65-73.

Salomão RP, Iannuzzi L. Dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) assemblage of a highly fragmented landscape of Atlantic forest: From small to the largest fragments of northeastern Brazilian region. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 2015;59(1):126-131.

Maguire DY, Bennett EM, James PMA, Buddle CM. Landscape connectivity and insect herbivory: A framework for under-standing tradeoffs among ecosystem services. Global Ecology and Conservation. 2015;4(1):73-84.

Pereira SAN, Sousa CS. Levantamento da fauna de abelhas no município de montecarmelo-MG. Getec. 2015;4(7):11-24. Portuguese.

De La Mora A, García-Ballinas JA, Philpott SM. Local, landscape, and diversity drivers of predation services provided by ants in a coffee landscape in Chiapas, Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2015;201(1):83-91.

Komonen A, Övermark E, Hytönen J, Halme P. Tree species influences diversity of ground-dwelling insects in afforested fields. Forest Ecology and Management. 2015;349(1):12-19.

Grosjean S, Cruaud C, Ohler A, Hassanin A, Chuaynkern Y. Improving biodiversity assessment of anuran amphibians using DNA barcoding of tadpoles. Case studies from Southeast Asia. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 2015;338(1):351-361.

Meyer NFV, Helen JE, Ricardo M, Frank VL, Yorick L, David RO, Chantal BFV, Andrew DC, Clayton KN, Patrick AJ. An assessment of the terrestrial mammal communities in forests of Central Panama, using camera-trap surveys. Journal for Nature Conservation. 2015;(6):28-35.

Galetti M, Bovendorp SR, Guevara R. Defaunation of large mammals leads to an increase in seed predation in the Atlantic forests. Global Ecology and Conservation. 2015;3(1):824-830.

Ripple WJ, Newsome TM, Wolf C, Dirzo R, Everatt KT, Galetti M, Hayward MW, Kerley GIH, Levi T, Lindsey PA, Macdolnald DW, Malhi Y, Painter LE, Sandom CJ, Terborgh J, Valkenburgh BV. Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores Collapse of the world’s largest herbivore. Science Advances. 2015;(5):1-12.

Paula DM de, Groeneveld J, Huth A. Tropical forest degradation and recovery in fragmented landscapes — Simulating changes in tree community, forest hydrology and carbon balance TL - 3. Global Ecology and Conservation. 2015; 3:664-77.

Ferreira RLC, Mota AC, Silva JAA, Marangon LC, Santos ES. Comparação de duasmetodologias multivariadas no estudo de similaridade entre fragmentos de florestaatlântica. Revista Árvore. 2008; 32(3):511-521.Portuguese.

Jacquemyn H, Butaye J, Dumortier M, Hermy M, Lust N. Effects of age and distance on the composition of mixed deciduous forest fragments in an agricultural landscape. Journal of Vegetation Science. 2011;12:635-642.

Condit R. Defining and mapping vegetation types in mega-diverse tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 1996; 11(1):4-5.

Cook SA. Diversity of approaches to the study of species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 1998;13(9):340-341.