Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Anxiety- and Depression-like Behaviours, and Locomotion in Captive male African Giant Rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse – 1840) Subjected to Chronic Physical Immobilisation
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports,
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of physical immobilisation and folic acid (FA) supplementation on neurobehaviour in African Giant rats, AGRs (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse-1840). Twenty wild adult male captive AGRs were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 AGRs were neither immobilised nor administered FA. Groups 2 and 3 AGRs were subjected to physical immobilisation, which lasted six hours per day for 21 days. Group 3 AGRs, in addition, received FA-supplemented feed, at the concentration of 3.5 mg/kg feed for 10 consecutive days immediately following the immobilisation protocol. Group 4 AGRs were not immobilised, but received FA-supplemented feed as in group 3 AGRs. All AGRs were evaluated for anxiety- and depression-like behaviours, and locomotor activity using Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field Test, respectively. The results showed that both the percentage open arm entry and number of squares crossed were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the immobilised AGRs (groups 2 and 3), but the reduction was less (P < 0.05) in those that received FA post immobilisation (group 3). The percentage open arm exploration was significantly (P < 0.05) lower, while the rearing activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the immobilised AGRs that received no FA supplementation (group 2). In conclusion, the AGRs that were subjected to chronic physical immobilisation displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviours, and performed poorly in the tasks for locomotor functions. Post-immobilisation FA supplementation ameliorated the effects.
- African giant rat
- feed supplementation
- folic acid
How to Cite
DOI: 10.1038/s41398-020-0806-x, PMID 32376819.
Son H, Yang JH, Kim HJ, Lee DK. A chronic immobilisation stress protocol for inducing depression-like behaviour in mice. J Vis Exp. 2019;(147):e59546.
DOI: 10.3791/59546, PMID 31157777.
Espoir AMR, Antoine KK, Clarisse MOF, Didier NL, Linda DSS, Theophile D. Effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora edulis on anxiety induced by subacute immobilisation stress. J Adv Med Med Res. 2020;32(5):159-69.
Henn FA, Vollmayr B. Stress models of depression: Forming genetically vulnerable strains. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005; 29(4-5):799-804.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.03.019, PMID 15925700.
Cordner ZA, Tamashiro KLK. Effects of chronic variable stress on cognition and Bacel expression among wild-type mice. Transl Psychiatry. 2016;6(7):e854.
Han B, Yu L, Geng Y, Shen L, Wang H, Wang Y, et al. Chronic stress aggravates cognitive impairment and suppresses insulin associated signaling pathway in APP/PS1 mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;53(4):1539-52.
DOI: 10.3233/JAD-160189, PMID 27392857.
Bhagya VR, Srikumar BN, Veena J, Shankaranarayana Rao BS. Short term exposure to enriched environment rescues chronic stress-induced impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity, anxiety, and memory deficits. J Neurosci Res. 2017;95(8):1602-10.
DOI: 10.1002/jnr.23992, PMID 27862185.
Patanwala I, King MJ, Barrett DA, Rose J, Jackson R, Hudson M, et al. Folic acid handling by the human gut: implications for food fortification and supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(2):593-9.
DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.113.080507, PMID 24944062.
Wright AJ, Dainty JR, Finglas PM. Folic acid metabolism in human subjects revisited: potential implications for proposed mandatory folic acid fortification in the UK. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(4):667-75.
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507777140, PMID 17617936.
Lalonde R, Joyal CC, Botez MI. Effects of folic acid and folinic acid on cognitive and motor behaviours in 20-month-old rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993;44(3): 703-7.
DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(93)90188-y, PMID 8451272.
Singh R, Kanwan SS, Sood PK. Genetical effects of folic acid on enhancement of memory and antioxidant status in aged rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;31(1): 88-91.
Pal R, Gulati K, Chakraborti A, Banerjee B, Ray A. Role of free radicals in stress-induced neurobehavioural changes in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44(10):816-20. PMID 17131912.
Samoilov VO. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936). J Hist Neurosci. 2007; 16(1-2):74-89.
DOI: 10.1080/09647040600793232, PMID 17365554.
Ajayi SS. Live and carcass weights of Giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). Afr J Ecol. 1977;15(3):223-7.
Cooper RG. Care, husbandry and diseases of the African Giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus). J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2008;79(2):62-6.
DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v79i2.245, PMID 18846849.
Verhagen R, Cox C, Machangu R, Weetjens B, Billet M. Preliminary results on the use of Cricetomys rats as indicators of buried explosives in field conditions. Mine detection dogs: training, operations and odour detection. Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining; In: Mclearn IG, editor. 2003;175-93.
Available from: https://www.apopo.org/files/pagesfromMDDbook.pdf [cited Jul 15, 2010].
Mahoney A, Edwards TL, LaLonde K, Beyene N, Cox C, Weetjens BJ, et al. Pouched rats’ (Cricetomys gambianus) detection of Salmonella in horse feces. J Vet Behav. 2014;9(3):124-6.
Ajayi SS. Observation on the biology, domestication and reproductive performance of the African Giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) in Nigeria. Mammalia. 1975;39(3):343-64.
Cooper RG. The African giant/pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) – Its Physiology, Ecology, Care and Taming. Press L. 2014;440. 1st ed.
Dzenda T, Ayo JO, Lakpini CAM, Adelaiye AB. Diurnal, seasonal and sex variations in rectal temperature of African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse). J Therm Biol. 2011a;36(5):255-63.
Dzenda T, Ayo JO, Lakpini CAM, Adelaiye AB. Seasonal and sex variations in live weights of captive African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. Int J Zool Res. 2010;7(1):49-58.
Dzenda T, Ayo JO, Lakpini CAM, Adelaiye AB. Seasonal, sex and live weight variations in feed and water consumptions of adult captive African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse – 1840) kept individually in cages. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2013;97(3):465-74.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01287.x, PMID 22404334.
Dzenda T, Ayo JO, Lakpini CAM, Adelaiye AB. Diurnal, seasonal and sex influences on respiratory rate of African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) in a tropical Savannah. Wulfenia Journal. 2015a;22:475-85.
Dzenda T, Ayo JO, Sinkalu VO, Yaqub LS. Diurnal, seasonal, and sex patterns of heart rate in grip-restrained African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse). Physiol Rep. 2015b;3(10):el2581.
DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12581, PMID 26471756.
Gannon WL, Sikes RS. The animal care and use committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. Guidelines of the American Society of mammologists for the use of wild mammals in research. J Mammal. 2007;88(3):809-23.
Pellow S, Chopin P, File SE, Briley M. Validation of open: closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1985;14(3):149-67.
DOI: 10.1016/0165-0270(85)90031-7, PMID 2864480.
Zhu H, Robin W, Rockhold RW, Bakerd RC, Kramedr RE, Ho IK. Effects of single or repeated dermal exposure to methyl parathion on behaviour and blood cholinesterase in rat. J Biomed Sci. 2001;80:467-74.
Ambali SF, Aliyu MB. Short-term sensorimotor and cognitive changes induced by acute chlorpyrifos exposure: Ameliorative effects of vitamin-E. Pharmacologia. 2012;3(2):31-8.
Fox J, Weisberg S. An R Companion to applied regression. 2nd ed, ThousandOaks CA: Sage; 2011.
Guedri K, Frih HH, Chettoum A, Rouabhi R. Chronic restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations and histological changes in rat. Toxicol Environ Health Sci. 2017;9(2):123-9.
Jiao H, Yan Z, Ma Q, Li X, Jiang Y, Liu Y, et al. Influence of xiaoyaosan on depressive-like behaviours in chronic stress-depressed rats through regulating tryptophan metabolism in hippocampus. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019;15: 21-31.
DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S185295, PMID 30587994.
Qin M, Xia Z, Huang T, Smith CB. Effects of chronic immobilisation stress on anxiety-like behaviour basolateral amygdala morphology in Fmr1 knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2011;194:282-90.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.06.047, PMID 21723920.
Chiba S, Numakawa T, Ninomiya M, Richards MC, Wakabayashi C, Kunugi H. Chronic restraint stress causes anxiety- and depression-like behaviours, down regulates glucocorticoid receptor expression, and attenuates glutamate release induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012;39(1):112-9.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.05.018, PMID 22664354.
Salehi A, Rabiei Z, Setorki M. Effect of gallic acid on chronic restraint stress in induced anxiety and memory loss in male BALB/c mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2018;21(12):1232-7.
DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2018.31230.7523, PMID 30627366.
Zain MA, Pandy V, Majeed ABA, Wong WF, Mohamed Z. Chronic restraint stress impairs sociability but not social recognition and spatial memory in C57BL/6J mice. Exp Anim. 2019;68(1):113-24.
DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0078, PMID 30393276.
Gregus A, Wintink AJ, Davis AC, Kalynchuk LE. Effect of repeated corticosterone injections and restraint stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2005;156(1):105-14.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2004.05.013, PMID 15474655.
Hibicke M, Graham MA, Hayslett RL. Adolescent chronic restraint stress (ACRS) eliats rebust depressive-like behaviour in freely cycling, adult female rats without increasing anxiety-like behaviours. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017;22(2):74-83.
Fouda AA. Effect of folic acid administration on in vivo motor nerves regeneration. J Am Sci. 2011;7(12):11-9.
Reynolds E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2006; 5(11):949-60.
DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70598-1, PMID 17052662.
Sepehrmanesh Z, Omidi A, Gholampoor N. Folic acid supplementation in major depressive order treatment: A double blind randomised clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;19(2):e33243.
Lewis SJ, Araya R, Leary S, Smith DG, Ness A. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy may protect against depression 21 months after pregnancy, an effect modified by MTHFRC677T genotype. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:57-104.
de Koning EJ, van der Zwaluw NL, van Wijngaarden JP, Sohl E, Brouwer-Brolsma EM, van Marwijk HW et al. Rutten of two-year vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on depressive symptoms and quality of life in older adults with elevated homocysteine concentrations: additional results from the B-Proof study. Nutrients. 2016;8(11):748.
DOI: 10.3390/nu8110748, PMID 27886078.
Okereke OI, Cook NR, Albert CM, van Denburgh M. Effect of long-term supplementation with folic acid and B vitamins on risk of depression in older women. Br J Psychiatry. 2018;206(4):324-31.
Dagnino-Subiabre A, Terreros G, Carmona-Fontaine C, Zepeda R, Orellana JA, Díaz-Véliz G et al. Chronic stress impairs acoustic conditioning more than vitual conditioning in rats: morphological and behavioural evidence. Neuroscience. 2005;135(4):1067-74.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.07.032, PMID 16165300.
Smith LK, Jadavji NM, Colwell KL, Katrina Perehudoff SK, Metz GA. Stress accelerates neural degeneration and exaffarates motor system in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27(8):2133-46.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06177.x, PMID 18412632.
Puga DA, Tovar CA, Guan Z, Gensel JC, Lyman MS, Dana MI, et al. Stress exacerbates neurone loss and microglia proliferation in rat of excitotoxic lower motor neurone injury. Brain Behav Immunol. 2015;49:246-54.
Metz GA, Jadavji NM, Smith LK. Modulation of motor function by stress a novel concept of the effect of stress and corticosterone on behaviour. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22(5):1190-200.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04285.x, PMID 16176362.
Mahmood L. The metabolism process of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency. J Health Res Rev. 2014;1(1):5-9.
Kvestad I, Taneja S, Kumar T, Hysing M, Refsum H, Yajnik CS, et al. Vitamin B12 and folic acid improve gross motor and problem solving skills in young north Indian children: A randomised placebo-controlled trail. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(6): e0129915.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129915, PMID 26098427.
Shooshtari MK, Moazedi AA, Parham GA. Memory and motor coordination improvement by folic acid supplementation in healthy adult male rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2012;15(6):1173-9.
Kennedy DO. B vitamins and the brain: Mechanisms, dose and efficacy – A review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68.
DOI: 10.3390/nu8020068, PMID 26828517.
Wang X, Li W, Li S, Ma Y, Yan J, Wilson JX et al. Maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy promotes neurogene and synaptogenesis in neonatal rat offspring. Cereb Cortex. 2018a;29(8):3390-7.
Wang X, Li W, Li S, Yan J, Wilson JX, Huang G. Maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy improves neurobehavioral development in rat offspring. Mol Neurobiol. 2018b; 55(3):2676-84.
DOI: 10.1007/s12035-017-0534-2, PMID 28421540.
Li W, Li Z, Li S, Wang X, Wilson JX, Huang G. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation benefit to development of early sensory-motor function through increase DNA methylation in rat offspring. Nutrients. 2018;10(3):292.
DOI: 10.3390/nu10030292, PMID 29494536.
Abstract View: 29 times
PDF Download: 12 times