Radiation Organ Doses and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk Due to Exposure to Gamma Radiation from Two Cement Industries in Nigeria

Main Article Content

M. Onwuka
C. P. Ononugbo
G. O. Avwiri


A study of background ionizing radiation (BIR) levels to estimate organ dose rates and excess lifetime cancer risk in Unicem cement producing company, Calabar, Cross River state and Bua cement producing company, Okpella in Edo state have been carried out using Digilert 100 and Radalert-200 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS) for GIS mapping of the area. The in-situ measurement of the exposure rate was between May, 2018 and June, 2019 at regular intervals. The average exposure rate of 0.023 mRh-1 was measured at Unicem, Calabar and 0.027 mRh-1 at Bua cement area, Okpella. The mean equivalent doses of 1.92 mSvy-1 and 2.29 mSvy-1 was recorded in Unicem and Bua Okpella respectively. The estimated mean outdoor absorbed dose rate value of 196.74 nGyh-1 in Unicem and its environment while in Bua cement industry, Okpella, the value of 234.9 nGyh-1 was obtained. The mean annual effective dose calculated was 0.24 and 0.29 mSvy-1 for Unicem and Bua Okpella respectively. The mean excess life time cancer risk recorded in the areas 0.72 x10-3 in Unicem area and 1.01 x10-3 in Bua cement environment. The calculated dose to organs showed that the testes have the highest organ dose of 0.74 mSvy-1 and 0.83 mSvy-1 for Unicem and Bua Okpella areas respectively while the liver has the lowest organ dose of 0.08 mSvy-1 and 0.11 mSvy-1 for Unicem and Bua Okpella respectively. This study revealed that the exposure rate and all the radiological risk parameters exceeded their recommended safe values. The area of study is radiologically polluted and may be detrimental to human health for long term exposure.

Unicem cement, Okpella, Digilert 100, radiation, excess lifetime cancer risk.

Article Details

How to Cite
Onwuka, M., Ononugbo, C. P., & Avwiri, G. O. (2019). Radiation Organ Doses and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk Due to Exposure to Gamma Radiation from Two Cement Industries in Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 25(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i1-230178
Original Research Article


Kolo MT, Amin YM, Khandaker MU, Abdlah WHB. Radionuclide concentrations and excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in tailing enriched soil around Maiganga coal mine, Northeast, Nigeria. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2017;15(6):71-80.

Arshad H. Kahmani, Ahmad Almad Almatroudi, Ali Yousi Babiker, Amjad A. Khan, Mohamad A. Alsahly. Effects of exposure to cement dust among the workers: An evaluation of health related complications. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018;6(6):1159-1162.

Al-Neami YI, Gomes J, Lloyd OL. Respiratory illnesses and ventilatry function among workers at cement factory in a rapidity developing country. Occupational Medicine. 2001;51:367-73.

Mirzaee R, Kebriaei A, Hashemi SR, Sadeghi M, Shahrakipour M. Effects of exposure to Portland cement dust on the lungs function in Portland cement factory workers in Khash, Iran. Iran J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 2008;5(3):201-6.

Neghab M, Choobineh. Work related respiratory symptoms and ventilator disorders among employees of a cement industry in Shiraz, Iran. J. Occup. Health. 2007;49:273-8.

Shamsad Tazmin, Mohamad S. Ralman, Selina Yeasmin, Habibul Ahsan, Malifuzzaman MD. Real-time environmental gamma dose rate measurement and evaluation of annual effective dose to population of Shahbag, Thana, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forestry and Environmental; 2018.

DOI: org/10.18535/ijsrm/v.614.feo2

Abojassin Ali-Abid, Kadhmand Sulahadi, Alasadi Allawi Hamed, Ali Abdul Amir Hashin. Radon, Radium concentration and radiological parameters in soil samples of Amara at Maysan Iraq. Asian Journal of Earth Sciences. 2017;44-49.

United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Effects of ionizing radiation: Report to the general assembly with scientific annexes. United Nations Publications. 2008;1.

Agbalagba E. Assessment of excess lifetime cancer risk from gamma radiation levels in Effurun and Warri city of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2017;11:367-380.

Murugesan S, Mullainathan S, Ramasamy V, Meenakshisundaram. Radioactivity and radiation hazards assessment of Calvery River, Tamilnad, India. Iran J. Radiat. Res. 2011;8(4):211-222.

National Research Council (NRC) BEIR VII PHASE 2. Health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. The National Academic Press, Washington DC; 2006.

[ISBN 0-309-53040-7]

Rafique M, Saeed UR, Muhammad A, Wajid A. Evaluation of excess lifetime cancer risk from gamma dose rates in Jhelum valley. J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci. 2014;7:29-35.

Avwiri GO, Agbalagba. Studies on the radiological impact of oil and gas activities in oil mineral lease 30 (OML 30) oil fields in Delta state, Nigeria. J. Petrol. Environ. Biotech. 2012;3(2):1-8.

Michael AO. Environmental pollution and health risk of residents near Ewokoro cement factory. International and Scientific Research & Innovation. 2015;9(2):108-114.

Ayaji NO, Laogun AA. Variation of environmental gamma radiation in Benin with vertical height. Nig J. Space Res. 2006;2:47-54.

Avwiri GO, Egieya JF, Ononugbo CP. Radiometric survey of Aluu Landfill, in Rivers state, Nigeria. Adv. Phys. Theory. Appl. 2013;22:24-30.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Limitation of exposure to ionizing radiation. NCRP Report No. 116. An Introduction to Radiation Protection, Macmillan Family Encyclopedia. 1993;16-118.

ICRP. Compendium of dose coefficients based on ICRP publication 60. ICRP Publication 119, Ann. ICRP 41(Suppl.); 2012.

Taskin H, Karavus M, Ay P, Topozoglu A, Hindiroglu S, Karahan G. Radionuclide concentrations in soil and life time cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2009;100:49-53.

Avwiri GO, Agbalagba EO, IEnyinna P. Terrestrial radiation around oil and gas facilities in Ugheli, Nigeria. Asian Network for Science Information. J. Appl. Sci. 2007;7(11):1543-1546.

Akpabio LE, Etuk ES, Essien K. Environmental radioactivity levels in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria. Nig. J. Space Res. 2005;1:80-87.

Farai IP, Jibiri NN. Baseline studies of terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rate levels in Nigeria. Radiat Prot. Dosim. 2000;88: 247-254.

Ononugbo CP, Ishiekwene M. A survey of environmental radioactivity levels in science laboratories of Abuja campus, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Archives of Current Research International. 2017;9(30):1-10.

Erees FS, Akozcan S, Parlark Y, Cam S. Assessment of dose rates around Manisa (Turkey). Radiat. Meas. 2006;41(5):593-601.

Chikassawa KT, Ishil, Sugiyama H. Terrestrial gamma radiation in Kochi prefecture. Japan. J. Health Sci. 2001;47(4):362-372.

ICRP. Compendium of dose coefficients based on ICRP publication 60. ICRP Publication 119, Ann. ICRP. 41(Suppl.); 2012.

Clouvas A. Xianthos, Anonopoulos-Domis S. Radiological map of outdoor and indoor gamma dose rates in Greek urban areas obtained by in-situ gamma spectrometry. Radiat Prot. Dosim. 2004;112(2):267-275.

Rafiqe MM, Basharat R, Azhar Saeed S. Rahama. Effects of geological and altitude on the ambient outdoor gamma dose rates in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Carpathian. J. Earth Environ. Sci. 2013;8(4):165-173.

Amekudzie AG, EMI-Reynods A, Faanu EO, Darko AR, Awudu O, Adukpo Lan, Quaye R, Kpordzro B, Agyemang A, Ibrahim. Natural radioactivity concentration and dose assessment in shore sediments along the coast of Greater C Accra, Ghana. World Appl. Sci. J. 2011;13(11): 2338-2343.

Mugren KS, Al. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation dose rate in some soil samples from historic area, AlRakkah, Saudi Arabia. Nat. sci. 2015;7:238-247.

Ezekiel Agbalagba O. Assessment of excess lifetime cancer risk from gamma radiation levels in Effurun and Warri city of Delta state, Nigeria. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2017;11(3):367-380.

WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality in cooperating First Addendum 1, Recommendations, 3rd Edition. Radiological Aspect Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.

Essiett AA, Essien IE, Bede MC. Measurement of Surface Dose Rate of Nuclear Radiation in Coastal Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Physics. 2015;3(5):224-229.
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-5-5