Comparing Household Environmental Health Indicators between Oil-bearing and Non-oil-bearing Communities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Main Article Content

Omosivie Maduka
Benson C. Ephraim- Emmanuel


Background: Household environmental health indicators have contributed to the quality of life of the populace in regions of the world where they have been made available. This study compared the indicators of household environmental health between oil-bearing and non-oil-bearing communities located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Methods: An analytical, cross-sectional household survey was carried out among 601 households in six oil-bearing and non-oil-bearing selected communities located within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Multistage sampling was employed, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire used to elicit data on the household environmental health indicators in the communities. The scores across the six indicator domains were summed and categorized into acceptable and unacceptable status.  Results: Water sources in both oil-bearing 230 (76.4%) and non-oil-bearing communities 177 (59.0%) were sanitary. Sanitary sewage 250 (83.1%) and sullage disposal 210 (69.8%) was practiced by most households in oil-bearing areas. The minority of respondents in both oil-bearing 26 (8.6%) and non-oil-bearing 41 (13.7%) communities practiced sanitary refuse disposal. Households in oil-bearing communities had twelve times greater odds of having a satisfactory environmental health status compared to households in non-oil-bearing communities (Adjusted O.R: 11.70, 95% C.I: 7.75-17.65).

Conclusion: Households in oil-bearing communities fared better in all household environmental health indicators. There is a need to address the economic and social determinants of health among households in the Niger Delta to improve household environmental health indicators.

Environmental health indicators, oil-bearing communities, Niger Delta.

Article Details

How to Cite
Maduka, O., & Emmanuel, B. C. E.-. (2020). Comparing Household Environmental Health Indicators between Oil-bearing and Non-oil-bearing Communities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 26(9), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Dhupdale V. An Introduction to the Human Rights; 2017.

Ahmed A, Ferring A, Ruiz L. Manual on environmental health indicators and benchmarks: human rights perspectives. AAAS Science and Human Rights Program, Washington, DC; 2007.

World Health Organization W. Highlights based on country reported GLAAS 2013/2014 data. 2015 (WHO/FWC/WSH/ 15.79).

Lukman S, Ismail A, Asani M, Bolorunduro K, Foghi P, Oke I. Effect of selected factors on water supply and access to safe water in Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science. 2016;18(3):623-39.

Hunter PR, MacDonald AM, Carter RC. Water supply and health. PLoS medicine. 2010;7(11):e1000361.

Owoeye J, Omole F. Analysis of housing condition and neighbourhood quality of residential core of Akure, Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;3(3):471-.

Ugochukwu CNC. Sustainable environmental management in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: effects of hydrocarbon pollution on local economy: BTU Cottbus-Germany; 2008.

Abubakar IR. Household response to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2017;2017.

Mbazor D. Assessment of housing quality and environmental conditions in selected areas of Akure, Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2018;7(3):1049-61.

Longe E, Omole D, Adewumi I, Ogbiye S. Water resources use, abuse and regulations in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 2010;12(2):35-44.

Sunday I. Waste disposal problems and management in Ughelli, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013;2013.

Isara A, Aigbokhaode A. Sewage disposal methods in a sub-urban community in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. 2014;13(2):99-105.

Adeoye DO. Challenges of Urban Housing Quality: Insights and Experiences of Akure, Nigeria. Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2016;216:260-8.

Owolabi BO. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSING QUALITY IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2019;8(5):69-102.

Owili PO, Muga MA, Pan W-C, Kuo H-W. Cooking fuel and risk of under-five mortality in 23 Sub-Saharan African countries: a population-based study. International journal of environmental health research. 2017;27(3):191-204.

Bisu DY, Kuhe A, Iortyer HA. Urban household cooking energy choice: an example of Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria. Energy, Sustainability and Society. 2016;6(1):15.

Ogwumike FO, Ozughalu UM, Abiona GA. Household energy use and determinants: Evidence from Nigeria. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy. 2014;4(2):248.

Megbowon E, Mukarumbwa P, Ojo S, Olalekan OS. Household Cooking Energy Situation in Nigeria: Insight from Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey 2015. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy. 2018;8(6):284.

Olotuah AO. Assessing the Impact of Users’ Needs on Housing Quality in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Global Journal of Research and Review. 2015;2(4):100-6.

Amangabara GT, Njoku JD. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to the activities of artisanal refining in Bolo and environs, Ogu/Bolo Local Government Area of Rivers State; Nigeria. British Journal of environment and climate change. 2012;2(1):28-36.

Howard I, Azuatola O, Abiodun I. Investigation on impacts of artisanal refining of crude oil on river bed sediments. Our Nature. 2017;15(1-2):34-43.

Galadima A, Garba Z, Leke L, Almustapha M, Adam I. Domestic water pollution among local communities in Nigeria-causes and consequences. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2011;52(4):592-603.

Gonçalves N, Valente T, Pamplona J. Water Supply and Access to Safe Water in Developing Arid Countries. Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies. 2019;4(2).

Onemano J, Otun J, editors. Problems on water quality standards and monitoring in Nigeria. 29th WEDC international conference: Towards the millennium development goals; 2003.

Okonkwo FO, Njan AA, Ejike CE, Nwodo UU, Onwurah IN. Health implications of occupational exposure of butchers to emissions from burning tyres. Annals of global health. 2018;84(3):387.

Nriagu J, Udofia EA, Ekong I, Ebuk G. Health risks associated with oil pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2016;13(3):346.

Ordinioha B, Brisibe S. The human health implications of crude oil spills in the Niger delta, Nigeria: An interpretation of published studies. Nigerian medical journal: journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. 2013;54(1):10.

Yabrade M, Tanee F. Assessing the Impact of Artisanal Petroleum Refining on Vegetation and Soil Quality: A Case Study of Warri South West Salt Wetland of Delta State, Nigeria. Environmental Toxicology. 2016;10(4):205-12.

ADBAU. Oil and gas in Africa. Joint study by the African development bank and African union. Oxford University Press Inc New York, NY, USA; 2009.

Ekubo A, Abowei J. Aspects of aquatic pollution in Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 2011;3(6):673-93.

Maduka O, Ephraim-Emmanuel B. The quality of public sources of drinking water in oil-bearing communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. AAS Open Research. 2019;2(23):23.

Iheukwumere S, Phil-Eze P, Nkwocha K, Nwabudike C, PP U. Assessment of Domestic Wastewater Disposal in Anambra State, South-East Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation. 2019;6(4):190-9.

Ogwueleka T. Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Nigeria; 2009.

Amusan L, Akintaro H, Osawaru F, Makinde A, Tunji-Olayeni P, Akomolafe M. Information on State of Challenges of Waste Management System in Nigeria Urban Housing System. International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development. 2018;8(2):75-86.

Samuel, Ajayi M, Idowu A, Ogundipe O. Levels and trends in household source of cooking fuel in Nigeria: implications on under-five mortality. Health Science Journal. 2016;10(4):1-5.

Adamu BM, Yerima E, Bello MM, Umaru AN. Energy Utilization in Residential Kitchens in Bauchi, Nigeria. Economic and Environmental Studies. 2017;17(42):149-63.

Ugbomeh B, Atubi A. The role of the oil industry and the Nigerian State in defining the future of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. African Research Review. 2010;4(2).

Emoyan O. The oil and gas industry and the Niger Delta: Implications for the environment. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2008; 12(3).

Omotor DG. The impact of oil exploration on the inhabitants of the oil producing areas of Nigeria. Journal of Food, Agri-culture and Environment. 2009;7(2):726-30.

Center S. Degradation of Work: Oil and Casualization of Labor in Niger Delta. Washington, Solidarity Center; 2010.