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Aims: The aim of this study is to find the alterations that occurred in the physico-chemical properties and the hydrocarbon content on the crude oil impacted soil in Kom-Kom, Oyigbo, Rivers State Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Study Design: The objectives included to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters of the spilled soil, determine the hydrocarbon content and that of some selected heavy metals. This will help create a baseline data on the environmental status of the area.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out after an oil spill occurred in Feburary, 2018 at Kom-Kom, Oyigbo, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Methodology: The soil samples were obtained randomly at 30cm depth using soil auger from three plots: PA and PB being the plots around the oil spill impacted area and PC being the control area which is about 200m away. Laboratory analyses were carried out on the Physicochemical Parameters (pH, Electric Conductivity, Potassium (K), Phosphate (P), Nitrate (N)); Organics (Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC)) and Heavy Metals (Iron (PB), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Vanadium (V)). The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA.
Results: pH, K and P values were all significantly different from their respective control values (p ≤0.05). All organic parameters were also significantly different from the control values (p ≤0.05). For heavy metals, only Cr and V values were significantly different in all study sites (p ≤0.05). This study shows that crude oil spill alters the physicochemical attributes of the soil and could significantly affect soil fertility as the people of Kom-Kom are mostly farmers and traders.
Conclusion: With these levels of alteration, this study will serve as a resourceful data source for soil studies in Kom Kom. In order to achieve the third sustainable development goal (SDG) which is to have good health and well-being of people, we recommend immediate and proper clean up using bioremediation approaches as a cheap, eco-friendly and an environmentally sustainable process.
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