Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 2022-07-05T04:55:57+00:00 Journal of Scientific Research and Reports Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Determination of the Execution Time of Downward Tapping Allowing a Good Performance of Agrophysiological Parameters in Upward Tapping of Fast Metabolizing Rubber Clones PB 260 and IRCA 18 2022-06-29T11:24:05+00:00 Moro Affia Perpétue Kouakou N’guessan Kan Pulchérie Atsin Guy Olivier Diarassouba Moussa Lehi Malydie Irénée Koffi Antoine Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire Obouayeba Samuel <p>The classic latex harvesting system consists of top-downward tapping for nine years before being immediately followed by upward tapping. This period is often considered too long by the farmers. To address this concern, a study was conducted to determine the best period for downward tapping to ensure good performance of agrophysiological parameters in upward tapping of fast metabolising rubber clones. For this purpose, the PB 260 and IRCA 18 clones were used as plant material in Divo and Daoukro respectively, where the experiments were conducted. Five time frames for downward tapping (5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years = control) and two concentrations of ethephon (ET) stimulating paste (2.5 and 5% ET), except for the control which is stimulated only at 5% ET, were tested. The experimental design was a Fisher block design with 9 treatments and 4 replicates. Rubber productivity results (5262 ± 205 and 4951 ± 351 kg.ha-1.yr-1) showed that upward tapping of these metabolically active clones preceded by 5 and/or 6 years of downward tapping was the best (3723 ± 29 kg.ha-1.yr-1 ; control). Rubber production and average annual increment from these tapping periods (4.00 ± 0.42 and 3.60 ± 0.00 cm.yr-1 ; control) were the highest. Productivity gains were 41% for upward tapping at 6 years stimulated at 5%. The dry notch rate was relatively low (3.30% LEM and 0% dry trees). The physiological profile was generally good. These results indicate that downward tapping for 5 and/or 6 years allows these clones to express their best potential in upward tapping. These results are satisfactory and respond exactly to the concerns of the farmers.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impacts of the Exploitation of Rock Models on Phytodiversity in the Agbelouve Township and Its Surroundings 2022-06-27T06:31:57+00:00 Awèdéo Maloukou Minkilabe Djangbeja Hodabalo Kamou <p><strong></strong>The exploitation of rocky outcrops is increasing and leading to the loss of biodiversity in the canton of Agbélouvé and its surroundings. This study aims to assess the impact of the exploitation of these rocks on the flora and vegetation, in order to contribute to the sustainable management of plant resources. It is based on floristic inventories of the exploitation sites and off-site. The collected data was processed by the Excel 2016 spreadsheet, and software XLSTAT 2008. The results of this research show that this activity is at the origin of the destruction of the vegetation cover and the modification of the topographic landscape.&nbsp; 234 species were recorded in 96 surveys, including 95 species belonging to 41 families on the exploitation sites, compared to 139 species belonging to 51 families off-site.&nbsp; The Shannon diversity indexes are 1.86 and 2 respectively on and off sites. Pielou's equitability index is 0.94 on the exploitation sites and 0.93 off-site.&nbsp; The analysis of the biological spectrum shows the predominance of phanerophytes (60.76%) off sites against (37%) therophytes on the exploitation sites.&nbsp; The analysis of the phytogeographical spectrum indicates the predominance of Afro-tropical species on the two sites explored. Faced with the negative impacts of the exploitation of the rock formations on the vegetation, it is necessary to take measures for the restoration of the exploitation sites.</p> 2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-vitro Activity of Medicinal Plant Crude Extract and In-vivo Toxicity Testing of Dichloromethane Root Extract of Citrus limon in laboratory Rabbits 2022-07-01T04:53:55+00:00 S. O. Guya Eliud N. M. Njagi A. N. Guantai Caroline C. Langat-Thoruwa Grace Murilla Richard Kurgat Sylvance Okoth Judith Chemuliti C. I. Muleke <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To identify viable phytomedicines traditionally employed for the treatment of malaria in Kenya that could be developed into antimalarial agents.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Quantitative analysis of antiplasmodial activities and brine shrimp bioassays were carried out using standard procedures. The experiment was set in duplicate for each concentration of the drug and average IC<sub>50</sub> determined.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Seven indigenous plants: <em>Achyranthes aspera, Heinsiacrinita, Bridelia cathartica, Citrus limon, Microglossapyrifolia, Vernoniaglabra</em> and <em>Carissa edulis</em> obtained from Kilifi and Homa-Bay counties in Kenya were evaluated for their anti-<em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>potential. Collection of samples and analysis took about three months from April 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Both Chemical and aqueous crude extraction methods were carried out to identify the most active extracts against <em>P. Falciparum </em>and then isolate pure active phytochemicals. Pure compounds were subjected to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infra-Red (IR) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS) analyses for structure elucidation<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane (DCM),methanoland water) of seven different species of plants were analyzed for their anti-plasmodial activities.W2 and D6 strains of Falciparum were tested. However, the three most active extracts were from <em>Citrus lemon</em> roots (DCM) with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 7.017 µg/mL, <em>C</em>. <em>edulis</em> root (aqueous) with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 8.054 µg/Ml and <em>B</em>. <em>Cathertica</em>l eaves (methanol) with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 15.647 µg/Ml. However, three pure compounds were obtained; suberosin IC<sub>50</sub>26.7 (Strain W2), 53.1 (Strain D6) and xanthyletin IC<sub>50</sub>1580 (Strain W2) from <em>C. limon</em> (DCM) and spinasterol IC<sub>50 </sub>43.2 (Strain W2) from <em>M. pyrifolia</em> (hexane).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The three different species of plants with most active compounds have demonstrated their potentiality in treatment for <em>falciparum</em> malaria. Structures of the isolated three compounds can be modelled to synthesis of anti- plasmodial drugs as they are active <em>in vitro.</em></p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization and Quantification of Urban Expansion and Impact on Urban Planning Practice in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania 2022-07-05T04:55:57+00:00 Godwin D. Mshana B. Mbilinyi P. H. Msigula <p>Globally, there are extensive concerns about urban expansion. In response, urban expansion detection and assessing land use and land cover (LULC) changes have become significant methods to support decisions about suitable land resource use. The major concern with urban expansion aside from habitat destruction, is the distribution of human resources and basic needs especially to the community living in the newly settlement patches. This study applied a series of Landsat images to quantify the rate and characterise the pattern of urban expansion and assess&nbsp; its impact on&nbsp; urban planning practice over a 30 years period from (1990 to 2020). Change detection was supported by images and supervised classification method. Random Forest (RF) classification method was used to achieve imagery classification, and from classification results were validated by Kappa index of Agreement (KIA) and overall accuracy (OA) methods. To analyze these changes, we used Urban Expansion Intensity Index (UEII) landscape metrics to characterize the changes in the spatial patterns across Morogoro landscape and it’s impact of urban expansion on other types of land cover.</p> <p>The findings indicated that from 1990 to 2010 built up areas have been experiencing an increase of 3.9% to 18.1% respectively,&nbsp;&nbsp; while non-built up areas have decreased from 96.1% to 81.9% respectively within 30 years period time .Urban planning practice in 1990 to 2020 increased of planned land where by plan before development on land increase from 0.8% to 6.6% while the plan after development increase from 0.2% to 10.8% of the total urban area in the same year.</p> <p>In significant changes in urban expansion and urban planning practice experienced were highly correlated in 2010 to 2020. Based on the outcomes of this study, it is recommended that municipal authorities should consider initiatives in urban planning to reverse the existing trend of urban development in order to recover the sustainability and resilience of the urban situation. The conclusions clarified the spatial pattern of urban change and its influencing factors in Morogoro municipality over the past 30 years and could provide helpful reference for the future urban planning.</p> 2022-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##