Journal of Scientific Research and Reports https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR <p><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 2320-0227 Perceived Parental Involvement in School Activities in Secondary Schools in South-East Nigeria https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/30385 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study ascertained perceived parental involvement in school activities in secondary schools in South-east Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> Descriptive survey research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of study:</strong> Secondary school students in South-east Nigeria, between 2019/2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study used simple random sampling technique to draw 520 (200 male and 320 female) senior secondary school II students from the total population. Specifically, the toss of die type of simple random sampling was used to draw the sample. The instrument for data collection is a structured questionnaire titled “Students perception on the extent of parental involvement in school activities questionnaire (SPEPISAQ)”. The reliability of the instrument and internal consistency of the questionnaire items were established using Cronbach Alpha statistics which yield an overall reliability coefficient of 0.88, indicating a high-level reliability of the items in the instrument. Data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation (for research questions). The t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses raised. The item analysis was based on real limit of numbers ranging from 1.00-1.49 (very low extent) to 3.50-4.00 (very high extent), and the decision rule for the null hypotheses was thus; do not reject the null hypotheses if the significant value is greater than the p-value, otherwise reject the null hypotheses if the calculated value is less than the p-value at 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A grand mean of 3.14 which indicates that students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in debate activities is to high extent. The standard deviation score ranges from 0.66 – 1.01, this shows that students are heterogeneous in their rating. The data analysis revealed that the significant value is greater than the alpha value (Sig. value = 1.021, P value=0.05), hence, the extent of parental involvement in debate activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender. The results further revealed a grand mean of 3.16 which indicates that students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in school publication activities is to a high extent. The standard deviation score ranges from 0.59 – 1.11, this shows that students are heterogeneous in their response. The corresponding hypothesis tested revealed that the significant value is greater than the alpha value (Sig. value = 0.006, P value=0.05). This goes to show that the extent of parental involvement in school publication in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender. More so, the analysis resulted with a grand mean of 2.12 which indicates that students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in school club activities is to a low extent. The standard deviation scores range from 0.49 – 0.94, this shows that students are homogeneous in their response. The result further showed that the significant value is less than the alpha value (Sig. value = 0.002, P value=0.05). this goes to show that the extent of parental involvement in school club activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that, students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in debate activities is to high extent, the extent of parental involvement in school publication activities is to a high extent, the extent of parental involvement in school club activities is to a low extent. The extent of parental involvement in school publication in secondary schools is not statistically significant, Also, the extent of parental involvement in debate activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant. Finally, the extent of parental involvement in school club activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender.</p> J. A. Akuezuilo L. I. Akunne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-12 2021-06-12 1 9 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530385 Knowledge, Risk Perceptions and Depression Related to COVID-19: The Comparison between Nurses and other Professionals in Nanjing, China https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/30386 <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 is a deadly infectious disease that dramatically affects the safety of hospital professionals. Their knowledge, risk perception, and depression levels towards COVID-19 need to be understood.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aimed to compare the differences in knowledge, risk perceptions, and depression related to COVID-19 between nurses and other professionals in hospital settings.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanjing, China at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic with four standardized questionnaires, including (a) demographic data, (b) knowledge about COVID-19, (c) risk perceptions, and (d) depression. Data from the two groups of participants were analyzed by Chi-square tests, correlations, and t-tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean correct answer rate of knowledge for nurses was 76.42%, and for other professionals was 73.94%. T-tests indicated significant differences in total mean knowledge score and mean scores in four out of five subscale scores (p&lt;.05). All significant differences in scores showed that nurses' knowledge was higher than other professionals, except one subscale score, which revealed that nurses' knowledge of pets could spread COVID-19 was lower than other professionals. The highest perceived risk scores in both groups were contracting influenza. The second highest was scores on COVID-19 and H1N 1 the third. T-tests indicated significant differences between these two groups in scores of contracting these three infectious diseases, with nurses higher than other professionals (p<u>&lt;</u>.001). T-test also showed that the depression of nurses was higher than other professionals (p&lt;.000). Positive relationships existed between risk perceptions and depression (p&lt;.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> More education is needed to improve hospital professionals' knowledge of COVID-19. Since nurses' risk perceptions of contracting COVID-19 and dying from this deadly infection were higher than other professionals; further studies might help researchers understand the underlying reasons better. Hospital leaders should pay attention to workers' mental health and initiate proper strategies to reduce their depression related to COVID-19. Further investigation is needed since few publications mention the relationship between the perceived risk of hospital professionals and home and food accidents.</p> Tsorng-Yeh Lee Yaping Zhong Fan Li Zijiao Tao Tao Shi Ji Ji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 10 21 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530386 The Severity of Malaria and Toxoplasmosis Co-Infections among Pregnant Women in Yaounde, Cameroon https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/30387 <p>Malaria and toxoplasmosis are two diseases caused by parasites of the same phylum (Apicomplexa). They have severe consequences on the health of pregnant women and their unborn babies. As such, they are of importance for the public health, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Cameroon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of toxoplasmosis among malaria-positive pregnant women attending the Biyam-Assi District Hospital. It was a cross-sectional study that took place from May to November 2019 involving 232 pregnant women who voluntarily accepted to take part in the study. Demographic data was collected using structured questionnaires and blood was collectd by finger prick. Thick blood films were prepared for the detection of malaria and the Giemsa-stained slides were read microscopically. A drop of blood was used for the detection of toxoplasmosis using the&nbsp; chromatographic cassette (Rapid Diagnostic Test) and the results were read after 15 minutes. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 24. The results showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 22.84 %. This prevalence didn’t depend on the trimester of pregnancy (P = 0. 08). The prevalence of malaria was 38.9%. No significant difference was observed for either the prevalence or severity of malaria over the three trimesters of pregnancy (p = 0.60 and p = 0.9 respectively). The prevalence of co-infection with malaria and toxoplasmosis was 9.05%. Women without toxoplasmosis were more prone to severe malaria (20.29 %) than their counterparts who had toxoplasmosis (4.78 %) and the difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The severity of toxoplasmosis was not influenced by the presence of <em>Plasmodium</em> (p = 0. 20). It was concluded that the occurrence and severity of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women does not depend on their malaria serological status. However, the presence of severe malaria in pregnant women depends on their toxoplasmosis status. Indeed, women already infected with <em>T. gondii </em>are less susceptible to malaria than their counterparts who are negative for toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that <em>T. gondii</em> in a person confers some form of reistance to infections with <em>Plasmodium</em>. It was recommended that the Public Health Ministry in Cameroon could include screening for toxoplasmosis among the routine test for pregnant women in order to improve on the health of mother and baby.</p> Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga Kitio Falone Linda Signi Todjom Chysine Lucile Demanou Teubow Dolly-Misper ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 22 32 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530387