Effect of Formulation, Binder and Compaction Pressure of Rice Husk-Bagasse Briquettes on Thermal and Physical Properties

Main Article Content

Kerich K. Daniel
Zachary O. Siagi
Julius O. Ogola

Abstract

Aims: This study investigated the use of agro-wastes for the production of briquettes. It was carried out to investigate the effect of formulation, binder and compaction pressure of rice husk-Bagasse briquettes on thermal and physical properties.

Study Design: The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design

Place and Duration of the Study: Rice husks and bagasse were collected from Lake Basin Development Authority’s rice mill and Kibos sugar and Allied company respectively. The binders were sourced locally in Kisumu. The study was conducted between March 2019 and February 2020. The fabrication and laboratory analysis were carried out in the engineering and laboratory departments of Kenya Industrial Research and Development institute, Kisumu.

Methodology: The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design. This study involved six formulations ratios (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0), five compaction pressure levels (108kPa, 180kPa, 253kPa, 325kPa, 397kPa) and two binders (clay, cassava) They were arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications per experiment.

Results: The briquettes bulk density was in the range of 849 to 1001 kg.m−3, while the calorific value ranged from 5.541 kcal/g for 100% Rice husk clay binder to 7.345 kcal/g 20% Rice Husk cassava binder. Briquettes with blend ratio of 40-60% Rice Husk took longer time to burn. Briquette formulations with clay binder had burning rates ranging from 0.28 g/min to 0.15 g/min while with cassava binder from 0.52 g/min to 0.37 g/min. The ignition time of the briquettes ranged from 62 sec to 95 sec with cassava binder and 110 sec to 191sec with clay binder. The shatter index ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 with cassava and 0.9 to 0.98 with clay binder.

Conclusion: Higher compaction pressures and use of cassava binder produced stronger briquettes with higher calorific values. Briquettes with higher percentage of bagasse had low ignition time and low bulk densities. The bulk densities and ignition time showed significant rise with increase in the compaction pressure but inversely affected the burning rate. The binder used significantly affected both the thermal and physical properties of all the formulations.

Keywords:
Briquette, compaction, blended, binders, calorific value and Kenya.

Article Details

How to Cite
Daniel, K. K., Siagi, Z. O., & Ogola, J. O. (2020). Effect of Formulation, Binder and Compaction Pressure of Rice Husk-Bagasse Briquettes on Thermal and Physical Properties. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 26(10), 38-53. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030320
Section
Original Research Article
Author Biography

Julius O. Ogola, Laboratory services Center, Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI), P.O. Box 6017, Kisumu, Kenya.

Aims: This study investigated the use of agro-wastes for the production of briquettes. It was carried out to investigate the effect of formulation, binder and compaction pressure of rice husk-Bagasse briquettes on thermal and physical properties.

Study Design: The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design

Place and Duration of the Study: Rice husks and bagasse were collected from Lake Basin Development Authority’s rice mill and Kibos sugar and Allied company respectively. The binders were sourced locally in Kisumu. The study was conducted between March 2019 and February 2020. The fabrication and laboratory analysis were carried out in the engineering and laboratory departments of Kenya Industrial Research and Development institute, Kisumu.

Methodology: The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design. This study involved six formulations ratios (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0), five compaction pressure levels (108kPa, 180kPa, 253kPa, 325kPa, 397kPa) and two binders (clay, cassava) They were arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications per experiment.

Results: The briquettes bulk density was in the range of 849 to 1001 kg.m−3, while the calorific value ranged from 5.541 kcal/g for 100% Rice husk clay binder to 7.345 kcal/g 20% Rice Husk cassava binder. Briquettes with blend ratio of 40-60% Rice Husk took longer time to burn. Briquette formulations with clay binder had burning rates ranging from 0.28 g/min to 0.15 g/min while with cassava binder from 0.52 g/min to 0.37 g/min. The ignition time of the briquettes ranged from 62 sec to 95 sec with cassava binder and 110 sec to 191sec with clay binder. The shatter index ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 with cassava and 0.9 to 0.98 with clay binder.

Conclusion: Higher compaction pressures and use of cassava binder produced stronger briquettes with higher calorific values. Briquettes with higher percentage of bagasse had low ignition time and low bulk densities. The bulk densities and ignition time showed significant rise with increase in the compaction pressure but inversely affected the burning rate. The binder used significantly affected both the thermal and physical properties of all the formulations.

References

Agbro EB, Ogie NA. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and bio-fuel production potential in Nigeria. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2012;1(3):149-155.

Nabukalu C, Gieré R. Charcoal as an energy resource: Global trade, production and socio-economic practices observed in Uganda. Resources. 2019;8(4):1–27.

Yaron Cohen, Allan Marega. Assessment of the briquette market in Kenya. GVEP International, Nairobi Kenya; 2013.

Perea-Moreno MA, Samerón-Manzano E, Perea-Moreno AJ. Biomass as renewable energy: Worldwide research trends. Sustainability (Switzerland). 2019;11(3). Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030863

Maninder K, Kathuria PS, Grover S. Using agricultural residues as a biomass briquetting: An alternative source of energy. Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. 2012;1(5):11–15.

Ferguson H. Briquette businesses in Uganda The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. GVEP International. 2012;5.

Ministry of Agriculture. Food security assessment report. Department of crop management; 2013.

Kaliyan N, Morey RV. Densification characteristics of corn cobs. Fuel Processing Technology. 2010;91(5):559–565.

Nasrin AB, Ma AN, Choo YM, Mohamad S, Rohaya MH, Azali A, Zainal Z. Oil palm biomass as potential substitution raw materials for commercial biomass briquettes production. American Journal of Applied Science. 2008;5:179–183.

United Nations Environment Programme. Sustainability of Sugarcane Bagasse Briquettes and Charcoal Value chains in Kenya. 2019;1–50.

Ajimotokan HA, Ehindero AO, Ajao KS, Adeleke AA, Ikubanni PP, Shuaib-Babata YL. Combustion characteristics of fuel briquettes made from charcoal particles and sawdust agglomerates. Scientific African. 2019;6. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00202

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E871-82 (2013). Standard test method for determining moisture and ash content of solid fuels. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials International; 2013.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO 562:2010. Standard Test Method for Determining Material Volatile Matter; 2010. Available:https://standards.iteh.ai/catalog/standard/sist/

Sengar SH, Mohod AG, Khandetod YP, Patil SS, Chendake AD. Performance of briquetting machine for briquette fuel. International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012;2(1):28–34. Available:https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijee.20120201.05

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1321-13. Standard test method for determining material ignition and flame spread properties. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials International; 2013.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D5865 - 04. Standard test method for gross calorific value of coal and coke.; West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials International; 2004.

Kabok PA, Nyaanga DM, Mbugua JM, Eppinga R. Effect of shapes, binders and densities of faecal matter– Sawdust briquettes on ignition and burning times. Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology. 2018;9:370. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7463.1000370

Akpenpuun TD, Salau RA, Adebayo AO, Adebayo OM, Salawu J, Durotoye M. Physical and combustible properties of briquettes produced from a combination of groundnut shell, rice husk, sawdust and wastepaper using starch as a binder; 2020.

Onuegbu TU, Ekpunobi UE, Ogbu IM, Ekeoma MO, Obumselu FO. Comparative studies of ignition time and water boiling test of coal and biomass briquettes blend. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2011.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D7481-09. Standard test methods for determining loose and tapped bulk densities of powders using a graduated cylinder. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials International; 2009.

Gursel AP, Maryman H, Ostertag C. A life-cycle approach to environmental, mechanical, and durability properties of green concrete mixes with rice husk ash J Clean Prod. 2016;112(1):823-836.

Oladeji JT. Fuel characterization of briquettes produced from corncob and rice husk resides. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(1):101-106.

Davies, Abolude. Ignition and burning rate of water hyacinth and plantain peel briquettes. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 2013;2(1):111-120.

Abdulrasheed A, Aroke UO, Ibrahim M. Compression pressure effect on mechanical & combustion properties of sawdust briquette using Styrofoam adhesive as binder. Am J Eng Res 4. 2015;205-211.

Ajayi OA, Lawal GT. Some quality indicators of sawdust/ palm oil sludge briquettes. J Ag Eng Tech 3. 1995;55-65.

Chin OC, Siddiqui KM. Characteristics of some biomass briquettes prepared under modest die pressures. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2000;18:223-22.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D440-07. Standard test method of drop shatter test for coal. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA; 2012.