Dating Violence Experienced by Students at the University of Zambia

Main Article Content

Dora Chinyama
Kusanthan Thankian
Gaurav B. Menon
Sidney O. C. Mwaba
J. Anitha Menon

Abstract

Dating violence is a complex problem determined by multiple factors. Poverty, cultural and social environmental factors are a major contributor to the gender based violence. The aim of this study was to examine the nature and extent of dating violence experienced by students at the University of Zambia. Eighteen students (nine males and nine females) aged fifteen to thirty years were recruited from the University of Zambia hostels. In-depth interviews with semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. This study has found that various forms of dating violence exists at the University of Zambia. The study further found risk factors that were associated with dating violence such as consumption of alcohol and/or use of entertaining substances, as well as being involved in aggressive activities such as fighting or insulting; other factors included; poverty, experiencing of inter-parental violence and prior experience with violence. The psychological and emotional implications were that some students became depressed and stressed, insecure, ideated suicide, feared sex, distrusted people and were worried and uneasy. Under physiological and health outcomes, some students contracted STDs and HIV, body injuries, became pregnant, and others lost or terminated their pregnancy. Furthermore, social implications were that some students became aggressive, went into self-isolation, and began living recklessly. Physical abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse and psychological or emotional abuse where the most common types of dating abuse found at the University of Zambia. Conclusively, In addition to awareness against gender based violence, youth friendly corners should be considered during the treatment of gender based violence in universities.

Keywords:
Dating violence, risk factors, students, University Zambia.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chinyama, D., Thankian, K., Menon, G. B., Mwaba, S. O. C., & Menon, J. A. (2020). Dating Violence Experienced by Students at the University of Zambia. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 26(7), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i730287
Section
Original Research Article

References

Dating violence resource centre. Campus Dating Violence [Fact Sheet]. Washington, DC: The National Centre for Victims of Crime; 2002. Available:http://www.ncdsv.org/images/CampusDatingViolenceFactSheet.pdf Accessed; 18 August 2020.

Ministry of gender and development. National Gender Policy. Lusaka: Government Printers; 2014. Available:http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/zam152916.pdf Accessed; 18 August 2020.

Miruts G, Arnold D, Gelaya B, Yemane B, Williams MA. Prevalence and risk factors of gender based violence among female university students in Awassa, Ethiopia. Violence and Victims. 2008; 23(6):787-800.

Mengistab M. Gender based violence against female university students in Ethiopia: The case of Bahir Dar University. MA Dissertation. Addis Ababa: University of Bahir Dar; 2012.

Wetzel K. Intimate partner violence in appalachia: A study of relationship violence among community college students in Southern Appalachia. Doctoral.

Payne BK, Fogerty R. Narratives about Violence: The words of College Students. Social Science Journal. 2007;44(2):367-373.

Lysova AV, Douglas EM. Intimate Partner violence among male and female Russian university students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2008;23(11):1579-1599.

Chan KL, Strauss M, Brownridge DA, Tiwari A, Leung WC. Prevalence of dating partner violence and suicidal ideation among male and female university students worldwide. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. 2008;53(6):529-537.

Sherer PP, Sherer M. Exploring reciprocity in dating violence among Jewish and Arab youths in Israel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 2008;32(1):17–33.

Iliyasu Z, Abubakar IS, Aliyu MH, Galadanci HS, Salihu HM. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female University Students in Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2011;15(3):123-133.

Mezie-Okoye MM. Sexual violence among female undergraduates in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt: Prevalence, pattern, determinants and health consequences. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2014;18(4):79-83.

Silverman J, Hathaway J, Mucci L, Brooks D, Mathews R, Pavlos C. Health status and health care use of Massachusetts women reporting partner abuse. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000; 19(4):302-307.

Pape K, Arias I. Psychological Abuse: Implications for adjustment and commitment to leave violent partners. Violence and Victims. 1999;14(1):55-67.

Fisher BS, Cullen FT, Turner MG. The sexual victimization of college women. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice; 2000.

Fremouw W, Lewis SF. Dating violence: A critical review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review. 2001;21(1):105-127.

Campbell J, Jones AS, Dienemann J. Health consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2002;162(10)1157-1163.

Gordon SF, Collins A. We face rape. We face all things”: Understandings of gender-based violence amongst female students at a South African university, Journal of Injury and Family Violence Prevention. 2013;11(2).

Zambia demographic and health survey. Lusaka. Zambia Statistics Agency. 2014. Available:https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR361/ FR361.pdf Accessed: 18 August 2020.

Kusanthan T, Suzuki K. Zambia urban sexual behaviour and condom use survey. Research Department, PSI; 1999.

Kusanthan T, Mwaba SOC, Menon JA. Factors affecting domestic violence among married women in Zambia. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science. 2016;12(2):1-13.

Mwansa D. Listening to the girl child. Lusaka: UNICEF/MoE; 1995.

Kankasa T, Chondoka YA. In the best interest of the girl child: Effects of the culture and legal environment on the education for Zambian Girls. Lusaka.

Menon JA, Glazebrook C. Randomized control trial to evaluate yoga-based peer support group for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive Zambian adolescents. Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2013;5(1):12-19.

Menon JA, Mwaba SOC, Kusanthan T, Lwatula C. Risky sexualbehaviour among university students. International STD Research & Reviews. 2016;4(1):1–7.

Okojie HO, Iwemjiwe CN. Prevalence, factors and consequences of dating violence in a tertiary institution in Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2013;3(9):2504-2508.

Atkin R. Domestic violence and the impacts on children. Results of a Study into the Knowledge and Experiences of Educational Personnel within Two European Countries. London: Refuge/ Kings Fund; 2001.

Shorey, R.C., Stuart, G.L. and Cornelius, T.L. (2011). “Dating violence and substance use in college students: A review of the literature.” Aggressive Violent Behavior, 16, (6), 541–550.

Rohini Luthra, Christine A. Gidycz, Dating violence among college men and women: Evaluation of a theoretical model. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2006; 21(6).

Shaffer CS, Adjei J, Viljoen JL, Douglas KS, Saewyc EM. Ten-year trends in physical dating violence victimization among adolescent boys and girls in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2018;5(17): 87-109.

Hamby SL, Turner H. Measuring teen dating violence in males and females: Insights from the national survey of children’s exposure to violence. Psychology Violence. 2013;3(4):323-339.

Ellsberg M, Heise L, Pena R, Argurto S, Winkvist A. Researching domestic violence against women: Methodological and ethical considerations. Studies in Family Planning. 2001;32(1):1-16.

Milletich RJ, Kelley ML, Doane AN, Pearson MR. Exposure to interparental violence and childhood physical and emotional abuse as related to physical aggression in undergraduate dating relationships. Journal of Family Violence. 2010;25(7):627–637.

United States Agency for International Development. Unsafe Schools: A Literature Review School Related Gender Based Violence in Developing Countries. USAID; 2003.

Bourke-Martignoni J. Violence against women in Zambia: Report prepared for the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. The World Organization against Torture, Geneva; 2002. Accessed 18 August 2020. Available:https://www.refworld.org/docid/46c191190.html

Stappenbeck CA, Fromme KA longitudinal investigation of heavy drinking and physical dating violence in men and women. Journal of Addictive Behaviors. 2010;35(5):479–485. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.12.027.

Nicholson ME, Maney DW, Blair K, Wamboldt PM, Mahoney BS, Yuan J. Trends in Alcohol-related Campus Violence: Implications for Prevention. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 1998;43(3):34-52.