Theoretical Prediction of the Preferred Production Routes of 225Ac from Proton Induced Reactions on 232Th

Main Article Content

Emmanuel C. Hemba
Olumide O. Ige
Haruna Ali
Sunday A. Jonah


Alpha emitting radionuclides have potential for the therapy of cancers because of their high linear energy transfer, and short range biologic effectiveness. Alpha emitter 225Ac(T1/2 = 10.0 days) is a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy. 225Ac excitation functions via 232Th (p,7np)225Th→225Ac, 232Th (p,6n2p)225Ac, 232Th (p,4nα)225Ac, 232Th (p,5n3p)225Th→ 225Ac, and 232Th (p,3nαp)225Ra→225Ac  reactions were calculated by Empire 3.2 code up to 200MeV and compared with existing data. No single nuclear level density with a pre-equilibrium model produce results which agree with the existing experimental data all through the energy range. However, a hybrid of the different nuclear level densities with the Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation (HMS) and the exciton PCROSS pre-equilibrium models at different energy range provide results which are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. Hence the preferred production route for the direct and indirect production of 225Ac has also been suggested.

225Ac, alpha emitter, excitation functions, Empire 3.2.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hemba, E. C., Ige, O. O., Ali, H., & Jonah, S. A. (2020). Theoretical Prediction of the Preferred Production Routes of 225Ac from Proton Induced Reactions on 232Th. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 26(5), 84-89.
Original Research Article


Weidner JW, Mashnik SG, John KD, Hemez F, Ballard B, Bach H, Birnbaum ER, Bitteker LJ, Couture A, Dry D, Fassbender ME, Gulley MS, Jackman KR, Ullmann JL, Wolfsberg LE, Nottier FM. Proton-induced Cross Sections Relevant to Production of 225Ac and 223Ra in Natural Thorium Targets below 200MeV. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2012;70:2602.

Mulford DA, Scheinberg DA, Jurcic JG. The promise of targeted α-particle therapy. Journal of Nuclear and Medical physics. 2005;46:199S.

Pavlovich VB, Dubinkin DO, Kotovskij AA, Savinov VM, Nerozin NA, Smetanin Eh. Ja. Method of preparing non-supported radionuclide actinium-225. Russian patent RU 2200581 C1; 2005.

Kirby HW, Morss LR. Actinium. In: The Chemistry of the Actinideand Transactinide Elements. (Morss LR, Edelstein NM, Fuger J, Katz JJ, ed.) Springer, The Netherlands; 2006.

Apostolidis C, Molinet R, McGinley J, Abbas K, Mollenbeck J, Morgenstern A. Cyclotron production of Ac-225 for targeted alpha therapy. Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2005;62:383.

Maslov OD, Sabel’nikov AV, Dmitriev SN. Preparation of 225Ac by 226Ra (γ,n) photonuclear reaction on an electron accelerator, MT-25 Microtron. Radiochemistry. 2006;48:195.

Zhuikov BL, Kalmykov SN, Ermolaev SV, Aliev RA, Kakhanyuk VM, Matushko VL, Tananaev IG, Myasoedov BF. Production of 225Ac and 223Ra by irradiation of Thorium with Accelarated Proton. Journal Radiokhimiya. Russia. 2011;53(1):66-72.

Ermolaev SV, Zhuikov BL, Kokhanyuk VM, Matushko VL, Kalmykov SN, Aliev RA, Tananaev IG, Myasoedov BF. Production of actinium, Thorium and Radiation Isotopes from Natural Thorium Irradiated with Protons up to 141MeV. Radiochimica Acta. Germany. 2012;100:223.

Nichols AL, Qaim SM, Capote Noy R. Intermediate-term nuclear data needs for medical applications: Cross sections and Decay Data. INDC (NDS)-0596, IAEA International Nuclear Data Committee, Vienna, Austria. 2011;26.

Capote Noy R, Nortier FM. Improvements in charged-particle monitor reactions and nuclear data for medical isotope production. INDC (NDS)-0591, IAEA International Nuclear Data Committee, Vienna, Austria. 2011;10.

Herman M, Capote R, Carlson BV, Oblozinsky P, Sin M, Trkov A, Wienke H, Zerkin V. EMPIRE: Nuclear Reaction Model Code System for Data Evaluation. Nuclear Data Sheets. 2007;108:2657- 2658.

Lefort M, Simonoff GN, Tarrago X. A spallation nuclear reaction on thorium at 150 and 82 MeV proton energies, Nuclear Physics, Netherlands. 1961;25:216.

Hogan JJ, Gadioli E, Gadioli-Erba E, Chung C. Fissionability of Nuclides in the

Thorium at Excitation Energies to 100MeV. Physical Review, Part C, Nuclear Physics, USA. 1979;20:1831.

Gauvin H, Lefort M, Tarrago X. Alpha particle emission in spallation reactions. Nuclear Physics. 1962;39:447-463.

Titarenko YE, Batyaev VF, Karpikhin EI, Zhivun VM, Koldobsky AB, Mulambetov RD, Kvasova SV, Fishenko DV, Barashenkov VS, Mashnik SG, Prael RE, Sierk AJ, Yasuda H, Saito M. Experimental and theoretical study of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin targets irradiated by 100-2600 MeV protons, Proceedings from International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology (ND2001). Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Supplement 2, Ibaraki, Japan. 2002;1175-1178.