Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 2021-01-23T12:29:11+00:00 Journal of Scientific Research and Reports Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> An Overview of Pre-ignition of Hydrogen Engine 2021-01-23T12:29:11+00:00 Yang Luo Chuanhao Zhao <p>Hydrogen engine has attracted much attention due to its high combustion efficiency, low hydrogen concentration requirement, low environmental pollution and fuel regeneration. But the key issue pre-ignition has hindered the development of hydrogen engines. In order to have a more in-depth understanding of pre-ignition, this paper reviews the mechanism of pre-ignition, the relationship between the nature of hydrogen and pre-ignition , the key factors affecting pre-ignition and the research status of pre-ignition, analyzes the development trend of hydrogen engine and provides a new perspective for the study of inhibiting pre-ignition.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on the Effect of Shading on Performance of Leafy Vegetables 2021-01-23T12:29:10+00:00 Zannatul Firdaus Binte Habib Md. Rashedul Hassan Nazmun Naher Abdul Halim <p>A field experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from March, 2019 to June, 2019. The aim of the study was to select best summer leafy vegetables, suitable for holding under different shade condition in agroforestry systems. The selected vegetables were also grown in control i.e., open field condition or in full sunlight. The vegetables were Indian Spinach, Stem Amaranth, and Red Amaranth and treatments were T<sub>0</sub>= planting summer leafy vegetables under full sunlight, T<sub>1</sub>= planting summer leafy vegetables under 50% shade condition (reduced light intensity) and T<sub>2</sub> = planting summer leafy vegetables under 75% shade condition (reduced light intensity). The experiment was laid out following single factor RCBD design. Three replications were used for each treatment for each crop. During the study period maximum light intensity reduction was recorded in Red Amaranth (48.28%) in 75% shade condition and minimum light intensity was reduced in case of Indian Spinach (26.14%) under 50% shade condition. The reduced light intensity had substantial effects on various growth parameters of the summer leafy vegetables. From the experiment, significant result was observed in all morphological characteristics for all leafy vegetables under reduced light intensity. Apart from this, highest yield was found in Stem Amaranth (22.33 ton/ha) and Indian Spinach (13.83 ton/ha) in 75% shade condition. Highest yield of Indian Spinach (19.40 ton/ha), Stem Amaranth (27.25 ton/ha) and Red Amaranth (11.30 ton/ha) was recorded under full sunlight. Considering shade condition, Stem Amaranth and Indian Spinach were best suitable for growing in Agroforestry systems.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Annealing, Acid Hydrolysis and Branching Enzyme on Dioscorea schimperiana Starch Technological and Functional Properties 2021-01-23T12:29:10+00:00 Djeukeu Asongni William Dongho Dongmo Fabrice Fabien Leng Marlyse Solange Gouado inocent <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To assess its technological aptitude and functional properties, <em>Dioscorea schimperiana</em> starch was submitted to various treatment of technological importance and its properties was evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For this aim, the starch extracted from <em>Dioscorea schimperiana</em> tubers and was submitted to annealing, acid hydrolysis and to a branching enzyme (1, 4-α-glucan branching enzyme). Afterward, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gelatinization profile, physicochemical and functional properties of the samples was recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> FTIR spectra show the introduction and withdrawal of bond in modified samples. The thermal properties (DSC) of starch were not affected by annealing (AS) and enzymatic treatment (EBS). No peak temperature and gelatinization profile were observed for acid hydrolyzed samples (AHS) on Rapid Visco Analyzer. Annealing and enzyme treatment lead to an increase of the starch peak viscosity of while reducing its breakdown. The functional properties of the starch such as swelling capacity, least swelling concentration and water binding capacity were increased by annealing. Acid hydrolysis significantly increases <em>in vitro</em> digestibility of <em>D. schimperiana </em>starch while no significant change was observed after annealing and enzymatic modification, thus presenting it as particularly resistant to digestion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study suggests that annealing can be considered for the production of&nbsp;<em>D. schimperiana</em>&nbsp;modified starch with high technological and functional properties.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Formulation, Binder and Compaction Pressure of Rice Husk-Bagasse Briquettes on Thermal and Physical Properties 2021-01-23T12:29:09+00:00 Kerich K. Daniel Zachary O. Siagi Julius O. Ogola <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study investigated the use of agro-wastes for the production of briquettes. It was carried out to investigate the effect of formulation, binder and compaction pressure of rice husk-Bagasse briquettes on thermal and physical properties.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study: </strong>Rice husks and bagasse were collected from Lake Basin Development Authority’s rice mill and Kibos sugar and Allied company respectively. The binders were sourced locally in Kisumu. The study was conducted between March 2019 and February 2020. The fabrication and laboratory analysis were carried out in the engineering and laboratory departments of Kenya Industrial Research and Development institute, Kisumu.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design. This study involved six formulations ratios (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0), five compaction pressure levels (108kPa, 180kPa, 253kPa, 325kPa, 397kPa) and two binders (clay, cassava) They were arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications per experiment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The briquettes bulk density was in the range of 849 to 1001 kg.m<sup>−3</sup>, while the calorific value ranged from 5.541 kcal/g for 100% Rice husk clay binder to 7.345 kcal/g 20% Rice Husk cassava binder. Briquettes with blend ratio of 40-60% Rice Husk took longer time to burn. Briquette formulations with clay binder had burning rates ranging from 0.28 g/min to 0.15 g/min while with cassava binder from 0.52 g/min to 0.37 g/min. The ignition time of the briquettes ranged from 62 sec to 95 sec with cassava binder and 110 sec to 191sec with clay binder. The shatter index ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 with cassava and 0.9 to 0.98 with clay binder.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Higher compaction pressures and use of cassava binder produced stronger briquettes with higher calorific values. Briquettes with higher percentage of bagasse had low ignition time and low bulk densities. The bulk densities and ignition time showed significant rise with increase in the compaction pressure but inversely affected the burning rate. The binder used significantly affected both the thermal and physical properties of all the formulations.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Factor Analytic Investigation of Electronic Word-of-Mouth towards Fast Food Industry in Sri Lanka 2021-01-23T05:39:43+00:00 Saraniya Devendra <p>In modern marketing, the Fast Food Industry has experienced lots of changes. These changes have influenced both industries and the nature of the rivalry. Consequently, it is not shocking that these bread winners have been enforced in a puzzling situation to concentrate on their customers instead of positive word of mouth communication. One of the best ways that restaurants can be differentiated from others and accomplish competitive advantage is using positive word of mouth. Consequently, this research is contributed to the vital element that is influencing on Electronic Word-of-Mouth (EWOM) in selective Fast Food Restaurants. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 200 customers in Colombo Divisional Secretariat Division, Sri Lanka. The respondents provided the data utilizing a close-ended questionnaire. Exploratory Factor Analysis has been used to analyze the data and to draw the findings. From the factor analysis, it has been identified that four factors, namely Encouragement, In-depth explanation, Differentiation and Contacts, are the primary influencers. These four factors have combined variance of 55.411% of the decision regarding the adoption of Electronic Word-of-Mouth by Fast Food Restaurants to ensure strategic development.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security in Nigeria; Facts and Myths 2021-01-21T06:19:30+00:00 B. O. Ehirim M. Bashir M. N. Ishaq A. S. Gana B. Z. Salihu T. Gbadeyan O. F. Nwankwo E. Kouko K. D. Tolorunse J. Amedu S. U. Echefu N. Danbaba <p>Biotechnology <em>per se</em> is not a panacea for the world’s problems of hunger and poverty. However, genetic engineering in particular offers outstanding potentials to increase the efficiency of crop improvement. Thus, biotechnology could enhance global food production and availability in a sustainable way. Studies have shown that transgenic crops are very appropriate for agricultural producers and consumers in developing countries as the entire technology can be packaged into the seed. It can easily be integrated into traditional smallholder farming systems through proper stewardship. Except for a few innovative transfer projects, the application of biotechnology until now remains concentrated in the industrialized world. However due to insufficient owned scientific and regulatory capacities, the increase in privatized international agricultural research and the strengthening of intellectual property rights of these organizations complicate the access of developing countries to biotechnology. Therefore, profound government and Institutional adjustments that cuts across new technologies and regulations are essential to ensuring that biotechnology does not bypass the resource poor, smallholder farmers in Africa and Nigeria in particular.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##