Water Stress: Between Farmers' Needs and Public Policies the Case of Smallholder Farmers in the Villages of Nabatieh Governorate

Hala Aawada *

Lebanese University, Lebanon.

Salam Chamseddine

Lebanese University, Lebanon.

Sana Kayel

The Lebanese Center for Water and Environment, Lebanon.

Akram El-Jarf

The Lebanese Center for Water and Environment, Lebanon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Water scarcity is a paramount developmental and livelihood issue globally, posing life-threatening challenges in the Arab world and the Eastern Mediterranean. This scarcity manifests in two forms: physical scarcity, due to insufficient water resulting from local environmental conditions, and economic scarcity, characterized by inadequate water infrastructure. When these forms of scarcity converge, they lead to severe water stress, exemplified by regions experiencing both low rainfall and inadequate water storage and sanitation facilities. In Lebanon, state policies, or the lack thereof, have significantly exacerbated water scarcity. Governmental negligence and mismanagement of water resources, compounded by insufficient investment in infrastructure, have intensified both physical and economic water scarcities. The lack of effective water conservation policies, poor maintenance of existing water facilities, and failure to develop new water projects have led to severe water stress, hindering developmental progress and threatening the livelihoods and health of the population. The combined effect of environmental challenges and governmental inaction has made water scarcity a critical issue, necessitating immediate and comprehensive interventions to ensure sustainable water management and availability for the future.

Keywords: Water scarcity, water storage, sanitation, water sources, governmental negligence and mismanagement of water resources

How to Cite

Aawada, Hala, Salam Chamseddine, Sana Kayel, and Akram El-Jarf. 2024. “Water Stress: Between Farmers’ Needs and Public Policies the Case of Smallholder Farmers in the Villages of Nabatieh Governorate”. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 30 (7):33-47. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i72121.


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