C-reactive Protein and Immunological Indices of Lectin Extract from Edible Fungus (Pleurotus tuber-regium) on Wounded Rats

Igbokwe Gabriel Ejike

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Ezeigwe Obiajulu Christian *

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Nwobodo Valentine Osita Godwin

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin with wide distribution in nature with the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and recognize glycoconjugates. The study aimed at determining the healing effect of lectin extract from Pleurotus tuber- regium on acute wounds induced in male albino rats. Ten grams of the powdered edible mushroom of Pleurotus tuber-regium were used to extract lectin via the dialysis method. A total of 45 albino rats randomized into 9 groups of 5 rats each into Category A and B groups, and the blood sample was collected by ocular puncture for the category A after 10 days, while cardiac puncture for the Category B group after 28 days. The collected blood sample was analyzed for the various immunological parameters, using the quantitative ELISA technique for C-reactive protein, and Mindray BC-200 machine for full blood count. At negative control, the WBC levels and the neutrophils were increased for the Category B group to 19.79±1.22/L and 3.26±0.25%. A 2mg/kg lectin oral administration had 4.72±0.14% neutrophils for Category A group, while Category B group topical application, the highest value at 8mg/kg lectin had 4.98±0.52%. Both 36 mg/kg amoxicillin application and oral administration of lectin generated factors as C3b, and Histamine (H1and H2) receptors on eosinophils by chemotaxis attraction. With Category B group, 8 mg/kg lectin topical had the highest value of 21.30±2.17% eosinophils, and the difference in Category B group compared to the normal control at 17.64±1.1 81% was significant p≤ 0.05 and the rats would be showing signs of allergic responses.  Both the oral and topical lectin applications to the wounded rats had higher platelet levels than the negative control in both Categories A and B groups indicating that lectin mobilized more platelet factors than the negative control group. With negative control, the CRP levels as a marker of inflammation rose to 3 times its normal folds in Category A group with 7.58±0.85ng/L and 6.06±0.85ng/L for Category B group.  On 36 mg/kg amoxicillin administration to the rats from zero week to the 3rd week, there was a decrease in weight at 22.4% compared to the normal control of 31.3%. Both oral and topical administrations showed an increase in weight with 26.4% for 8 mg/kg oral administration and 27.3% for 4 mg/kg topical administration. Both 36 mg/kg amoxicillin and 8 mg/kg lectin oral administration had a two weeks period for the complete healing of the wounded rats.  Oral administration of lectin to the wounded rats was nutritional and added weight to the rats.

Keywords: Lectin, pleurotus tuber-regium, dialysis method, hemagglutination assay, immunological parameters, c-reactive protein, acute wound healing, male albino rats


How to Cite

Ejike, Igbokwe Gabriel, Ezeigwe Obiajulu Christian, and Nwobodo Valentine Osita Godwin. 2023. “C-Reactive Protein and Immunological Indices of Lectin Extract from Edible Fungus (Pleurotus Tuber-Regium) on Wounded Rats”. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 29 (6):10-22. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2023/v29i61749.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Reid T, Fore F, Chidzwondo F, Kashangura C, Stray B, Mduluza F. Screening of mushrooms from the woodland of Zimbabwe: Occurrence of lectins and partial purification of a mucin specific lectin from Boletus edulis. Plos one. 2022;17(4)e O265494.

Rarn SS, Hemant PK, Jagat RK. Mushroom lectins as promising anticancer substances. 2016;17(8):797-807.

Santos AFS, Da Silva, MDC, Napoleão TH, Paiva PMG, Correia MTS, Coelho LC. Lectins: Function, structure, biological properties and potential applications. Current Topics in Peptide & Protein Research. 2014;15: 41-62.

Katoch R, Tripathi A. Research advances and prospects of legume lectins. J Bio Sci. 46(4);104.

Deadlock DM; Bartus HF, Zajac J, Actor P. Analysis of parameters affecting the hemagglutination activity of Escherichia Coli possessing colonization factor antigens; improved medium for observing erythrocyte agglutination. J Clin Microbiol. 1981;2021;(2):301-8.

Yousra AE, E SE, Marwa MA, Moua HH. A Comprehensive Insight into Fungal Enzymes: Structure, Classification and Their Role in Mankind’s Challenges. J Fungi (Basel). 2021;8(1): 23.

Bell V, Silva CRPG, Guina J, Fernandes TH. Mushrooms as future generation of healthy foods. Front Nutri. 2022;9: 1050099.

Diaz EM, Vicente-Manzanare M, Sacristan M, Vicente C, Legaz ME. Fungal lectin of Peltigera canina induces chemotropism of compatible nostoc cells by constriction-relaxation pulses of cyanobiont cytoskeleton. Plant Signalling & Behaviour. 2011;6:1525–1536.

Jayaraman J. Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry. Wiley Eastern limited publishers, New Delhi, Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta. 1992;82-83.

Allen PC, Hill EA, and Stokes AM. Plasma proteins. Analytical and preparative techniques. Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford London. 1997; 113-130.

Ukoha, AI. Gel filtration methods. In techniques in clinical Immunology; ed C.A. Thompson (Oxford, London, Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publication).1998;136.

Lucy CA. “Evolution of ion-exchange from Moses to the Marahatha project to Modern Times” Journal of Chromatography 1000. 2003;(1-2):711-24.

Guillamón E, García-Lafuente A, Lozano M., D’Arrigo M., Rostagno MA, Villares A, Martínez JA. Edible mushrooms: Role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:715–723.

Mohamed AAH, Razina R, Evelin T, Torn WM, and Joe T. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and bioactivity relevant to human disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(4):7802-38.

Stavitsky AB. Agglutination (2nd Ed.). Encyclopaedia of Immunology. 1998; 56-59.

Jacobs L, Nawrot TS, De Geus B, Meeusen R, Degraeuwe B, Bernard A, Sughis M, Nemery B, Panis LI. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study. Environmental Health. 2010;9(64):64.26.

Waugh DJ, Wilson C. The interleukin-8 pathway in cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 2008;14 (21):6735–41.

Tak T, Tesselaar K, Pillay J, Borghans JA, Koenderman, L. "What's your age again? Determination of human neutrophil half-lives revisited". Journal of Leukocyte Biology 2013; 94 (4): 595–601.

Wheater PR, Stevens A. Wheater's basic histopathology: A colour atlas and text. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2002.

Laki K. Our ancient heritage in blood clotting and some of its consequences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1972;202(1):297–307.

Kubes P ,Jonathan CL, Jonathan S, Braedon M, Stephen G, Simon C, Betty G, France B, Lorenzo F. Neutrophil extracellular traps sequester circulating tumor cells and promote metastasis. The Journal of Clinical Investigation; 2013. DOI:10.1172/JCI67484.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr Al, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol Chem. 1951;193:265-267.

Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry. 1956;18: 350-356.

Amro MS, Daniel RB. Acute Inflammation in Tissue Healing. Int J Mol Sci. 2023;24(1);641.

Salimonu LS. Basic Immunology for Students of Medicine and Biology. College Press and Publishers Limited, Jerico GRA Ibadan. 2004;48-54.

Yáñez A, Simon GC, Andre O, David EM, Benjamin PB, Dennis JH, Nathan S, H. Leighton Grimes, Helen SG. Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors and monocyte-dendritic cell progenitors independently produce functionally distinct monocytes. Immunity. 2017;47(5):890–902.e4.

Enzyme Structure Data Base. EC 3 4 16 .4 serin type D Ala- D-Ala Carboxypeptidase. Retrieved from Archieve; 2008.

Thompson D, Pepys MB, Wood SP. The physiological structure of human C-reactive protein and its complex with phosphocholine. Structure. 1999;7(2): 169–77.

Abbas AK, Lichtman AH. Pathways of Complement Activation en basic immunology; Functions and Disorders of the Immune system, 3rd Edition, Saunders Elsevier publishers. 2006;159-165.

De Oliveriva S, Rosoveski E, Itutteniocher A. Neutrophil migration in Infection and wound Repair; Going forward in Reverse. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;16; 378-391.

Shuainan Z, Ying Y, Yun R, Living Y, Huilin W, Xiaomm L, Lin J, Yan H, Hao Z, Changhong M, Kefang Guo.The emerging roles of Neutrophil extracellular traps in wound healing. Cell Death Dis. 2021;12(11): 984

Brinkman V, Rekchard U, Goosmann C, Fauler B, Uhlemann Y, Weiss DS, Weinrauch Y, Zychnnsky A. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Kill Bacteria. Science. 2004;303;1532-1535.

Alan TN, Paquita N, Mikel S, Isabel A, Eduardo A. Platelet and Wound Healing. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2004;13:3525-3548.

Florian G, Zerkah A, Gerhild R, Shuxia F, Leo N. Migrating Platelets Are Mechano-Scavengers that collect and Bundle Bacteria. 2017;171(6):1368-1382.

Helena E, Jesper k, Heu-Yun L, Yi Wu, Irving K, Jonus W, and Christopher S. The complex Role of C-Reactive Protein in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. J Clin Med. 2022;(24);5837.

Carmelia M, Bethy S. The relationship between nutrition and the immune system. Front. Nutr. 2022;9;1082500.

Marilyn SC, Laura AC, Nayely LL, Erick PG, Luis AJO, J Basillo H. Wound Healing Properties of Natural Products: Mechanisms of Action. Molecules. 2023;28(2): 598.

Hina N, Fletcher D, Poindessous-Jazat F, Martinez V. Hyperalgesia induced by low-dose opioid treatment before orthopaedic surgery. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2015; 32(4): 255-261.

Gillitzer R, Goebeler M. Chemokines in cutaneous wound healing. J Leukoc Biol. 2001;69(4):513-21.

Stefania V, Sara C, Martina P, Giovanna DE, Carla T, Fernanda A, Anna Maria DA. Phytochemistry and biological activity of medicinal plants in wound healing: An overview of current research. Molecules. 2022;27(11):3566.