Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology: Enhancing Productivity and Sustainability in India : A Review

R. Krishna Kumar *

Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi-642103. Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

V R Senthamizhkumaran

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, PGP College of Agricultural Sciences, Namakkal -637405, India.

S. Alagendran

Department of Biochemistry, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Agriculture College, (Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-3), Perambalur -621212, Tamil Nadu, India.

M. Chitra

Dr. M.S. Swaminathan Agricultural College and Research Institute, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

K. Ramesh Kumar

Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur 613 005, India.

Tanu Tyagi

Department of Botany, CCS University Meerut, Campus, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Anamish Tyagi

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Agricultural biotechnology has revolutionized farming practices in India, significantly enhancing productivity, sustainability, and socio-economic well-being. Here analyzes key advancements such as genetically modified (GM) crops, gene editing technologies, and biofertilizers, highlighting their impact on crop yields, pest and disease resistance, climate resilience, and environmental sustainability. The adoption of GM crops, particularly Bt cotton, has resulted in substantial yield improvements, reduced pesticide use, and increased farmer incomes, as evidenced by various case studies across different regions. Gene editing technologies like CRISPR offer precise genetic modifications, promising improvements in crop traits and resilience. Biofertilizers and biopesticides contribute to soil health and reduced chemical input use, promoting sustainable agricultural practices. The socio-economic benefits of biotechnology are evident in increased profitability for farmers, job creation in biotech sectors, and rural development through improved infrastructure and community-based initiatives. Challenges such as public perception, regulatory hurdles, and the need for robust training and capacity building remain. Addressing these challenges through transparent communication, updated regulatory frameworks, and continued investment in research and development is essential for realizing the full potential of agricultural biotechnology. The transformative impact of biotechnology on Indian agriculture, advocating for its integration into sustainable farming practices to ensure food security, environmental conservation, and economic growth. Biotechnological advancements, in India can enhance agricultural productivity, mitigate climate change impacts, and foster rural prosperity, ultimately contributing to the overall development of the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Biotechnology, GM crops, CRISPR, pest-resistance, soil health


How to Cite

Kumar, R. Krishna, V R Senthamizhkumaran, S. Alagendran, M. Chitra, K. Ramesh Kumar, Tanu Tyagi, and Anamish Tyagi. 2024. “Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology: Enhancing Productivity and Sustainability in India : A Review”. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 30 (7):366-83. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i72154.

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