Journal of Scientific Research and Reports <p><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 2320-0227 Celebrating the World Breastfeeding Week in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic in Southern Nigeria: Lessons Learned <p><strong>Background:</strong> The annual World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) celebration has been a period of massive interaction with stakeholders through various means and sharing of information related to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding since its inception in 1992. However, with the advent of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent uncertainties about the fate of breastfeeding on one hand, and the imposed measures for COVID-19 infection prevention and control on the other, there was need to modify the traditional way of celebrating the Week to ensure that knowledge about the COVID-19-breastfeeding dyad is communicated to relevant stakeholders while complying with the COVID-19 preventive protocols.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To share experiences and document lessons learned from the celebration of the 2020 WBW which can be reflected upon and used for improving on strategies to protect, promote and support breastfeeding even amidst the restrictions imposed by the protocols for the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Place of Study:</strong> University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) Committee of the UPTH has celebrated the annual WBW every 1<sup>st</sup> to 7<sup>th</sup> August for the past 22 years (1997-2019). The reports of events of previous WBW Celebrations were retrieved and the format of the various activities was compared with that of activities for the 2020 WBW Celebration, which took place in the era of COVID-19 pandemic. The findings are presented in tables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Activities for the celebration of WBW in the pre-COVID-19 era usually included physical meetings for the sensitisation of the hospital communities/stakeholders, radio/television sessions, information sharing in various places of religious activities and a rally to interact with the community people. During the COVID-19 pandemic, new strategies for celebration of the WBW were adopted, including among others, virtual meetings, decentralisation of sensitisation of the hospital’s clientele and a physical meeting for the sensitisation of the Hospital Management Committee. Positive outcomes of the 2020 Celebration included the management’s commitment to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding, participation in the webinars by stakeholders from within and outside the hospital/Rivers State and establishment of collaborations with several partners.</p> <p>Lesson learned included among others, the celebration of the Week by many stakeholders, the reduced cost of celebration due to the absence of physical meetings and their attendant costs. The personalised invitation of all departments, units and professional associations secured their commitments to breastfeeding. Decentralising the celebration facilitated the adaptation of the messages to the needs of different clienteles and strengthening of members from different departments to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in their work environment. However, the poor participation of the hospital community in the virtual meetings attributable to lack of experience and the cost of participation were setbacks to the targets of the Committee.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The era of the COVID-19 pandemic provided a good opportunity to engage stakeholders from within and outside the hospital for the support of breastfeeding as a safe infant feeding option in the midst of COVID-19 and introduced a new normal, the use of virtual meetings to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in a cost effective manner. The celebration of the Week reiterated the role of breastfeeding for ensuring planetary health which was being challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> A. R. Nte G. K. Eke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 46 57 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930308 Comparing Household Environmental Health Indicators between Oil-bearing and Non-oil-bearing Communities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Household environmental health indicators have contributed to the quality of life of the populace in regions of the world where they have been made available. This study compared the indicators of household environmental health between oil-bearing and non-oil-bearing communities located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An analytical, cross-sectional household survey was carried out among 601 households in six oil-bearing and non-oil-bearing selected communities located within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Multistage sampling was employed, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire used to elicit data on the household environmental health indicators in the communities. The scores across the six indicator domains were summed and categorized into acceptable and unacceptable status.&nbsp; <strong>Results: </strong>Water sources in both oil-bearing 230 (76.4%) and non-oil-bearing communities 177 (59.0%) were sanitary. Sanitary sewage 250 (83.1%) and sullage disposal 210 (69.8%) was practiced by most households in oil-bearing areas. The minority of respondents in both oil-bearing 26 (8.6%) and non-oil-bearing 41 (13.7%) communities practiced sanitary refuse disposal. Households in oil-bearing communities had twelve times greater odds of having a satisfactory environmental health status compared to households in non-oil-bearing communities (Adjusted O.R: 11.70, 95% C.I: 7.75-17.65).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Households in oil-bearing communities fared better in all household environmental health indicators. There is a need to address the economic and social determinants of health among households in the Niger Delta to improve household environmental health indicators.</p> Omosivie Maduka Benson C. Ephraim- Emmanuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 1 9 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930304 Prevalence of Bacterial Leaf Spot of Bottle Gourd and Pumpkin in Subtropical Zone of Himachal Pradesh <p>To assess the prevalence and severity of bacterial leaf spot on bottle gourd and pumpkin, a survey was conducted in Hamirpur, Una and Bilaspur districts of sub tropical zone of Himachal Pradesh, India during the years 2018 and 2019. Data were recorded in terms of disease severity and fruit rot incidence. The associated pathogen from bottle gourd and pumpkin was isolated on nutrient sodium chloride agar medium and identified on the basis of morphological, biochemical and pathogenicity tests on bottle gourd and pumpkin seedlings. Disease was found to be prevalent at all the locations surveyed exhibiting a mean disease severity from 24.70 to 87.55 and 5.30 to 52.92 per cent in bottle gourd and pumpkin, respectively. Fruits of bottle gourd were recorded to be affected badly exhibiting a mean fruit rot incidence of 10.23 to 95.32 to per cent, while, no fruit rot incidence was recorded in pumpkin fruits. The colonies of the isolated bacterium were mucoid, circular, smooth textured and yellow in colour having a diameter of 2-4 mm. The pathogen was found to be Gram–ve and tested positive for esculin hydrolysis as well as protein digestion test. During pathogenicity tests, incubation period of 2 and 4 days was recorded on bottle gourd and pumpkin, respectively. Based on these studies, the identity of the pathogen was confirmed to be <em>Xanthomonas cucurbitae</em>(ex Bryan) Vauterin <em>et al.</em></p> Kumud Jarial Sujata Kumari R. S. Jarial Savita Jandaik Deepa Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10 19 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930305 Integrated Waste Management System as a Sustainable Option for Managing Plastic Waste in Ghana: The Case of Madina-La Nkantanan Municipality <p>This study elucidates the current state of plastic waste management in urban areas of Ghana, with a particular focus on Madina-La Nkwntanan municipality. As a result of the current uncontrollable plastic waste challenge, the Government of Ghana, is seeking sustainable approaches to reduce th effect of plastic waste in the country. A number of arrangements, including various forms of privatization, tax regimes and public-private partnership have already been initiated as first step solutions to the challenge, yet management of plastic waste, has not been encouraging. Using a case study from one municipality in Ghana, this paper shows that domestic plastic wastes forms the second most generated wastes in the study area. The results show that the practice of separation at source, which is the first step toward dealing with plastic waste, was uncommon in the study area, although pockets of houses in the municipality and other places in the country practiced it. This article proposes the integrated waste management (IWM) concept, as one of the possible sustainable options that could help tackle the plastic waste issue in municipality. This is in view of the sustainable nature of the concept as well as its integrative way of dealing with waste. This reality has been confirmed by other authors in several countries.&nbsp;</p> Ampadu-Ameyaw Richard Nkum Richard Anderson Kwasi Ahwireng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 20 31 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930306 Application of Statistical Quality Control in Monitoring the Production, Packaging and Marketing Process of Sachet Water <p>Statistical process control is a technique employed to enhance the quality and productivity of processes and the distribution or marketing of its products. Sachet water is a product that has become popular and is being used as a replacement for lack of potable water. It is an alternative that is readily available, affordable but with questions about its purity, production and marketing processes. The objective of this study is to apply statistical control charts in monitoring the production, packaging and distribution or marketing processes of sachet water in Nigeria. This paper employed statistical quality control approach to monitor process stability in a Table Water manufacturing company. Quality control tools such as p-chart, u-chart, X-bar and R charts as well as process capability chart were use to observed field data obtained from the sachet water manufacturing company on important processes of sachet water production and marketing for 30 working days. This was done to check if the processes were in control or out of control and to verify the capability of the marketing process of the product meeting preset specifications. With this, the statistical control charts suitable for the processes were constructed using package “qcc” in R software version 3.6.1. The results from p-chart and u-chart showed that the production and packaging process of the product is not in control and hence the need for further investigations and corrective measures to prevent variability in the process and thus allowing improvement in the quality of the product. Also, the results from X-bar and R charts showed that the marking process was in statistical process control in respects of the product sales recorded by the four independent marketers, with no assignable cause of variation. It also revealed that, the product marketing process has low capability of successfully attending the preset specification limits in respect of the product sales and hence generating low profit for the company.</p> Terna Godfrey Ieren Samson Kuje Abraham Iorkaa Asongo Innocent Boyle Eraikhuemen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 32 45 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930307