Effects of Trace Elements Compositions of Igneous Intrusions on Public Health in Ishiagu Area of the Southern Benue trough, Southern Nigeria

Main Article Content

I. Nwachukwu
V. U. Ukaebgu
N. Egesi

Abstract

Some health implications of structurally-controlled igneous intrusions in Ishiagu area of southern Benue Trough were studied using the field investigations, trace element geochemistry and geostatistical studies of some of the igneous rocks, the surrounding water and edible vegetables. Results of the study revealed that the average concentrations of these trace metals in the igneous rocks decreased from Mn to Mg as follows: Mn (1431 ppm), Sr (419.5 ppm), Ba (58.11 ppm), Cu (45.63 ppm), Pb (5.48 ppm), As (1.20 ppm), Mo (3.270 ppm), Cd (0.960 ppm) and Mg (0.940 ppm); in water decreased from Mg to Cd as follows: Mg (5.840 mg/l), Sr (1.270 mg/l), Fe (0.3 mg/l), Mo (.013 mg/l), Mn (0.002 mg/l), Ni (0.001 mg/l), As (0.0004 mg/l), Ni (0.001 mg/l), Co (0.0001 mg/l), and Cd (0.0001 mg/l), while in the edible vegetables trace elements decreased from Fe-Ni as follows: Fe (8540 mg/kg), Mg (4085 mg/kg), Al (2352.1 mg/kg), Pb (360.76 mg/kg), Sr (182 mg/kg), Zn (53.38 mg/kg), Ba (46.3 mg/kg) Cu (21.75 mg/kg), Mo (8.97 mg/kg) and Ni (4.92 mg/kg). Geostatistical analysis of the edible vegetables indicates that the bioaccumulation factor of the vegetation with respect to the rock decreased from Pb to Ni as follows: Pb> Mo >Cd >As> Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn>Sr>Mg>Ni. The concentrations of Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn in water and edible vegetables are higher than the permissible levels recommended by World Health Organization. Thus, the inhabitants of the study area are at risk of myocardial infarction, insulin alteration, anemia, neurodegenerative conditions in humans, renal dysfunction, metal fumes fever, hair and skin discoloration, respiratory tract diseases, carcinogenic diseases, kidney disease, fanconi syndrome, lipid peroxidation of the heart, liver and spleen, hypertension, anemia, colic, headache, brain damage and central nervous system disorder, kidney disease, neurotoxin, lipid peroxidation in the heart, liver and spleen, fanconi syndrome, oesteomalacia, renal dysfunction, learning disabilities and hyperactivity, loss of vision, heart and liver failures, skin irritation, hazardous effects on lungs and brains. The outcome of this study has provided a data base for intervention endeavors for health practitioners to comprehensively monitor and control health issues arising from geologic and mining processes in Ishiagu area of Ebonyi State. The area is in dire need of standard medical facilities, which will, among other things, offer medical aids, document such health matters and keep surveillance so as to detect impact of the trace metals on  the health of the inhabitants of the study area.

Keywords:
Trace metal compositions, edible vegetables, bioaccumulation, public health.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nwachukwu, I., Ukaebgu, V. U., & Egesi, N. (2019). Effects of Trace Elements Compositions of Igneous Intrusions on Public Health in Ishiagu Area of the Southern Benue trough, Southern Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 25(3-4), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i3-430179
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ukaegbu VU. A tectonic implication of the eruption of pyroclastics in Uturu, Southern Benue Trough Nigeria. Global journal of Geol. Sci. 2008;6(2):123-127.

Olade MA. Evolution of Nigeria Benue trough (Aulacogen). A tectonic model, Geo-magazine. 1975;12:575-583.

Wright JB, Hastings DA, Jones WB, Williams HR. Geology and mineral resources of West Africa. George Allen and Unwin, London. 1985;187.

Akande OS, Ojo OJ, Adekeye OA, Egenhoff SO, Obaje NU, Erdtmann BD. Stratigraphic evolution and petroleum potentials of middle cretaceous sediments in the lower and middle Benue Trough, Nigeria: Insights from a new source rock facies evaluation. Petroleum Technology Developmental Journal (ISSN 1595-9104). 2011;1:1-34.

Burke K. LongShore drift, submarine canyons and submarine fans in the development of Niger Delta: American Association. Petrol, Geologists. 1972;56: 1975-1983.

Odigi MI, Soronnadi GC. Depositional environments, diagenesis and reservoir development of Asu River Group sandstone: Southeastern Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2014;5(6):103–114.

Okiwelu AA, Okwueze EE, Akpan PO, Ude IA. Basin frame work and basement structuring of lower Benue trough, West Africa based on regional magnetic field data. Tectonic and Hydrocarbon implica-tions. Earth Science Research, Vol. 4, No. 12015. ISSN 1927-05 42, Published by Canadian center of Science and education; 2014.

Fatoye FB, Gideon YB. Geology and mineral resources of the lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Research. 2013;4(6):21-28.

Ibe KK, Ibeneme S, Selemo AO, Nwagbara JO, Ikoro DO, Obioha YE, Ubechu BO, Chinemelu ES, Onwuka CO. Geological and Geo electrical Characteri-zation of the Ukoni Diorite deposit. Lokpaukwu, Umuchieze area, South-eastern Nigeria: Implications for establishing a quarry site, Scientific research Journal. 2013;1(IV).

Ofoegbu CO, Amajor LC. A geochemical comparism of the pyroclastic rocks from Abakiliki and Ezillo, Southeastern Benue Trough. Journal of Mining and Geology. 1987;23:45 -51.

Petters SW. Paralic arenaceous foraminifera from the upper cretaceous foraminifera from the upper cretaceous of the Benue Trough, Nigeria. Acta Palaeont. Polonica. 1978;24(4):251–471.

Reyment RA. Aspects of the geology of Nigeria: the stratigraphy of the cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits. University of Ibadan Press. 1965;145.

Taylor SR, McLennan SM. The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Rev Geophy. 1995;33:241-263.

Rudnick RL, Gao S. Composition of the continental Crust. In the Crust. (Ed R.L. Rudnick.) Elsevier. 2003;3:1–64.

Wedepohl KH. The composition of the continental crust. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1995;59:1217–1232.

Matoka CM, Omolo SO, Odalo JO. Heavy metal bioaccumulation as indicators of environmental pollution and health risks. IOSR Journal of environmental science, toxicology and food technology. (IOSR-JESTFT). 2014;8(2):24–31.

Ruquia N, Muslim K, Muhammad M, Hameed UR, Naveed UR, Surray S, Nosheen A, Muhammad S, Mohib U, Muhammad R, Zeenat S. Accumulations of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physio-chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam Dohat. J. Pharm. Sci. and Res. 2015; 7(3):89– 97.