Analysis of Particle Pollution in Residential Urban Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Christopher U. Onuorah
T. G. Leton
O. L. Y. Momoh

Abstract

Particle pollution poses serious public health concern because of its potential to find its route into human lungs thereby causing respiratory diseases and cancer. This paper analyses various aspect of particulate matter including seasonal variation, Particulate matter based AQI, particulate matter exceedances and empirical modelling for seasonal prediction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration. The study was carried out in Woji, a residential urban area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between May and December 2018. The Particulate matter concentrations were monitored with particulate monitor while meteorological variables were also monitored with Misol weather station. The 24-hour average PM10 concentration for dry and wet seasons were 139.6 μg/m³ and 97 μg/m³ respectively. These concentrations are below USEPA 24-hr standard (PM10 = 150 μg/m³) while the 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations of 46.1μg/m³ for dry season exceeded daily limit (PM2.5 = 35 μg/m³) but was below the limit in wet season with concentration of 29.1 μg/m³. The study area experienced daily PM2.5 and PM10 exceedances of 33.3% and 19.7% respectively for the study period. Also, the PM based AQI were unhealthy to all residents for 13%, unhealthy to the sensitive group for 20%, moderate for 62% and good for 5% of the monitoring period. PM2.5 and PM10 pollution prediction model were developed for dry and wet season with a high correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively at (P < 0.001).The seasonal variation of PM concentration revealed that PM10 and PM2.5 concentration varied from season to season, with significantly higher concentration in dry season than in wet season. The air quality of Woji Port Harcourt was better in wet season than in dry season due to the scavenging mechanism of rainfall. Also, PM exceedances were higher in dry season than wet season due to high atmospheric stability associated with low wind speed in dry season.

Keywords:
PM2.5, PM10, particle pollution, particulate matter, air quality index, Port Harcourt Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Onuorah, C. U., Leton, T. G., & Momoh, O. L. Y. (2019). Analysis of Particle Pollution in Residential Urban Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 25(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i230187
Section
Original Research Article

References

Dockery DW, Pope CA III. Outdoor air I: particulates. In: Steenland K., Savitz DA., eds., Topics in environmental epidemiology, Oxford University Press,Oxford; 1997.

Onuorah CU, Leton TG, Momoh YOL. Influence of meteorological parameters on particle pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) in the Tropical Climate of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Archives of Current Research International. 2019;19(1):1-12.
Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2019/v19i130149

Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN. Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey; 2006.

Plainiotis S, Pericleous KA, Fisher BEA, Shier L. Application of lagrangian particle dispersion models to air quality assessment in the Trans-Manche region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France) and Kent (Great Britain). International Journal of Environment and Pollution (IJEM). 2010;40(1/2/3):160–174.
DOI:10.1504/IJEP.2010.030891

EPA US, OAR. Particulate Matter (PM) Basics. US EPA; 2016.
(Retrieved 5 October 2019)

US EPA, United States environmental protection agency. Revised air quality standards for particle pollution and updates to the air quality index (AQI); 2012.
(Accessed 14 November 2018)
Available:www.epa.gov/airquality/particlepollution/2012/decfsstandards.pdf

Energy Policy Institute, EPIC. the air quality life index, University of Chicago; 2018.
(Accessed 18 March 2019)

Turaliog˘lu FS, Nuhog˘lu A, Bayraktar H. Impacts of some meteorological parameters on SO2 and TSP concentrations in Erzurum, Turkey. Chemosphere. 2005;59:1633-1642.

World Health Organization (WHO). Air quality guidelines for Europe. WHO Regional Publications, European Series No.91, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2000.

Weli VE. Spatial and seasonal influence of meteorological parameters on the concentration of suspended particulate matter in an industrial city of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org. ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online), 2014:4(10): 112-120.

Kumar SD, Dash A. Seasonal variation of air quality index and assessment. Global. J. Environ. Sci. Manage. 2018;4(4):483-492.
DOI: 10.22034/gjesm.2018.04.008

US EPA, OAR. Health and environmental effects of Particulate Matter (PM). US EPA; 2016.
(Retrieved 5 October 2019)

Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani HA. Comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet. 2012; 380(9859):2224–2260.
DOI:10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61766-8

Abali H. Seasonal particulate pollution in Port Harcourt Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2018;6(1):20-25.
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-6-1-3