Journal of Scientific Research and Reports <p><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 2320-0227 Technical Terms and Processes: A Case for Transliteration <p>This literature review article looks into the practice of finding literal translations in the target language for each and every technical term and process in the source language, even if the equivalents are not intelligible to the readers. This practice is evident in many translated textbooks in highly technical majors including IT, engineering and medicine. The paper suggests a hybrid model of translation by employing transliteration (Arabicisation) as well as traditional translation. In other words, known terms and processes should be treated as proper nouns rather than lexical items and subsequently referring to the entities as sounds rather than meanings. This process makes a translated text easier to comprehend, keeps the intended meaning as accurate as possible and saves translators time finding awkward and pointless equivalents in the target language.</p> Grami Mohammad A. Grami Hamza Alshenqeeti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-10 2020-02-10 32 35 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130211 Status and Distribution of Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in the South Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India <p>The Indian Peafowls (<em>Pavo crisatus</em>) is Least Concern (LC) category on Red list and Schedule I species as per Wildlife Protection Act (1972) in India.&nbsp; Indian Peafowl (<em>Pavo</em> <em>crisatus</em>) population status and distribution was studied in South Coimbatore district especially in Polllachi area from August 2017 to January 2018.&nbsp; The study carried out in 13 villages in South Coimbatore including Nchavelampalayam, Chandrapuram, Kollupalayam, Chellampalayam, Marampudungigoundanur, Athanaripalayam, Kotturmalayandipattinam, Vallakundapuram, Vedasanthur, Kanchampalayam, Sangampalayam, Angalankuruchi, Paramadaiyur Village etc. From the present study, 405 direct sighting consists of 1283 Peafowls in 13 villages were recorded. Based on the Group wise of Peafowls showed that Mixed group(MIG) contain 50.37% followed by Male female group(MFG) stand for 40.74%, Female chick group(FCG) contains 4.19%, Female group(FG) with the percentage of 3.95%, and Male group(MG) which constitute of 0.74% were recorded. Based on Peafowls classification, Females Peafowls consist of 59.85% followed by 17.77% of Peacock, 13.09% Peafowls chicks, 9.27% sub adults Peafowls were observed. According to the Peafowls habitat, the study area categorized into mixed forest (MFL) habitat, Agricultural Land (AL) and Coconut farmland (CFL). Maximum of Peafowls observed in Coconut farmland (CFL) comprised of 44.33% followed by the mixed forest land (MFL) habitat consists of 36.20% and very low in Agricultural Land (AL) 19.45% of Peafowls were occupied. As a result of habitat thrashing, absence of predation and easy accessibility of food, climate change influence of Peafowls interested in countryside villages.</p> M. Yogeshwari K. Varunprasath ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 1 7 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130207 Promotion of Low-cost Package of Technologies for Drudgery Mitigation in Turmeric Production System <p>Major role of farm women in the turmeric production system in Marathwada region was found to be in planting rhizomes, weeding, harvesting and cleaning activities. Ploughing, forming ridges, irrigation are performed solely by male farmers. Whereas participation of farm women in earthing up activity was 85 per cent, it was followed by fertilizer application (83%). Majority of the activities such as planting, earthing up, harvesting in turmeric production system were performed manually. Data on time spent by the female workers in performing different activities in turmeric production system indicated that maximum time-consuming activity was hand weeding (84 man-days/ season)&nbsp; followed by earthing up (63 man-days/ season) and cutting, sorting and cleaning roots (56 days/ season). As per the work demand score, all the activities performed in turmeric production system were very time demanding and very exhaustive as per the psychological feeling of the farm women. Earthing up is an important intercultural operation which is normally carried out twice or thrice during the crop season, accompanied by weeding and side dressing the crop with fertilizers. No tool or implement is used by farmers for earthing up activity. All the farmers were unaware of the hand-operated machines available for earthing up activity. After performing these activities continuously for 6 h, major health problems of the farm women reported were burning sensation to the skin, skin peeling and allergy. Hence, earthing up tool (<em>Sawdi</em>) small digging tool (<em>Ukari)</em>, set of five finger guards (<em>Nakhalya</em>) for planting rhizomes, drying tool (wooden rake) (for making upside down while drying turmeric fingers), sulbha bag for fertilizer application, mittens for cleaning and sorting and new khurpi for weeding were developed and tested. The ergonomic assessment revealed that the physiological cost of selected activities performed by farm women in existing and improved method was same but the perception of workload was found to be reduced (13-32%) in an improved method. All the developed technologies used by farm women in the turmeric production system for planting, earthing up, fertilizer application and drying were successful in increasing space of work. In all these activities, the output was significantly increased by 10-26 per cent due to the use of developed technologies.</p> J. P. Zend M. S. Revanwar S. S. Gaikwad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 8 15 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130208 Bayesian Modelling of Extreme Rainfall Data of Some Selected Locations in Nigeria <p>Climate change occurs when there is rise in average surface temperature on earth, which is mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels usually by human activities. It has been known to contribute greatly to the occurrence of extreme storms and rainfall, this trend continues as the effect of climate change becomes more pronounced. Therefore, this study modelled the extreme rainfall data of three locations (Calabar, Ikeja, Edo) in Nigeria. The block maxima method was used to pick out the maximum rainfall data in each year to form annual maxima data set. The parameters [location, scale, shape] were estimated using both the Classical and Bayesian methods. The result shows that the Bayesian Informative approach is a very good procedure in modelling the Nigerian Extreme Rainfall data.</p> Olawale Basheer Akanbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 16 26 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130209 Shelf Life of Millet Based Diabetic Mix <p>Millets are good source of nutrients such as fiber, minerals and b-complex vitamins and their regular consumption helps in reducing non communicable diseases. Hence, millets were used in the preparation of diabetic mix and a study was conducted to evaluate the shelf life of millet based diabetic mix.&nbsp; Parameters such as moisture, free fatty acid, peroxide value and microbial load were assessed for a period of 90 days. Significant increase in moisture, free fatty acid and peroxide value was observed at different storage period, however free fatty acid and peroxide values were in the acceptable range. Bacterial count throughout the storage period was within the safe level, whereas presence of mold and <em>E-coli</em> was not detected during storage period. Above findings revealed that the developed diabetic mix can be stored up to 90 days.</p> K. Geetha Geetha M. Yankanchi B. M. Veena Netravati Hiremath ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 27 31 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130210 Distribution of msp1, msp2 and eba175 Allelic Family According to Hemoglobin Genotype and G6PD Type from Children with Uncomplicated Malaria in Banfora Heath District (Burkina Faso) <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present study aimed to evaluate the <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> genetic diversity according to the host hemoglobin and G6PD genetic variants during the course of malaria in infected children aged from 2 to 10 years and living in endemic area in Burkina Faso.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study was designed as a longitudinal follow up conducted between May 2015 and February 2016 in Banfora health district, Burkina Faso.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We included 136 subjects (73 males and 63 females; age range from 2-10 years). Blood thick and thin film was done by capillary blood. Venous blood was collected for DNA extraction. Malaria diagnosis was done by microscopy. Human and parasite DNA were extracted based on Qiagen kit procedure. Then, hemoglobin and G6PD were genotyped by RLFP-PCR while the <em>msp1, msp2</em> and <em>eba175</em> genes were typed by a nested PCR. All PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on a 1.5-2% agarose gel and alleles categorized according to the molecular weight.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of hemoglobin type was 19.11% for abnormal hemoglobin and 80.9% for normal hemoglobin carriage. The prevalence of G6PD type was 91.18% for normal and 8.82% for G6PD deficiency carriage, respectively. The prevalence of <em>msp1</em> allelic families was 81.60%, 80.80% and 67.20% for k1, ro33 and mad20 respectively while for <em>msp2 gene, </em>fc27 and 3D7 allelic family the prevalence was 70.53% and 69.64% respectively. The <em>eba175</em> allelic families’ distribution showed 77.31% and 40.21% for fcr3 and Camp respectively. There was no difference in multiplicity of infection (MOI) according to hemoglobin genotypes and G6PD types. We found that k1 was the predominant allelic family of <em>msp1</em> in normal hemoglobin genotype (AA) and normal G6PD type. The mixed infection of <em>eba175</em> was statistically higher in abnormal hemoglobin <em>(p=0.04).</em> There was no statistical difference between fcr3 and camp prevalence excepted in G6PD deficient type. The polymorphism results showed that the prevalence of 450 bp in fc27 was statistically significantly higher in normal hemoglobin variant carriers (AA) than abnormal hemoglobin carriers <em>(p=2.10 <sup>-4)</sup>). </em>However, the prevalence of 350 bp in fc27 was statistically higher in normal G6PD than deficient G6PD carriers <em>(p=0.034).</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our result showed that the distribution of <em>msp1</em> and <em>eba75</em> polymorphism could be influenced by hemoglobin and G6PD variants. These results suggest that hemoglobin and G6PD could influence <em>P. falciparum</em> genetic diversity.</p> Salif Sombié Samuel Sindié Sermé Aïssatou Diawara Mame Massar Dieng Amidou Diarra Emilie S. Badoum Sam Aboubacar Coulibaly Noelie Henry/Béré Wael Said Abdrabou Aissata Barry Désiré Kargougou Alfred Sababeni Traoré Alfred B. Tiono Sodiomon Bienvenu Sirima Youssef Idaghdour Issiaka Soulama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-10 2020-02-10 36 47 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130212 Design and Construction of Densification Machine for Vegetables in Rural Settlements <p>This research work was carried out to improve the storage space and effective handling of dried vegetables specifically tomatoes, onion and okra, for consumers and marketers. The machine basically consists of an upper compression plate, machine mould, piston, lower compression plate and a 3-tons hydraulic jack. The machine performance was evaluated based on Output Capacity and Machine Compression Efficiency. The results showed that the machine output capacity and efficiency were 0.291 kg/h and 96.3%, respectively. The machine production cost stood at N35,000.00 only. The machine is therefore recommended to farmers.</p> J. K. Agunsoye I. Abubakar S. I. Ogijo A. Zakariyah S. A. Okaiyeto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 48 55 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130213 Demographic Transition in the Past and Projected Five Decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1967-2068: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study assessed the demographic transition in the past and projected five decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1967-2068: Empirical evidence from Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Past and projected time series data (between 1967 and 2068) were used for the study. The 1967-2068 data sets were resorted to due to lack of complete national data.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Past (between 1967 and 2017) and projected (between 2018 and 2068) five decades in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The time series data (1967 to 2068) obtained from the 1950-2099 Interpolated Demographic Data of the United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, on Births, Deaths and Population levels, were used for the study. The 1967-2068 data sets were resorted to due to lack of complete national data. Data collected were analyzed using birth and death rate indices, demographic transition index, growth rate equation and granger causality statistics. Unit root, co-integration and error correction tests were also carried out.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that in the past five decades (1967-2017), the mean crude birth and death rates per 1,000 populations were 43.9 and 18.0 respectively; while that of the projected five decades (2018-2068) was 28.9 and 7.9 respectively per 1000 populations. The demographic indices showed that in the past five decades (between 1967 and 2017), Nigeria was at the second stage (stage II) of demographic transition and expected to remain at this stage in the next five decades (between 2018 and 2068). Results also showed that the population growth rate in the past five decades was 2.584 percent, while the growth rate in the next five decades as projected was 2.098 percent. The population growth rate (2.098 percent) in the next five decades (between 2018 and 2068 as projected) is expected to decrease by an average of 0.486 percent. Results also showed that there is a mutual link between demographic transition and population growth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Nigeria is currently at the second stage of demographic transition and expected to remain at this stage (stage II) in the next five decades. Demographic transition increases the prediction of population growth and vice versa.</p> H. I. Eririogu C. A. Okezie E. S. Ebukiba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 56 71 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130214 Evaluation of the Influence of E-marketing on Patronage Behaviour and Its Attendant Challenges: A Case Study of Selected Hotels in Ado–Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria <p>This paper evaluated the influence of E-marketing on patronage behaviour and its attendant challenges in some selected hotels. This study employed a descriptive survey research design. This research work employed the use of structured questionnaire that is closed ended. A total of 22 copies of questionnaire were administered in the research work to elicit information from the respondent. Purposive sampling was used to select 11 three star hotels in the study area. 2 Management staff was selected using purposive sampling technique from each of the 11 selected 3 star hotels in the study area. The data collected were analysed through the use of descriptive method of data analysis such as tables, percentage and charts. The study revealed that E-marketing saves time and increases patronage level, E-marketing enhances patronage increase, quality website improves customer patronage and online advertising improves patronage level. However, it was also revealed that some of the challenges facing E-marketing includes no centrally acceptable payment method, Unstructured Presentation of Information, E-Marketing advertisements are poor, E-Marketing internet domain are weak as well as poor sensitization frustrates E-marketing. The study concluded that E-marketing is an important strategy to capture patrons who are use to online booking system and enhancement of convenient booking for online patrons who are relatively far from the locations of the hotels. However, the study recommended that the use of E-Marketing among establishments especially in hotels should be encouraged in order to capture people from far locations who need reservations at their own convenient time.</p> S. J. Arohunsoro O. O. Ojo A. A. Shittu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-17 2020-02-17 72 79 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130215