Journal of Scientific Research and Reports https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>NAAS Score: 5.17 (2024)</strong></p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 2320-0227 Effect of Different Levels of Foliar Spray of Water Soluble Fertilizer NPK on Growth, Yield and Quality of Prickly Lettuce https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2075 <p>A trial was conducted to evaluate the foliar application of fertilizer on growth, yield &amp; quality of prickly lettuce at Vegetable Research farm, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS. The objectives of this study were to find out suitable combination of water- soluble fertilizer of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus for growth, yield and quality of prickly lettuce and to estimate the economics of the various treatments. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (R.B.D) with 3 replications and 8 treatments.</p> <p>Results revealed that treatment T4 performed best in terms of growth parameters viz; plant height, leaf area , number of leaves per plant, plant spread, leaf area , yield parameters viz; yield per plant, yield per hectare and quality parameters viz; TSS and ascorbic acid.</p> Aima Dingsame .A. Sangma Samir E. Topno T. Thomas Vijay Bahadur Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 30 6 581 585 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62075 Betacyanin, Antioxidant Activity and Shelf-life Evaluation of Thermally, Microwave, and Chemically Processed Lime-flavored Dragon Fruit Ready to Serve Beverage https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2015 <p>The exploration regarding the utilization of cacti family fruits into the directly consumable drink is limited. So, study was conducted to explore utilization of local fruit lime for preparation of lime-flavored dragon fruit ready to serve beverage, and processed with thermal, microwave, and chemical treatments to increase the shelf-life of beverage. Standardizing lime juice in dragon fruit ready to serve (RTS) beverages, optimizing thermal, microwave, and chemical treatments, and studying shelf life were the goals of this study. Dragon fruit RTS beverage was made with 12% fruit juice, 12°Brix total soluble solids (TSS), and 0.1% citric acid after a preliminary sensory study. Dragon fruit RTS with 3% lime juice tasted best. The standardized RTS beverage was thermal (70, 80, and 90°C for 5, 10, and 15 min), microwave (900 W power density for 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 sec), and chemical (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm ascorbic acid incorporation) treated to optimize betacyanin content, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation. RTS beverage thermally treated at 70°C for 5 min, a 30-second microwave treatment at 900 W, and RTS beverage with 500 ppm ascorbic acid were found best on betacyanin, antioxidant activity, and sensory basis. The shelf life of optimized RTS beverage was tested at room temperature and refrigerated. During storage at the both temperatures, there were significant variations in pH, TSS, betacyanin content, and sensory qualities. The best retention of betacyanin content was reported on the 6th day of ambient storage for lime-flavored dragon fruit RTS beverage with 500 ppm (10.04 mg/L) with overall acceptability of 5.57. For refrigerator storage, lime-flavored dragon fruit RTS beverage with 500 ppm ascorbic acid retained 24.26 mg/L betacyanin and 5.68 overall acceptability on the 60th day. Additionally, the lime-flavored dragon fruit RTS beverage with 500 ppm ascorbic acid retained betacyanin better than other treatments during ambient and refrigerated storage.</p> Dharmendrakumar Patel Suresh Bhise Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 30 6 1 13 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62015 Assessment of Alcohol Use Control Programs in Secondary Schools in Lofa County, Liberia https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2017 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> As one of the leading risk factors for disease burdens in the modern era, alcohol consumption exacerbates health-related repercussions with likely threatening influences on morbidity and mortality. Alcohol use in Liberia is a relic that hems in the anthropological and sociological perspectives on the economy, culture, and society. Students drinking has plagued several learning institutions across the country. Hence, some private and public institutions established school-based alcohol use control programs to help reduce in-school-youths' drinking. However, no study has credibly investigated the disparity in the prevalence of drinking between public and private school students. This study aimed to examine and compare the alcohol use prevalence between public and private secondary school students in Liberia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A quantitative method using a self-administered questionnaire to explore and interpret the prevalence of alcohol use between two independent populations, public (220) and private (180) secondary school students, was adopted. The study was done in Lofa County among students under age 14 to age 29 years. MS Excel 2016 (Office 365) was used for a two-proportion z-test analysis between two population proportions of alcohol users (public and private school students), while IBM 21.0 SPSS was used to perform chi-square tests of independence to test the association between categorical variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Drinking was a common phenomenon among students; however, the prevalence was significantly higher in public schools (71.8%) compared to private schools (32.8%). In a chi-square (X<sup>2</sup>) test for independence in an eventuality table, there is a non-significant association between alcohol use and "age group (p=0.406)," "gender (p=0.073)," and "grade levels (p=0.073) in public schools. However, in private schools, there is a significant association between alcohol use and "age group (p=0.000)," "gender (p=0.000)," and "grade levels (p=0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Several factors, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, limited knowledge of alcohol use policy, and students' proximity to family members who are distillers and vintners, especially in public schools, influence the high rate of alcohol use among students. Therefore, a comprehensive intervention strategy that encompasses students' social environment, including the community, school, and family, is needed to reduce and prevent students' drinking in Liberia.</p> Macklin Marvin Korvah Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 30 6 22 33 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62017 An Impact Study on the Pattern of Groundwater Use by Farmers and Commercial Sectors in Tirupur District, Textile City, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2018 <p>Groundwater is the major source of water for agriculture, domestic and industrial uses. Falling water table and depletion of economically accessible groundwater resources could have major social and economic consequences. Many are hailing groundwater transfer as the quickest, least cheapest, and most ecologically friendly answer to large cities' water supply and reliability problems. The water transfers generally focus on the purchase of water from willing sellers in agriculture to meet urban domestic and industrial water demand. The present study was undertaken mainly to study the pattern of groundwater use by the farmers and commercial sectors in Tirupur district. Out of the 180 farms selected for the study, 67.78 per cent of farms were water sellers and 32.22 per cent of farms were non-sellers. Among the three types of wells viz., open wells, open cum bore wells and bore wells; open wells formed the majority in all categories of farms. Whereas in all the farm categories of both the seller and non-seller groups, bore wells dominated the total number of wells owned by each of the farm categories. Bore wells dominated for more than 50 per cent of the total number of wells in large farms, whereas in case of small farms, bore and open-cum-bore wells have been shared equally. According to the farmers, bore wells were having more success rate than the open cum bore wells. The number of abandoned bore wells was also significantly higher in all categories of farms, since open wells were acted as a storage tank for storing the water extracted from bore wells. The percentage of failed bore wells to the total number of wells per farm had ranged from 41.89 per cent in large farms to 57.26 per cent in small farm group in seller category. The number of wells per farm among sellers was significantly higher whereas irrigated land per well was significantly lower. The present study was undertaken mainly to study the where groundwater transfer has been an increasing phenomenon over years resulting in pollution hazards and reduction in irrigated area.</p> Venketesa Palanichamy N Kalpana M Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-20 2024-04-20 30 6 34 45 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62018 An Analysis of Energy Input and Output Dynamics in Redgram Production of Vikarabad District, Telangana, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2019 <p>Energy analysis (input-output) of Redgram production systems in Vikarabad district of Telangana State. Surveys conducted at the farms that cultivate Redgram in Vikarabad district, in the 2021. Sixty farms that produce Redgram were interviewed face to face<strong>. </strong>The results revealed that in Redgram production systems total energy input was 19289.61MJ/ha. The highest share of energy consumed was recorded for N fertilizer (78.29%) which is a nonrenewable resource. Output Energy was 11025 MJ/ha. Accordingly, energy efficiency(output input ratio) was 3.11, energy productivity calculated as 0.021 KgMJ<sup>-1</sup> and specific energy was observed as 45.7 MJKg<sup>-1</sup>, agrochemical energy ratio was 0.82 % and energy intensiveness was 1.14.</p> Sravan Kumar K. Sridhar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-20 2024-04-20 30 6 46 52 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62019 Economics of Capsicum and Tomato Crops Production under Protected Cultivation in the Regions of Kalyana-Karnataka, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2020 <p>Protected cultivation is an important initiative for cultivating the high value horticultural crops especially during the off-season which enables the farming communities to generate higher revenues in the limited area. In this context, a study has been undertaken to find out the viability of the protected cultivation structures for the cultivation of horticulture crops of capsicum and tomato in the regions of Kalyana-Karnataka. The research study was conducted in the district of Koppal and Ballari in regions of Kalyana-Karnataka based on the existence of highest number of protected structures. The study was based on primary data through personal interview method of the farmers who have adopted protected cultivation technology. A sample of 60 farmers were drawn as respondents from each district based on their size and composition of the structures and also on the basis of crops grown under protected condition. The data collected from the farmers with respect to the cost and return of capsicum and tomato under protected cultivation were analysed using cost and returns analysis techniques. The results reported that, the net returns of capsicum and tomato crops in protected cultivation were Rs. 2,92,768 and Rs. 2,28,289 respectively in an area of of 1008 sqm and the B:C ratios of capsicum and tomato crops were reported as 1:3.40 and 1:2.89 respectively. Thus, the protected cultivation structures in the regions of Kalyana-Karnataka for the cultivation of tomato and capsicum crops were found as economically viable unit. Hence, effort may be needed from the farmers of this region with further government support for increasing the adoption of protected cultivation structures in the cultivation of high value horticultural crops like tomato and capsicum. </p> Shashikala S. Ruli Ganeshagouda I. Patil Kadli Veeresh Goudappa S. B. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 6 53 58 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62020 Economic Viability and Financial Feasibility of Secondary Processing Unit of Turmeric in Chamarajanagar District of Karnataka, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2021 <p>Turmeric is an important commercial crop with both domestic and international demand facing challenges due to the absence of organized processing units at production centres. Addressing this gap requires a thorough analysis of the economic viability and financial feasibility of establishing turmeric processing units to empower stakeholders and foster agricultural advancement in the study area. The study was conducted in Chamarajanagar district of Karnataka, by collecting primary data on establishment and annual processing costs and secondary data on market prices of turmeric rhizome and powder. Financial feasibility analysis revealed positive Net Present Value (NPV) of ₹1,714.36 lakh and ₹623.56 lakh, Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 2.37 and 1.76, Internal Rate of Returns (IRR) of 76 and 57 per cent at current and constant market prices, respectively. The findings showed that the establishment of turmeric processing units are both economically viable and financially feasible. Emphasizing this potential through extension systems can empower farmers to maximize benefits through mechanized value addition. These insights provide valuable guidance for entrepreneurs, Farmers Producers Organizations, Self Help Groups and cooperatives facilitating informed decisions on establishing small-scale turmeric processing units.</p> Navyashree, B. M. K. B. Vedamurthy Vaishnavi Venkataramana, M. N. Ujjwal, B. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 6 59 66 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62021 A Study on the Psychological Impact of Covid-19 on Farmers https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2023 <p>With the implementation of total lockdown of the nation in response to the COVID-19 pandemic by the government, it had unintended but detrimental effects on farmers and supply chains for agricultural commodities, which aggravated the farmers problems and disturbed them psychologically. Hence the study was undertaken to assess the Psychological, societal and economic impact of COVID-19 on farmers. The study was conducted using Ex-post facto research design in Raichur and Kadapa districts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Based on the diversity of crops grown and land type possessed by farmers, 9 taluks with 12 villages and 15 farmers from each village were selected, thus sample size of 180 was taken. A scale was developed to measure the psychological impact of farmers using 8 components and data was collected. The results indicated that, (38.89%) of the irrigated land farmers faced high psychological impact, followed by (35.56%) and (25.56%) farmers faced medium and low psychological impact. Among the dry land farmers, (38.89%) were under medium impact, followed by (32.22%) and (28.89%) facing low and high psychological impact. The overall impact on all the farmers showed that (37.78%) were belonged to medium psychological impact, while (33.89%) and (28.33%) faced high and low impact respectively.</p> C. Vaishnavi Shivanand K. Kammar S. B. Goudappa Vijaya B. Wali Prashanth. B Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 6 87 94 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62023 Corporate Governance and Challenges of Financial Leverage of Privatised Cement Industry in Nigeria https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2024 <p>The paper studies new corporate governance and the challenges of financial Leverage of privatised cement industry in Nigeria. The variables studied were leverage ratio as Performance proxy (dependent variables) and fourteen Corporate Governance proxies as independent variables. Data was collected from secondary sources, and the statistical tools employed in the Methodology were Trend Analysis and Pooled OLS regressions. Trend Analysis result suggests that;Devaluation, high cost of importation, insufficient power supply, bank strike, and deflation of global oil prices created capacity underutilization in cement industry and severe burden of financial leverage to sustain operational activities pre privatization. The result also, reveals that, the leverage ratio remarkably declined post privatization, however, the global financial crisis of 2009 inflicted high cost of production on the industry which necessitated increased leverage in order to cushion the effects on operational activities. Inferential Statistics Result suggests that corporate governance has positive and significant impact on the leverage ratio of the industry in general. The study concludes that, despite the challenges of unfavourable macroeconomic environment, the new corporate governance reduced the leverage ratio post privatisation and it has positive and significant impact on the financial leverage of the Cement Industry. The researcher recommends that Nigerian government should ensure favourable macroeconomic environment and improve private sector activities. Collectively, the new Corporate Governance of Cement Industry should strategize on how to; Increase Revenue, profitability, better management of inventory, and restructuring of debt to mitigate increased leverage.</p> Bappayo Masu Gombe Mustapha Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 6 95 106 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62024 Understanding the Sustainability and Growth Dynamics of Shrimp Aquaculture in Odisha, India: A Decomposition Approach https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2025 <p>In this paper, we examine the growth and decomposition trends of the area, production, and yield of the shrimp aquaculture sector in Odisha. We use annual time series data for the period 2010–11 to 2022–23, and with the help of exponential function, we evaluate growth rate and trend. CV and CDVI were used to analyze production instability. Minha’s decomposition model was used to evaluate the contributions of area and yield to change in farm production. Our findings show a commendably high compound growth rate of 11.55 per cent for area, 26.12 per cent for production, and 13.06 per cent for yield. The instability index, CV and CDVI of the area are low. The influence of the area, yield, and interaction effects accounted for 26.35 per cent, 22.18 per cent, and 51.47 per cent, respectively, of shrimp production. The analysis of decomposition and area effect stresses the need to understand shrimp production dynamics in Odisha. Monitoring land use patterns and markets and promoting research and innovation is not only securing sustainability, nutritional security, and employment but also the economic development of the state.</p> Pritam Tripathy Swadesh Prakash Sivaramane, N. Neha W. Qureshi Arpita Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 30 6 107 116 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62025 Enhancing Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield and Zn Content with Zn Application through Seed, Soil and Foliar Methods https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2026 <p>During <em>Kharif</em> 2022, an experiment was conducted at Student’s Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab by using a split plot design with three replications of each of the 16 treatments. In comparison to control, main plots with seed inoculation with <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and soil application of ZnSO4 @ 16.25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (S<sub>3</sub>) showed significantly greater yield and quality parameters. In case of sub plot treatments, similar results were seen with foliar spray of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> at 45 + 75 DAS (F<sub>3</sub>).</p> Kiranpreet Kaur Gurbax Singh Chhina Mandeep Kaur Amritpal Kaur Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 30 6 117 126 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62026 Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model with Genetic Algorithm to Forecast the Chilli and Turmeric Productions in India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2027 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> India holds the distinction of being the foremost producer of spices globally and has been long-run history in spice export. The quantity of Indian spice exports increased by 37% with $ 4.1 billion worth in 2021. With that, dried chilli, cumin, and turmeric alone contributed 44% of export value ($ 1.8 billion). Forecasting the production of major spices are key for exports and plays an essential role in supporting and achieving the target of $10 billion in exports by 2027.</p> <p><strong>Data Source: </strong>The time series data of chilli and turmeric production data in India from 1970-2020 periods was collected from Indiastat.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The present study sought to forecast the production of chilli and turmeric in India using the ARIMA model and their parameters are estimated by stochastic optimization techniques (genetic algorithm). The parameters are estimated by minimizing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). Finally, ARIMA and ARIMA_GA models were compared based on their predictive ability.</p> <p><strong>Results: The</strong> Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) were 254.01,11.32 (chilli) and 185.73, 15.24 (turmeric) for testing set of ARIMA_GA model which is lower than the fitted ARIMA model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This work has shown that ARIMA_GA (2,1,1) has been the best model to forecast the chilli and turmeric production in India. ARIMA_GA model will cope with parsimony and convergence of likelihood function to global optimum problems. Therefore ARIMA with GA will able to model the complexity and uncertainty of the data.</p> Elakkiya N Banjul Bhattacharyya Sathees Kumar K Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 30 6 127 135 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62027 Growth and Yield of Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) as Influenced by Different Coloured Plastic Mulches in the Tarai Region of Uttarakhand https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2029 <p>Summer squash is a short-duration vegetable crop with off-season nature and high economic returns per unit area. However, the early crop growth season encounters a number of abiotic stresses like low temperature and frost, which adversely affect the marketable yield and quality of the fruits. This dependency on natural factors restricts the scope of its profitable cultivation, thereby making it necessary to bring more area under protected cultivation. Coloured plastic mulches are an important component of protected cultivation, which are designed to modify the microclimate at the plant and soil levels so as to increase crop production and productivity, as well as quality of the produce, to meet the demands of the consumers. Keeping these considerations in view, the present field investigation was conducted at the Vegetable Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) during the rabi season of 2019-20 to study the effect of different coloured plastic mulches on the growth and yield of summer squash (<em>Cucurbita pepo</em> L.). The experiment comprised nine treatments (bi-coloured plastic mulches) replicated thrice in a randomised block design. Results revealed that use of different coloured plastic films significantly influenced the growth and yield parameters of summer squash. Red coloured plastic mulch (V<sub>1</sub>) recorded the maximum values for fruit length (30.78 cm), fruit yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (1975.8 g), fruit yield plot<sup>-1</sup> (39.51 kg) and total marketable fruit yield (365.52 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), while biodegradable film of silver-black colour (V<sub>7</sub>) and black plastic mulch (V<sub>4</sub>) recorded the maximum plant height (cm) and plant spread (cm), respectively. The maximum diameter of the fruit (110.13 mm) was recorded under black coloured plastic mulch. Considering the prevalent climatic conditions of the <em>tarai</em> region of Uttarakhand, red coloured plastic mulch can be recommended for commercial cultivation of summer squash for obtaining higher fruit yields.</p> Vatsala Tewari Swagat Ranjan Behera Riya Pandey Priyanka Panwar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 30 6 157 164 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62029 Impact Assessment of Integrated Farming System Project on the Socio-economic Status of the Beneficiary Farmers of Bidar District of Karnataka https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2030 <p>Integrated farming system (IFS) is recognized as the best solution to the farmers for providing income assurance and nutritional security to the farmers particularly for the small and marginal farmers with limited resources. Looking into the importance of the Integrated farming system, Government of Karnataka has implemented the IFS project to the farming communities of different districts coming under the jurisdictions of the University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot from the financial supports of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). Hence, the present study at College of Horticulture, Bidar was undertaken as one of the project implemented campus of the University for assessing impact of IFS Phase II on the beneficiary farmers of Bidar district. Initially, this project has created awareness about the IFS project among the selected beneficiaries through training programmes and then distributed the farm inputs like vegetable seeds, field crop seeds, vegetable seedlings, fruit grafts, nutrient specials, bio-fertilizers, and farm implements like battery operated sprayers, seedling planters and cycle weeders. The study found that, before implantation of the project, the farmers in the Bidar districts were generally growing Redgram with intercropping of Greengram/ Blackgram/Jowar/Soyabean and sugarcane crop, after implantation of the IFS project, there was a change in crops cultivation to the horticultural crops. The farmers who had received the benefits of seeds/seedlings and the technical information at free of cost for the cultivation of the horticultural crops, it was observed that, papaya crops growers were realised higher net profits of Rs. 1,10,988 per acre with the B:C ratio of 1.45, followed by the farmers of marigold crop (Rs. 1,01,881/acre), watermelon (Rs. 84459/acre), onion (Rs. 72,938/acre), chilli (Rs. 49,023/ acre) and Brinjal (Rs. 39,801/acre). Further, it was found that, the use of farm machineries like sprayers, farmers reduced the cost and time requirment of labour for spraying of pesticides. Similarly, famers used cycle weeders have opined that, for weeding men and women labours requiremnt was reduced to the tune of 12 to 15 days/ acre for men labours and 8-9 man days/acre for women labour and the use of Vegetable Handy Planter resulted in reduction labour and time requirment in planting of seedlings to the tune of 40 to 50 per cent of time duration. Hence, in overall, the IFS project interventions have benefited the farmers economically for minimizing the cost of production through availing the inputs at free of cost and also helps them for realizing the higher income from adoption of the best technologies given through the university.</p> Ganeshagouda I. Patil Srinivas N. Dhananjaya P. Shashikala Ruli Kadli Veeresh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 30 6 165 176 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62030 Integrated Crop Management Practices on Yield and Economics of Brinjal at Tiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2031 <p>The present study highlights the Integrated crop management in brinjalfor their yield and economics. A field experiments was in tiruvallur district of ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra during 2017-2018. The implementation of scientific technology through optimal resource utilization is the primary driver for horticulture's development. Due to a lack of acceptance of cutting-edge technologies, low production is one of the main obstacles facing conventional brinjal cultivation. Frontline demonstration's primary goals were to persuade farmers to adopt brinjal production technologies in order to facilitate the wider spread of newly released crop production, protection, and management practices in their fields and farming situations, as well as to demonstrate these technologies in action. To increase the production, productivity and quality of agricultural produce, front line demonstrations are being conducted at various farmer’s field. There was significantly increased in brinjal yield (36.7 per cent), net return and B:C ratio after conduct of frontline demonstrations as compared to farmers practice. The adoption and implementation of integrated crop management practices through FLD programme, showed positive impact on brinjal growth, yield and economics.</p> <p>Demonstration plot recorded higher technology gap (22.0 t/ha), extension gap (6.0 t/ha) and technology index (36.6 per cent), compare to local variety and also showed high percentage yield increase over farmer’s practice and recorded 20 per cent increase yield means technology was accepted by the farmers.As a result, 50 farmers initiated the small scale farming of brinjal in the district with the technical guidance provided from ICAR-KVK, Tirur, Tiruvallur. Therefore, a study on effect of integrated crop management practices on yield and economics of Brinjal in Tiruvallur district of tamilnadu was conducted during 2017-18.</p> G. Sathish K. Sundharaiya C. Tamilselvi V.A. Vijayashanthi P. Yogameenakshi P.Arul Arasu V. Sivakumar I. Geethalakshmi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 30 6 177 182 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62031 Study on the Challenges Encountered by Eri Silkworm Rearers in Tapioca Cultivation and Eri Rearing in Udalguri District of Assam https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2032 <p>Sericulture, specifically eri silk production, plays a crucial role in sustainable rural development and employment generation. This study investigated the constraints faced tapioca cultivation and eri rearing in Udalguri district, Assam. Primary data were collected from 120 respondents through a snowball sampling technique. The rearers encountered personal, social, land utilization, rearing, managerial, economic, marketing, transportation, and institutional challenges. Notable issues included lack of formal education, high labour wages, land scarcity, inadequate rearing facilities, limited knowledge on scientific practices, insufficient capital, price fluctuations, poor marketing infrastructure, transportation costs, and lack of need-based training. The respondents suggested interventions such as government support for infrastructure and equipment, need-based training, formation of cooperatives, effective marketing channels, financial assistance, value-added product training, community rearing centers, land allocation, and extensive plantation of secondary feed plants. Addressing these constraints through targeted strategies is essential for fostering the long-term sustainability of eri silk production and enhancing the socio-economic status of rearers.</p> Jugabrat Sarma Dipankar Brahma Prety Rekha Narzary Abhigyan Rajkhowa Santanu Kaushik Bora Dhiraj Saikia Bitopan Das Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-27 2024-04-27 30 6 183 190 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62032 Studies on Physico-chemical and Sensory Aspects of Guava Lassi https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2034 <p>The present investigation entitled “Preparation of cow milk lassi blended with guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em>) pulp” was conducted at Section of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Nagpur. An effort was made to find out the optimum level of guava pulp in the preparation of lassi, with main objectives to evaluate the product by sensory evaluation, determination of physico-chemical composition and to calculate cost of production. Some of the finding emerged from the present investigation are summarized as follows. In view of above objective present study was carried out with five treatments including control T<sub>1</sub> and lassi prepared from cow milk with different level of guava pulp i.e. 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 % in treatment T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5</sub>, respectively. From the investigation it was observed that, the mean score of flavour of lassi in treatment T<sub>4</sub> was highest (8.50) and lowest in T<sub>5</sub> (5.50). The average score for colour and appearance of lassi was highest in T<sub>4</sub> (8.50) and lowest in T<sub>5</sub> (5.75). The average score for body and texture of lassi was highest in T<sub>4</sub> (8.50) and lowest in T<sub>5</sub> (5.25). The sensory evaluation for (overall acceptability) carried out by the judges, showed that lassi prepared by blending with 15 part of guava pulp (T<sub>4</sub>)8.50 as most acceptable treatment. This superiority was found due to addition of 15 percent of guava pulp.</p> Mamta P. Girguse Bhavana R. Wankhade V.G. Atkare A.B. Motghare Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-29 2024-04-29 30 6 208 213 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62034 Growth and Export Performance of Pineapple from India: An Economic Analysis https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2037 <p>The present study was undertaken to know the growth and export performance of pineapple. Pineapple (<em>Ananas Comosus</em>) is a tropical fruit belonging to the Bromeliaceae family, and it is commercially cultivated worldwide as a high-value crop. India is the sixth largest producer in the world. The objective of the study was to elucidate the growth and export performance of the Pineapple from India.The secondary data for analysis was collected from AGMARKNET, National Horticultural Board (NHB) and Agricultural and Processed Food products Export Development (APEDA). The results of the growth rate revealed a positive and increasing trend in pineapple exports from India during the study period, with an annual growth rate of 9.78 percent in quantity and 6.39 percent in value, which is significant at a five percent level of probability. The results of the Cuddy Della Valle index indicated that pineapple exports from India exhibit moderate instability, with values of 17.17 and 19.90 percent in quantity and value terms, respectively. It reveals that the average Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) value for pineapple was 0.53, indicating a moderate level of export competitiveness. Throughout the entire period, it is evident that India did not demonstrate competitiveness in pineapple exports, as indicated by the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA) values consistently being below unity and the Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) values being negative. The direction of the Indian pineapple trade was conducted using the Markov chain framework. Among the major importers, the United Arab Emirates stood out as one of the most stable markets with a high probability of retention at 0.624. Overall, Indian pineapple stands out as a reliable and competitive player in the global market, with a strong performance and potential for growth. Therefore, efforts should be focused on enhancing the quantity of exports while ensuring they meet the quality standards and align with the consumer preferences of other countries.</p> Akshatha S M. N. Venkataramana Nandini H. M. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 30 6 235 244 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62037 Prevalence of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Horticultural Fields of Assam Agricultural University: Jorhat Campus, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2038 <p>A random survey of the horticultural crops was conducted to assess the nematode community structure in the Experimental field of Department of Horticulture, AAU, Jorhat during Rabi and Kharif season, 2022-2023. Soil and root samples, representing 200 locations were examined. Analysis of 200 soil and root samples collected from the root rhizosphere of different vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops showed the presence of root-knot nematode(<em>Meloidogyne incognita),</em> reniform nematode (<em>Rotylenchulus reniformis</em>), root-lesion nematode (<em>Pratylenchus</em> spp.), lance nematode (<em>Hoplolaimus</em> spp.), spiral nematode (<em>Helicotylenchus </em>spp.), stunt nematode (<em>Tylenchorhynchus </em>spp.) along with <em>Criconema</em> spp., <em>Xiphinema</em> spp, <em>Longidorus</em> spp., free-living nematodes, mycophagous nematodes and predatory nematodes. Among all the isolated plant-parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematode (<em>Meloidogyne incognita</em>) was found to be more abundant with prominence value of 136.7, 81.3 and 76.3 in vegetable crops, fruit crops and ornamental crops, followed by <em>Helicotylenchus</em> spp. and <em>Rotylenchulus reniformis</em>. The prominence value of reniform nematode (<em>Rotylenchulus reniformis</em>) was found to be 90.5, 54.1 and 54.1 in vegetable crops, fruit crops and ornamental plants respectively.</p> Prerana Bhuyan Gitanjali Devi Reecha T Das Sailen Gogoi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 30 6 245 251 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62038 Effect of Nutrition Health and Hygiene Education on Knowledge Attitude and Practices KAP among Selected Transgender Community https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2039 <p>The Transgender (TG) community has been steadily growing over the decades, yet they face a unique set of challenges. Apart from communicable diseases many transgenders suffer from nutrition deficiency associated non communicable diseases, which decreases the quality of living. The purpose of this study was to examine how nutritional, health and hygiene education influences the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the TG population. The participants were TG individuals over 18 years old. TG individuals visiting ESI hospital Gulbarga and few TG from Bengaluru city were selected for the research. A total of 300 TG individuals were initially screened, out of which 120 were selected for the study. The study comprised administering a detailed socio-economic demographic questionnaire, pre-KAP questionnaire, conducting an awareness program with distribution of education material, and then having a gap period of 60 days a post-KAP assessment was done. The results were statistically analysed, before the awareness session (Group I), the majority of participants (60.83%) were categorized as having "Poor" knowledge, only (7.5%) had "Good" knowledge, after the awareness session (Group II), there was a significant improvement in knowledge levels. The percentage of participants with "Poor" knowledge decreased drastically to only 1.67%, with "Good" knowledge increased to 36.67%. Before the awareness session (Group I), the majority of TG participants (66.67%) held "Unfavourable" attitudes, a smaller percentage (24.17%) held "Neutral" attitudes, the least common attitude was "Favourable," held by 9.17% of participants. After the awareness session (Group II), there was a noticeable shift in attitudes. The percentage of participants with "Unfavourable" attitudes decreased dramatically to only 2.50%, with "Neutral" attitudes increased substantially to 67.50%, similarly, with "Favourable" attitudes increased to 30.00%. Before the intervention (Group I), the majority of participants (70.83%) exhibited "Poor" practices. After the intervention (Group II), "Poor" practices decreased to 7.50%, with "Average" practices increased substantially to 65.83%, similarly, with "Good" practices increased to 26.67%. Rank correlation between pre and post KAP and socioeconomic domains had significant association These findings suggest that educational qualification, family size, facilities available, are important factors associated with knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the subject under study.</p> Vijetha B V Usha Ravindra Yogeesh K J Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 30 6 252 262 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62039 Productivity and Economics of Hydroponic Fodders as Influenced by Harvesting Time https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2040 <p>An investigation was conducted at Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Science University, Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola to study the Productivity and economics of hydroponic fodders as influenced by harvesting time at Department of Agronomy.</p> <p>The investigation was carried out in a factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with three replicas. The study consisted of four different times of harvest (9<sup>th</sup>, 11<sup>th</sup>, 13<sup>th</sup> and 15<sup>th</sup> days of harvesting) and two fodder crops (maize and cowpea). The results revealed that the higher green fodder yield (26.64 kgm<sup>-2</sup>) and dry matter yield (3.06 kgm<sup>-2</sup>) were recorded on the 15<sup>th</sup> day of harvesting in fodder crop Cowpea, whereas lower green fodder yield (18.58 kgm<sup>-2</sup>) and dry matter yield (2.28 kgm<sup>-2</sup>) were recorded on the 9<sup>th</sup> day of harvesting in Maize. In terms of economics, the 15<sup>th</sup> day of harvesting has recorded a higher gross monetary return, net monetary return, and benefit-cost ratio in Cowpea.</p> Ayesha Ashique A.B. Chorey M.M. Ganvir V. Chaitanya Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-01 2024-05-01 30 6 263 267 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62040 Morphological and Cultural Characterization of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc on Chickpea and Its Management Using Combined Fungicide Molecules https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2041 <p>Collar rot stands as a significant affliction of chickpea, attributed to the pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. The current research investigated the morphological and cultural diversity among 10 isolates of <em>S. rolfsii</em> collected from major chickpea cultivation regions of Karnataka by assessing their growth rate, colony color and appearance, and features of Sclerotium including color, arrangement, and maturity days of Sclerotia were recored on two different media. The isolates BSR 2, BSR 5, BRS 9 and BSR 10 exhibited notably rapid growth on both Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Corn meal Agar (CMA). Overall, the growth of these isolates appeared denser, indicating more substantial mycelial formation on PDA compared to CMA. These findings underscore the existence of variability among the isolates. In vitro evaluation of fungicides for the management of collar rot was evaluated using new combi fungicides. Among those Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% (0.15%), Hexaconazole 4% WP + Zineb 68%, Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5 %, Tricyclazole18 % + Mancozeb 62% WP, Captan 70% + Hexaconazole 5% WP at 0.05 per cent concentration showed cent per cent inhibition. Hence, these combi fungicides have been proven effective in suppressing the pathogen, making them valuable tools for implementing successful disease management strategies during the initial stages of crop growth.</p> Divyashree C. P. Manjula Jayashree Anandakumar G. Punith K. Anusree J. Harish Lakshmeesha R Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 30 6 268 276 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62041 Effect of Foxtail Millet Cultivars on Yield and Yield Attributes under Different Sowing Windows https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2043 <p>The investigation conducted at the Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Pune, during the <em>Kharif</em> season of 2022 focused on the "Effect of foxtail millet cultivars on yield and yield attributes under different sowing windows." The study employed a split-plot design with sixteen treatments and three replications, involving four sowing dates (26 MW, 28 MW, 30 MW, and 32 MW) and four foxtail millet varieties (SiA 3156, SiA 3085, Suryanandi, and Renadu). The soil, a clay loam with slightly alkaline pH, low nitrogen, medium phosphorus, and high potassium levels, received RDF 60:30:30 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup> at sowing. The investigation monitored various growth parameters, including plant height, number of tillers, number of functional leaves, and dry matter accumulation, at different growth stages. The study revealed that early sowing at 26 MW significantly influenced plant height, number of tillers, and dry matter production, favoring greater vegetative growth. The Renadu variety consistently exhibited superior performance in plant height, tiller count, and dry matter accumulation compared to other varieties. Days to 50% flowering and maturity were significantly affected by both sowing dates and varieties, with early-sown crops taking more days to reach these stages. Grain yield, straw yield, and harvest index were influenced by sowing dates and varieties, with the combination of the Renadu variety and 26 MW sowing exhibiting the highest grain yield and straw yield. Renadu also displayed a superior harvest index, emphasizing its suitability for optimal growth and yield. The study recommends sowing foxtail millet on 26 MW or 28 MW, particularly with the Renadu variety, for achieving maximum growth and yield during the Kharif season. The findings highlight the significance of considering both sowing windows and foxtail millet varieties to optimize production in the given agro-climatic conditions of Pune, Maharashtra.</p> Sanyukta Pannase S. V. Bagade D. A. Sonawane Pranay A Sondawale Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-04 2024-05-04 30 6 277 288 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62043 Exploring the Role of Active Photosynthetic Pigments in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Crop Growth Process https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2044 <p>Photosynthesis is a necessary process for plants during which light energy is absorbed via pigments present in leaves for essential processes and needs of the particular plant. This work identified and studied the active photosynthetic pigments in tomato crop (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>) at each growth stage and grown in an open field under Sahelian conditions. Phytochemical screening, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography analyses were done on tomatoes leaves samples. The results, first, revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as triterpenoids and carotenoids. Then, UV spectra combined with FTIR and thin layer chromatography showed that chlorophylls (a and b), xanthophyll (lutein) and carotene (mostly β) are being synthesized at different proportions during all growth stages. Besides, the photosynthetic pigments showed more activity during the flowering stage than at the other growth stages. The various action spectra showed intense absorption within the intervals 400 – 510 nm and 560 – 710 nm which seem to be vital radiation ranges for photosynthesis.&nbsp; Knowing these optimum plant’s needs can help in a choice of better outdoor and indoor cultivation conditions that can ensure necessary radiations for optimum plant growth.</p> Alio Sanda M. Djibrilla Koraou N. Abdourahimou Samna Mainassara Issa Hassane Adamou Ayouba M. Abdoulkadri Karimoun M. Illyassou Atto H. Abdoulkader Drame Yaye Aissetou Adamou Rabani Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-04 2024-05-04 30 6 289 301 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62044 Impact of Organic and Natural Farming Practices on Growth, Yield Attributes and Yield of Joha Rice https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2045 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of the experiment was to study the impact of organic and natural farming practices on the growth, yield attributes and yield of <em>Bokul Joha</em> variety of rice</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experiment was laid in a randomized block design with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Assam Agricultural University-Assam Rice Research Institute, Titabar, Assam, India, during the kharif season of 2022-2023</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The number of treatments used were eight in total including control which were T<sub>1</sub> [Absolute control], T<sub>2</sub> [(Natural farming, Beejamrit as root dip treatment (3%) (100 L ha<sup>-1</sup>) + Jeevamrit as spray (3%) (100 L ha<sup>-1</sup>) + Ghanajeevamrit as soil treatment at 100 kg (Jeevamrit and Ghanajeevamrit at 30, 60 and 90 DAT)], T<sub>3</sub> [(Enriched compost (5 tha-1) + Biofertilizer (<em>Azospirillum</em>, PSB as seedling root dip) (4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>)], T<sub>4</sub> [Enriched compost (5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>)], T<sub>5</sub> [Vermicompost (5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>)], T<sub>6</sub> [Enriched compost (2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) + Vermicompost (2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>)], T<sub>7</sub> [Fresh azolla as dual crop (400 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) + Biofertilizers (<em>Azospirillum</em>, PSB and KSB mix as seedling root dip) (4 kgha<sup>-1</sup>)] and T<sub>8</sub> [Vermicompost (1 tha<sup>-1</sup>), mixed inocula of <em>Azospirillum amazonense</em> A-10 and <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> P-5 (4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), rock phosphate (10 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup>)]. The experiment was laid in a randomized block design with three replications. Where T= Treatment, PSB = Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria, KSB=Potassium Solubilizing Bacteria, DAT = Days After Transplanting and NF=Natural Farming. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Plants that were noticeably taller were observed with treatment T<sub>8</sub>: application of vermicompost (1 tha<sup>-1</sup>), mixed inocula of <em>Azospirillum amazonense</em> A-10 and <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> P-5 (4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), rock phosphate (10 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) i.e., at 45 DAT (81.78 cm),90 DAT (128.15 cm) and at harvest (145.71 cm). The same treatment recorded the highest no. of tillers 45 DAT (8.31m<sup>-2</sup>), at 90 DAT (13.79 m<sup>-2</sup>) and at harvest (10.40 m<sup>-2</sup>). Also, dry weight was noted to be highest for the same treatment, at 45 DAT (29.34 g plant<sup>-1</sup>), 90 DAT (79.11 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and at harvest (92.29 g plant<sup>-1</sup>). Additionally, the same treatment resulted in highest grain (34.62 qha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw (70.30 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) yield.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Combined application of vermicompost (1 t/ha) along with inocula of <em>Azospirillum amazonense</em> A-10 and <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> P-5 (4kg/ha) and rock phosphate (10 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) can be used as a suitable treatment for attaining higher growth, yield attributes and yield in <em>Bokul Joha</em> variety of rice.</p> Saurav Kumar Dutta Hridesh Harsha Sarma Ranjit Kumar Saud Milon Jyoti Konwar Bhabesh Gogoi Supahi Mahanta Kalyan Pathak Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-04 2024-05-04 30 6 302 309 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62045 Studies on Nutrient uptake, Nutrient use Efficiency and Water Productivity of Drip Irrigated Ratoon Sugarcane as Influenced by Water Soluble Fertilizers https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2047 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V.C. Farm, Mandya during 2020-21 to study the Nutrient content and Uptake of Drip irrigated Ratoon Sugarcane as influenced by water soluble fertilizers. The experimental site was red sandy loam soil with neutral pH, normal electrical conductivity, medium organic carbon, low available nitrogen, medium phosphorus and potassium content. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications comprising seven treatments with VCF-0517 sugarcane variety. The results revealed that application of 150 per cent RDF through WSF (325.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, 46.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, 338.4 K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) recorded significantly higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake compared to 100 per cent RDF through WSF (287.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, 37.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, 282.6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> K<sub>2</sub>O) and 75 per cent RDF through WSF (269.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, 33.4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, 253.6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> K<sub>2</sub>O). Application of WSF at 75 per cent RDF resulted in greater NUE in case of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (348.3 kg kg<sup>-1</sup>, 870.7 kg kg<sup>-1</sup> and 696.5 kg kg<sup>-1 </sup>respectively) when compared with other fertigation levels and conventional fertilizer application.</p> Annappa N. N. M. A. Ananthakumar M. N. Thimmegowda G. G. Kadalli Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 30 6 322 332 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62047 Physiological Changes in Nickel-exposed Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus during Exposure and Recovery Periods https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2048 <p>Heavy metals are a significant problem in aquatic ecosystems as they are toxic and tend to accumulate, immediately affecting fish physiology. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-lethality of Nickel chloride on fingerlings of Nile tilapia, <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> on long-term exposure to it is below safe concentrations1/fifth (9.39 ppm) and 1/10th (4.69 ppm). The physiological studies revealed a significant reduction in Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR), Ammonia-N Excretion Rate (AER), Oxygen Rate (O: R) and Food Consumption Rate (FCR) and behavioural changes during accumulation and depuration phases. Limited recovery was obtained in all the physiological parameters after depuration for 28 days from the end of the accumulation period.</p> K. U., Sheethal Prakash Nadoor S. R. Somashekara U. A. Suryawanshi K. R. Amogha P. A. Telvekar S. T. Shelke J. G. K. Pathan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 30 6 333 340 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62048 Assessment of Biochemical Parameters and Yield Performance in Rice under Different Crop Establishment Methods https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2049 <p>Rice <em>(Oryza sativa L.)</em>, a staple food for half of the global population, is cultivated using various methods, with transplanting being conventional in many Asian countries. However, challenges such as high-water consumption, labour intensiveness, and environmental degradation have prompted the exploration of alternative methods. In this study, we assessed the impact of various crop establishment methods (CE) i.e. conventional puddled transplanting, direct drill seeding on flatbed (DSR), and direct seeding on raised beds (FIRB) on five stress-tolerant rice varieties (V) i.e. DRR 42, DRR 44, Sukha Dhan 5, Sukha Dhan 6 and Sarjoo 52 by analysing biochemical parameters i.e. total sugar content, starch content, MDA content, SOD content and yield outcomes. Our findings reveal significant variations in biochemical parameters and yield across different CE and V combinations. Notably, FIRB consistently outperformed other CEs, indicating its potential for enhancing stress tolerance and yield. Similarly, DRR 44 exhibited superior performance across most growth stages. Our study highlights the potential advantages of FIRB method in mitigating water wastage and addressing the limitations of conventional transplanting practices.</p> Deepti Tiwari Manoj Kumar Patel Payal Priyadarsini Ankita Shatakashi Mishra Vijai P. UP Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 30 6 341 351 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62049 Differential Expression of Restorer Gene on Different Nuclear Background with Maldandi cytoplasm in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2051 <p>To investigate the expression of restorer gene on different nuclear background an experiment was carried out using six iso-plasmic male sterile lines with maldandi cytoplasm, and each having different nuclear background. These lines were hybridized with a strong and stable restorer to generate six iso-plasmic hybrids at Main Agricultural Research Station (MARS), UAS Dharwad during rabi -2020-21. These hybrids were then evaluated for pollen fertility and seed set percentage during rabi -2021-22. The results found that, pollen fertility percentage of six iso-plasmic hybrids ranged from 69.82 per cent for ICSA 88004 A4 (M) × DSMR 8 to 92.42 per cent for M31-2A (M) × DSMR 8. Similarly, for seed set percentage M31-2A (M) × DSMR 8 and ICSA 88004 A4 (M) × DSMR 8 exhibited highest (85.17 per cent) and lowest (61.19 per cent), respectively. All the six iso-plasmic hybrids had varied expression for pollen fertility and seed set percentage which suggests that the restorer gene expressed differentially in different nuclear genome of female parent. The probable reasons for variation in fertility restoration behaviour are, abundance of inhibitors in the female parent or variation in the expressivity of restorer gene or influence of minor or modifier genes in the restorer parent or interaction between nuclear genes of both the parents.</p> Pavan Kumar N B. D. Biradar N G Hanamaratti Nethra P Prashant Kariyannanavar Revannasiddayya Prajwal R S Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 30 6 365 372 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62051 Decadal Performance of Major Kharif Pulse Crops in Madhya Pradesh: In Context of Growth, Decomposition and Instability Analysis https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2052 <p>The study purpose examined the growth, decomposition and instability of major kharif pulses i. e. pigeon pea, green gram and black gram in Madhya Pradesh. The study was based on secondary data. The data of area, production, and productivity of selected pulse crops have been taken for 30 years from 1992-93 to 2021-22. The study period was divided into four periods i.e. period-I (1992-93 to 2001-02), period-II (2002-03 to 2011-12), period- III (2012-13 to 2021-22) and overall period (1992-93 to 2021-22). Three different analyses had been carried out in the study viz. (a) Compound annual growth rates, (b) Decomposition analysis and (c) Instability analysis. It was revealed from the outcomes that during the entire study period, a mixed growth pattern was observed in the area, production and productivity of pigeon pea and green gram while significant and positive growth was noticed in area, production and productivity of black gram with the magnitude of 4.31, 6.19 and 1.80 percent, respectively in Madhya Pradesh. During overall study period, area expansion was major instrument to increase the production of pigeon pea and black gram. The highest variability was noticed production of all selected crops during period – I, II, III and entire study period.</p> Harkesh Kumar Balai Kailash Chand Bairwa Sanjiv Kumar P. C. Meena Sarita Meena Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 30 6 373 384 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62052 Cereal Commerce: An Indian Trade Scenario at HS 4 Digit Level https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2053 <p>India's cereal trade landscape is a complex interplay of production, export, and import dynamics, reflecting both domestic priorities and global market demands. Despite historical export restrictions on staples like wheat and rice, recent policy shifts have positioned India as a pivotal player in global cereal commerce. The present study aims to understand the Indian cereal production and trade significance at HS 4-digit level. Notably the results indicated that, India's cereal production has exhibited steady growth, with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 0.044 per cent over the years. This growth trajectory, coupled with fluctuations in India's share of world cereal production (hovering around 10-11 %), underscores the country's consistent contribution to the global market. In terms of export composition, rice stands out as the dominant commodity, comprising a significant 76.42 per cent share of the total exported value, followed by wheat and maize. On the import front, India shows a strategic reliance on specific cereals like barley, oats, and maize, which collectively constitute over 90 per cent of the imported cereal value. This import pattern reflects targeted procurement strategies based on market needs and domestic consumption patterns. Examining trade partnerships, the United States emerges as a key exporter, while China features prominently as a significant importer of cereals. Other notable exporters include Argentina, Brazil, and Australia, contributing to a diverse distribution of cereal trade globally. The results imply that understanding product groups in specific can enhance the trade performance of any country. This diversity in trade partnerships highlights India's adaptability and its ability to navigate complex international markets. Overall, India's cereal trade dynamics demonstrate a blend of strategic production growth, export prioritization, and targeted import strategies, showcasing its pivotal role and significance in the global cereals market.</p> Priyanka, V. K. B. Vedamurthy Yashavantagouda, S. Patil. Naresh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 30 6 385 391 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62053 Deciphering the Traits Association and Path Coefficient Analysis among Yield Attributing Traits of Snap Melon (Cucumis melo var. momordica) Genotypes https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2054 <p>An investigation was carried out at the University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka, during the Rabi season of 2021. The experiment employed a randomized complete block design with two replications and aimed to assess twenty-five snap melon genotypes alongside three check varieties, sourced from various regions in India. Seventeen yield-related traits were observed for each genotype, and the mean data was utilized for subsequent analysis. The study on trait associations revealed that genotypic correlations exhibited higher values compared to their respective phenotypic counterparts, indicating stronger, consistent correlations independent of environmental factors. Notably, yield plant<sup>-1</sup> exhibited positive and significant correlations with vine length, number of fruits vine<sup>-1</sup>, fruit weight, length of fruit, fruit circumference, and flesh thickness at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Path coefficient analysis unveiled that the total number of fruits plant<sup>-1 </sup>and average fruit weight exerted positive direct effects on yield plant<sup>-1</sup>. Consequently, the study suggests that selection based on traits such as number of fruits<sup>-1</sup> plant and average fruit weight would be effective for enhancing yield in snap melon.</p> Shrilatha K A I. B. Biradar Satish D H. P. Hadimani R. S. Jawadagi Nayana K R Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 6 392 399 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62054 Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides and their Combinations against Okra Shoot and Fruit Borer, Earias vitella (Fabricius) https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2055 <p>The research was conducted on okra crop to check the efficacy of some insecticides and their combinations against okra shoot and fruit borer, <em>Earias vittella</em> (Fab.). The study was carried out during <em>kharif</em> 2023 at Central Research Farm of Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) with eight treatments including untreated check which were replicated thrice. All the treatments were found to be superior over untreated control, neem oil 3%, spinosad 45 SC, cypermethrin 25 EC, profenophos 50 EC, spinosad 45SC + neem oil 3%, cypermethrin 25EC + neem oil 3%<sub>, </sub>profenofos 50 EC + cypermethrin 25 EC were tested to compare the efficacy against <em>Earias vitella</em> and their influences on yield of okra. Here the best and the most economic treatment was profenofos 50 EC + cypermethrin 25 EC followed by cypermethrin 25EC + neem oil 3%, spinosad 45SC + neem oil 3%, spinosad 45 SC, cypermethrin 25 EC, profenophos 50 EC and the least effective treatment was neem oil 3%. The highest yield among the treatments was noticed in profenofos 50 EC + cypermethrin 25 EC (140quintal/hac.) and the lowest in neem oil 3% (75quintal/hac.) with cost benefit ratio 1:4.7 and 1:2.0, respectively.&nbsp;</p> Aayushi Sharma Ashwani Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 6 400 406 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62055 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) in the coastal region of Karaikal, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2056 <p>Genetic divergence among 25 brinjal genotypes for 13 characters was evaluated in a breeding programme aimed at improving yield potential by using Mahalanobis D<sup>2</sup> statistics. The genotypes were grouped into six clusters suggesting considerable amount of genetic diversity in the study material. The cluster I had constituted maximum of 17 genotypes followed by cluster II which had three genotypes and cluster IV with two genotypes. The cluster III, cluster V and cluster VI each had one genotype. The intra-cluster D<sup>2</sup> value ranged from 0.00 to 61.67 and the inter-cluster D<sup>2</sup> value ranged from 89.49 to 343.51. The maximum intra-cluster distance of 61.67 was exhibited by the cluster I followed by cluster IV and cluster III, V, VI. The inter cluster distance was found to be high between cluster II and IV followed by cluster IV and V, cluster II and VI and cluster II and V. The contribution of different characters towards divergence indicated that, fruit yield per plant contributed the maximum percentage of 79.00 towards genetic divergence followed by individual fruit weight (8.00 percent) and number of fruits per cluster (3.00 percent). Thus, it indicated that the genotypes from cluster IV (fruit yield per plant), cluster VI (individual fruit weight) and cluster IV (number of fruits cluster<sup>-1</sup>) could be selected for crop improvement in brinjal as they recorded higher cluster mean values for traits contributing maximum towards genetic divergence.</p> K. Indu Bharathi A. Shanthi M. Manikandan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 30 6 407 411 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62056 Effect of Bee Attractants on the Attraction of Apis dorsata and their Impact on Seed Yield of Niger Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass Crop https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2058 <p>The study was conducted at the experimental farm of the PC Unit Sesame and Niger, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (JNKVV), located in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, during the <em>Kharif</em> season of 2021. The primary objective of the experiment was to assess the influence of bee attractants on the attraction of <em>Apis dorsata</em> (giant honey bees) and their subsequent impact on the seed yield of niger crop. The experiment was designed using a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with nine treatments and three replications. This experimental setup allows for systematic testing of the effects of different bee attractants on both bee behavior and crop yield while controlling for potential sources of variation. By utilizing this design, researchers can obtain reliable data on the efficacy of various bee attractants in enhancing pollination and improving seed yield in niger crops. The results showed that the both at 10% and 50% flowering stage <em>Apis dorsata </em>visit was numerically the highest with flower extract of <em>Madhuca longifolia</em> 10% with 20.42 and 19.25 <em>Apis dorsata</em>/m<sup>2</sup>/5min, respectively. This was followed by rose water spray with 19.25 and 15.33 <em>Apis dorsata</em>/m<sup>2</sup>/5min, respectively. The population of <em>Apis dorsata</em> was received from the controlled condition 4.08 and 6.08 <em>Apis dorsata</em>/m<sup>2</sup>/5min at 10% and 50% flowering stage, respectively. This was followed by water spray 5.75 and 8.58 <em>Apis dorsata</em>/m<sup>2</sup>/5min at 10% and 50% flowering stage, respectively. The foliar spray of mahua flower extract and rose water 10% were found significantly superior over others in respect to record higher seed yield and recorded 6.90 q and 6.70 q/ha seed yield, respectively.</p> Dwarka Anand Kumar Panday Shraddha Tare Shobharam Thakur Vijay Kumar Katara Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 30 6 420 426 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62058 An Empirical Analysis of Farmer’s Perspectives on Custom Hiring Service Centres in Tumakuru District of Karnataka, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2060 <p>The perception of farmers regarding the usefulness of Custom Hiring Service Centre’s refers to their opinions and attitudes toward these facilities, particularly in terms of accessing machinery, cost-effectiveness, productivity benefits, technology adoption, and labor reduction. The study conducted in Tumakuru district of Karnataka during 2020-21 was an "ex post facto" research focusing on farmers' perceptions of the usefulness of hiring centers. Eight taluks were chosen, where Custom Hiring Service Centre’s were operated effectively. The results pertaining to the perception towards objectives of Custom hiring centers showed that more than two-fifths of respondents (45.38 %) falling under the medium category with Mean = 32.65 and SD = 3.42, perception towards availability of services in also saw positive outcomes through the services of Custom Hiring Service Centre’s. With 42.13 per cent of respondents in the high category and perception towards benefits of CHSC with 46.15 per cent of respondents were categorized as low. The Custom Hiring Service Centre’s had a notable impact on overall perception of farmers i.e., more than one third (36.15 %) of the respondents falls under high perception level. The statement farmers pay only for the number of acres or the number of hours used has component loading of 0.83 followed by overcome the problem of labour in agricultural operation with 0.76 component loading. Through the provision of affordable access to a diverse range of farm machinery and equipment, Custom Hiring Service Centre’s have significantly enhanced operational efficiency, minimized input losses, and promoted sustainable farming practices.</p> Anil K Basavaprabhu Jirli Nandini H M Preeti Y H Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 6 437 448 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62060 Relationship between Prices and Market Arrivals of Gram in Madhya Pradesh https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2064 <p>Taking these aspects into consideration current investigation was performed by acquiring monthly wholesale prices of gram in Madhya Pradesh. This analysis was centred on the secondary data regarding relationship between prices and market arrivals of gram in designated Agricultural Produce Market Committee (A.P.M.Cs) of Madhya Pradesh during the span of a decades from 2012-13 to 2021-22. Maximum significant association between prices and arrivals was seen in Vidisha <em>mandi</em> during eight years (2012-13, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18, 2020-21 and 2021-22) while it was non-significant only in two years in Vidisha <em>mandi </em>(2018-19 &amp; 2019-20). Followed by Raisen and Bhopal mandies during six years. Only in Vidisha and Bhopal <em>mandies</em> the correlation between arrivals and price showed a negative relationship (-0.2330 and -0.0327) and was statistically significant while it was statistically non-significant in Raisen <em>mandi</em>. Market arrivals were maximum in Vidisha <em>mandi</em> alongside monthly average of 1563.04 qt and minimum in Bhopal with the mean of 22.67 quintal per month. Coefficient of variation was computed to study the variations in monthly prices and arrivals gram during 2012-13 to 2021-22. Price variability coefficient of gram was originally peak (49.41%) in Vidisha, followed by (23.51%) Raisen and Bhopal (19.37%) from 2012-13 to 2021-22. The highest variation in arrivals was in Vidisha (49.41%) followed by Bhopal (44.73%) and Raisen (40.93%).</p> Kavita Nitharwal P.S. Raghuwanshi Sudhir Singh Sneha Pandey Surendra Rundla Hemant Kumar Lamba Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 30 6 480 485 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62064 A Critical Appraisal of Integrity Clubs in Bhutan https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2065 <p>This study delves into the values of youth, highlighting its importance in influencing ethical behaviors and principles. It emphasizes the importance of anti-corruption programs in spreading the values, especially among Bhutanese youth. The Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) and the Ministry of Education and Skill Development (MoESD) instituted school integrity clubs in 2017 to promote ethical behaviors, knowledge-sharing, and participation in fighting corruption. The study utilizes Youth Integrity Assessment (YIA) 2022 data, which includes 130 Integrity Club (IC) members and 179 non-IC members. The study aims to evaluate the impact of IC on the values of youth. Welch's t-test was utilized to compare the values of IC members with non-IC members. The results indicate a positive impact on the values of youth, highlighting the significance of implementing integrity clubs in schools/institutes. Furthermore, the correlation between the variables shows a positive relationship. This study suggests that the ACC and MoESD should cascade this initiative to other schools or institutes.</p> Tenzin Phuntsho Kinzang Gyeltshen Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 30 6 486 495 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62065 Seedling Growth, Field Performance and Economics of Production of Early Cauliflower as Influenced by Different Sowing Media and Variety under Greenhouse Condition in Assam, India https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2067 <p>An experiment was conducted at the greenhouse and in the field of the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) to assess the effect of sowing media and variety&nbsp; on growth of&nbsp; early cauliflower seedling and subsequent performance of seedling&nbsp; in the main field. The results revealed that seedlings raised in different sowing media surpassed the conventional sowing media (soil, sand and farm yard manure) for growth attributes and yield. The media M1 i.e., cocopeat (60): vermiculite (20): perlite (20) recorded the highest seedling emergence whereas minimum days to transplanting and maximum leaf area was recorded in M2 i.e., cocopeat (50): vermicompost (50). Minimum days to 2-true leaf emergence was recorded in both M2 and M3 [cocopeat (50): vermicompost (50): microbial consortium@ 1:100] and M3&nbsp; recorded the highest seedling height in nursery. Minimum days for 2-true leaf emergence was recorded by variety V2 (CFL1522) while highest leaf area was found in V1(White Diamond).&nbsp; Among interactions, M1V1 recorded maximum emergence, M2V2 recorded minimum number of days for 2-true leaf stage and to transplanting respectively, maximum leaf area in M2V1 and M3V2 produced the tallest seedling. In field, the seedlings that were grown in M3 media in nursery recorded significantly higher value of growth parameters and yield. Variety white Diamond took minimum days for establishment and recorded maximum leaf area index at 30 Days After Transplanting (DAT) as well as at harvest. Though treatment combination, M3V2 recorded the highest curd yield the highest cost benefit ratio was obtained in M3V1 (3.95) and the lowest (2.42) in M1V1. Considering the cost benefit ratio, for producing good quality seedlings of early cauliflower under green house, which will further give best performance in field condition, cocopeat (50): vermicompost (50): microbial consortium (1:100) as sowing media and variety White Diamond can be used in Assam.</p> Nayanmoni Buragohain S. Gogoi U. Kotoky D. B. Phookan P. K. Barua P. Kalita Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-16 2024-05-16 30 6 502 510 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62067 Development and Performance Evaluation of Synbiotic Red Banana Yoghurt https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2069 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The present study aimed at the production of yoghurt with different levels of red banana pulp (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15%)</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Development of red banana pulp incorporated probiotic yoghurt and its performance evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Dairy Microbiology, Dairy Science College, Hebbal, Bengaluru, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar,</p> <p>Karnataka, India. Between June 2022 and March 2023.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The red banana pulp incorporated probiotic yoghurt was developed and subjected to sensory analysis by the panel of judges using 9-point hedonic scale, analyzed for milk set time, acidity and viability and the best combination was selected.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The 10% concentration of red banana pulp was selected which showed 2.3 h of milk set time, acidity of 0.74% LA, viable log count/g was 9.50 and overall acceptability score was 8.25. The contaminants like coliforms and yeast and molds were absent. The 10% concentration showed no significant difference (<em>P</em> =.05) with the control sample in milk set time and acidity, while significant difference was observed in viability among the different concentrations. The samples were analyzed for synerisis which was 9.30%, water activity was 0.939, viscosity was 6.08cP and color intensity L* was 80.17, a* was -0.85 and b* was 8.68, for the developed red banana pulp incorporated probiotic yoghurt.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The developed product improves the acceptability and provides benefits of both probiotics and red banana for the consumers.</p> Harshapriya N Manjunatha H Rajunaik B Praveen A R Malashree L Ramachandra B Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 30 6 526 533 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62069 An Insight on Mycoflora Associated with Rice Grain Discolouration https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2070 <p>Grain discolouration, a complex disease of rice is a new enemy to rice crops around the world, and it is becoming increasingly important due to the qualitative as well as quantitative loss of harvested crop. The present study was carried out on the ten different variety of rice (MEX-73, NLR-33892(Parthiva), MEX-48, MEX-61, PR-126, PR-128, PR-129, PR-130, Pusa-basmati -7 and Pusa basmati-1121). The incidence was calculated in one metre square quadrants randomly marked in the plot, where the highest incidence was observed in PR-126(36.23%) and the least was Pusa basmati-1121(19.77%). Several seed borne fungi were detected using blotter paper method. The Mycoflora observed were Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Bipolaris oryzae, Sarocladium sp., Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp. The maximum frequency was observed for Aspergillus (25.73%) followed by Penicillum (24.53%), and the least observed was Bipolaris oryze(1.73%). The identity of the Aspergillus was confirmed using Inter transcribed Spacer primers (ITS1 &amp; ITS4).</p> Aakash Gupta Ajay S. Chavan Malini Ray Sneha Choudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 30 6 534 542 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62070 Evaluation of Water Vapour Permeability of Some Food Grain Packaging Materials https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2072 <p>The properties of any packaging material are essential parameters to know before storage of any kind of food materials. Physical properties are prerequisites for selecting proper packaging materials to obtain the desired shelf-life during the storage and distribution chain of food commodity. At the village/household level for packaging of food grains and other Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) commodities, generally used packaging materials namely, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), earthen pot (EP), polypropylene woven sack (PPWS), and gunny sack (GS) were evaluated for their physical properties such as strengths (grammage and thickness) and water vapour permeability using the standard gravimetric method. The thickness was determined to be 0.065 mm, 0.056 mm, 0.168 mm, 3.530 mm, and 0.849 mm for LDPE, PP, PPWS, EP, and GS respectively. Similarly, grammage was found to be 6.03 x 10<sup>-5</sup> g m<sup>-2</sup>, 4.94 x 10<sup>-5</sup> g m<sup>-2</sup>, 9.59 x 10<sup>-5</sup> g m<sup>-2</sup>, and 3.70 x 10<sup>-4</sup> g m<sup>-2</sup> for LDPE, PP, PPWS, and GS respectively. Results revealed a significant difference between the permeability of packing materials. The highest water vapour permeability of 7.26 x 10<sup>-5</sup> kg m<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> Pa<sup>-1</sup> was obtained for GS, whereas the lowest 1.81 x 10<sup>-5</sup> kg m<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> Pa<sup>-1</sup> was for LDPE at 40 ± 1°C temperature and 90 ± 1% relative humidity. The water vapour permeability of other packaging materials viz., PP, PPWS, and EP was 2.18 x 10<sup>-5</sup> kg m<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> Pa<sup>-1</sup>, 3.63 x 10<sup>-5</sup> kg m<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> Pa<sup>-1</sup>, and 5.03 x 10<sup>-5</sup> kg m<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> Pa<sup>-1</sup> respectively.</p> Rahul Sahu Dharmendra Khokhar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 30 6 558 563 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62072 Response of Inorganic Fertilizer and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Seed Yield of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2073 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different levels of inorganic fertilizer and plant growth regulator on seed yield of radish (<em>Raphanus sativus </em>L.) was formulated and conducted during the rabi season of 2022-23 at vegetable seed production plot, Department of Horticulture (Vegetable &amp; Floriculture), BAC, Sabour Bhagalpur. The experiment was conducted to determine seed production ability at four levels of fertilizers <em>viz,</em> (F<sub>0</sub>-control, F<sub>1</sub>-N40:P30:K40, F<sub>2</sub>-N60:P40:K50,&amp; F<sub>3</sub>-N8P50:K50) as well as seven levels of PGRs <em>viz,</em> P<sub>0</sub> (Control), P<sub>1</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub> @ 50ppm), P<sub>2 </sub>(GA<sub>3</sub> @100 ppm), P<sub>3 </sub>(GA<sub>3 </sub>@ 150 ppm), P<sub>4</sub> (NAA @ 50 ppm), P<sub>5</sub> (NAA @ 100 ppm) and P<sub>6 </sub>(NAA @ 150 ppm). Inorganic fertilizers were applied at 20 days and PGRs as foliar spray at 30 and 60 days after stecklings transplanting. The experiment was conducted in RBD (Factorial) and replicated thrice. the combined effect of inorganic fertilizers and Plant growth regulators F<sub>2</sub>P<sub>3</sub> significantly gave maximum diameter of pod (7.64 mm), length of pod (56.61mm), number of seeds/pod (6.18), 1000- seed weight (15.12g) and seed yield (18.23q/ha) and plant height is non significant. The treatment combination F<sub>3</sub>P<sub>6</sub> gave the maximum number of branches (8.06). Hence, F<sub>2</sub>P<sub>3</sub> treatment combination is a best combination for seed yield of radish and enhancing seed yield is our ultimate goal. As we performed the study in a particular location, we recommend multilocation trials in different agro-climatic regions to study and final confirmation of the results.</p> Abhishek Kumar Vijay Kumar Singh R. B. Verma Vishakha Kumari Vibhootee Garg Anjali Kumari Jha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 30 6 564 572 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62073 Rice-Based Cropping System Effect on Yield and Yield Attributes on Promising Released Sesame Varieties https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2074 <p>A field experiment was carried out at Agricultural College farm, Bapatla district, Andhra Pradesh, during the period from March 2023 to June 2023 to assess the performance of Sesame (<em>Sesamum indicum </em>L<em>.) </em>varieties under different fertilizer management practices in rice-based cropping system in Krishna Zone of AP. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with the factorial concept and three replications. The results showed that YLM 146 recorded significantly the highest seed yield (748 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) at harvest. The yield attributing characters like the number of capsules plant<sup>-1</sup> (67) and the number of seeds capsules<sup>-1</sup> (45) were found significantly to be the highest in the variety YLM 146. Concerning different fertilizer management practices, 125% RDF + 1% foliar spray of 19:19:19 at the early budding and capsule formation stages recorded significantly higher seed yields (827 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Yield attributes like number of capsules plant<sup>-1</sup> (96) and number of seeds capsules<sup>-1</sup> (51) were significantly highest in 125% RDF + 1% foliar spray of 19:19:19 at the early budding and capsule formation stages. Overall, the results showed that sowing of YLM 146 variety with 125% RDF + 1% foliar spray of 19:19:19 at the early budding stage and early capsule formation stage seems to be appropriate for getting higher seed yield in Krishna Zone of Andhra Pradesh.</p> D. Krishnaveni G. Ramesh M. Lath A K. Chandrasekhar L. Rajesh Chowdary G. Raviteja Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 30 6 573 580 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62074 Sporicidal Treatments to Produce Germinated Finger Millet https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2076 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The current investigation was to ascertain the most efficient sporicidal treatment for germinated finger millet in order to inactivate the spores that could interfere with the fermentation process by acting as a competing microflora for starter culture during the manufacturing of probiotic millet food.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>By applying different dry and wet sporicidal treatments to the finger millet, the study attempted to inactivate the spores and create germinated finger millet. Following each treatment, the number of aerobic spores was enumerated by the pour plate technique.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study</strong>: Department of Dairy Microbiology, Dairy Science College, Hebbal, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India between June 2023 and April 2024.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Both wet and dry sporicidal treatments were used. It comprised of blanching, autoclaving, hot air oven treatment and the combined treatment of hot air oven and autoclaving.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Aerobic spore count were reduced from 3.86 to 1.00 log<sub>10</sub> cfu/g after autoclaving finger millet for 30 min at 121℃. Considering that the autoclaving procedure did not encourage germination, sporicidal and fungicidal treatments were followed for 48 h germinated finger millet. After autoclaving germinated finger millet flour, the initial counts of spores and fungus which were 4.98 and 3.56 log<sub>10</sub> cfu/g were completely eliminated. Statistically significant (<em>P</em>=.05) difference was found between the treatment sample and the control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Autoclaving the germinated finger millet flour at 121℃ for 15 min resulted in a complete reduction of spores and fungus count. Hence, this treatment was followed during the preparation of probiotic millet food.</p> Jayashree H Malashree L Devaraju R Arun Kumar H Pushpa B P Ramachandra B Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 30 6 586 592 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62076 Electrochemical Experimental Analysis of Different Coatings https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2077 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This paper investigates four different metallic coatings of 17-4PH stainless steel and tests them in seawater as a means of preventing seawater corrosion of turbine upper stage blades..</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The self-corrosion current densities of the different specimens in the synthetic seawater solution were measured using open circuit, polarization curves, and&nbsp; electrochemical AC impedance spectra.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department Between July 10, 2023,&nbsp; and August 10, 2023, the Laboratory of the School of Mechanics, North China University of Water Resources and Hydropower (NUWRH).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For the working condition of turbine final blades, four different metal coatings based on 17-4PH stainless steel are investigated to simulate the working condition of turbine blades, and electrochemical tests are carried out on the four different specimens in the test solution of synthesized seawater solution. The self-corrosion current densities of the different specimens in the synthetic seawater solution were measured using open circuit, polarization curves, and electrochemical AC impedance spectra.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results show that the AHP-coated 17- 4PH stainless steel specimens have the lowest self-corrosion current density (color) in the synthetic seawater solution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Non-invasive This indicates that the corrosion rate of AHP coatings in synthetic seawater solutions is slower than that of TW-7 coatings, sprayed stainless steels, and other stainless steels in the same conditions.</p> Yan Zhang Ming Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 30 6 593 599 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62077 Accessing Role of Urea Briquettes Fertilizer for Enhancing Nitogen Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2016 <p>Enhancing nitrogen efficiency in lowland rice cultivation while mitigating environmental impacts is imperative. Traditional urea application methods lead to significant nitrogen losses. Urea briquettes offer a solution by gradually releasing nitrogen in the ammonium form, minimizing losses through leaching, volatilization, and denitrification. Field trials demonstrate their superiority over prilled urea, with higher yields and increased nitrogen uptake. Binding agents like neem and karanj oils enhance briquette strength, allowing for mechanical applicator use. Utilizing local industrial wastes as filler materials improves briquette quality. To address adoption barriers, National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack has developed and evaluated five mechanical applicators. These include continuous and non-continuous types, each designed for specific application scenarios. Extensive testing assessed their performance in terms of speed, capacity, and placement uniformity. The development of user-friendly, cost-effective applicators is a critical step towards wider adoption of urea briquettes. These innovations streamline the labor-intensive application process and cater to the needs of smallholder farmers. Future research should focus on refining applicator designs for varied soil conditions and crop stages. Additionally, optimizing briquette formulations based on local resources can further enhance efficiency and reduce costs. Overall, urea briquettes coupled with efficient applicators represent a promising approach for sustainable rice cultivation. By reducing nitrogen losses and improving efficiency, they contribute to higher yields and environmental preservation. Continued efforts in research, development, and promotion are essential to realize the full potential of this technology and ensure its widespread adoption among farmers.</p> Hridesh Harsha Sarma Akash Paul Ayekpam Robertson Shahin Shobnur Sonam Lhamu Anjali Taku Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 30 6 14 21 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62016 Lilium: A High-Value Cut Flower Production Guide for Lucrative Return https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2022 <p><em>Lilium sp.</em> is cultivated worldwide and is one of the most important generators cut flower and pot plant. In terms of the production and marketing of its cut flowers on the global cut flower market, this genus is quite important economically. The majority of the monocot perennial species in the genus Lilium are vegetatively propagated and are among the most significant flower bulbs in terms of economic impact. They are native to Asia, Europe, and North America. Asiatic and Oriental hybrid lilies are the most important groups and are derived from interspecific crosses of the Sinomartagon and Archelirion sections, respectively. Seed, bulb division, bulb scales, stem bulblets, stem bulbils (in some species), and tissue culture are all methods of multiplying lilies. The primary means of propagating Lilium are bulbs. Six to eight weeks after the parent bulbs begin to produce flowers, the small bulbs are removed. In the north Indian environment, mid-September to mid-December is the ideal period to plant hybrid lilies. October through November is a good season to grow Asiatic lilies in the Northern Plains, whereas March through April is a good time to plant in the hills. After 90 to 120 days of sowing, flowers are ready for harvesting. Cutting the flowers in the morning is ideal. The flower stalk should be clipped 8–10 cm above the ground as soon as the first blossom begins to take on color.</p> Prachurjya Samantaray Aradhana Nayak Itishree Pradhan Akanshya Pattanaik Reshma Sahoo Sukirti Mohanty Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 6 67 86 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62022 A Comprehensive Review on Evolution, Challenges of Models, Opportunities in Urban Farming Practices in the World https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2028 <p>This review delves into the historical evolution of urban farming, tracing its roots from ancient civilizations to modern-day urban landscapes. It explores diverse urban farming models, ranging from rooftop gardens and vertical farms to community gardens and hydroponic systems, highlighting their unique characteristics and contributions to food security, environmental sustainability, and community resilience. Additionally, the abstract addresses the myriad challenges faced by urban farmers, including limited space, soil contamination, regulatory hurdles, and access to resources. Despite these challenges, urban farming presents abundant opportunities for innovation, social entrepreneurship, and urban revitalization. By leveraging technological advancements, community engagement, and policy support, urban farming has the potential to transform cities into vibrant hubs of agricultural production and sustainability. This abstract sets the stage for a comprehensive review that not only illuminates the past and present of urban farming but also identifies pathways for its future growth and impact in shaping resilient, equitable, and sustainable cities.</p> Anushi A. Krishnamoorthi Jitendra Chaurasia Bijay Kumar Baidya Abhishek Singh Sapna Vijay Kumar Anushka Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 30 6 136 156 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62028 Harvesting Efficiency: The Rise of Drone Technology in Modern Agriculture https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2033 <p>The articles delves into the transformative impact of drone technology on modern agriculture, specifically focusing on its role in enhancing harvesting efficiency. Drones, equipped with advanced sensors and imaging capabilities, have revolutionized traditional farming practices by offering real-time data collection and analysis. This abstract explores how drones facilitate precision agriculture through the optimization of harvesting processes, including crop monitoring, yield estimation, and targeted harvesting. By leveraging drones, farmers can make informed decisions to improve productivity, minimize waste, and maximize yield. The abstract highlights the integration of drone technology into agricultural operations as a sustainable solution to meet the growing demand for food production while minimizing environmental impact. Moreover, it underscores the need for further research and development to fully harness the potential of drones in modern agriculture and address challenges such as regulatory hurdles and cost-effectiveness.</p> P. Kalaiselvi Jitendra Chaurasia A. Krishnaveni A. Krishnamoorthi Abhishek Singh Vijay Kumar Sapna Rini Labanya Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-27 2024-04-27 30 6 191 207 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62033 Assessment of Performance in Cereal Fodder Crops with Relation to Seeding Rates and Cutting Stages https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2035 <p>Cereal fodder crops serve as indispensable sources of nutrition for livestock, contributing significantly to the efficiency and sustainability of animal production systems worldwide. Maximizing the productivity and quality of these crops requires careful management, with seed rates and cutting stages playing pivotal roles in determining crop performance. Seeding rates play a critical role in crop establishment and growth, with both low and high rates affecting plant competition and ultimately yield. Cutting stages, on the other hand, are pivotal in determining the quality and nutrient composition of the forage. Optimal cutting stages vary depending on the intended use, such as hay, silage, or grazing and can significantly influence digestibility and overall nutritional value. The assessment of cereal fodder crops is therefore pivotal for optimizing agricultural productivity and ensuring sustainable livestock feed production. Understanding the intricate relationship between seeding rates, cutting stages and crop performance is essential for sustainable agriculture and livestock production systems, contributing to improved resource efficiency and economic viability.</p> Akash Paul Hridesh Harsha Sarma Anasuya Boruah Sonam Lhamu Olympica Das Nilabh Talukdar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-29 2024-04-29 30 6 214 221 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62035 Utilizing Waste Cooking Oil for Sustainable Biodiesel Production: A Comprehensive Review https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2036 <p>The environmental and economic challenges posed by the over-reliance on fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative and sustainable energy sources. Waste cooking oil (WCO) presents a viable feedstock for biodiesel production, offering a dual solution to waste management and renewable energy generation. This comprehensive review examines the current state of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil, exploring the benefits, challenges, and processes involved. Biodiesel derived from WCO has several environmental advantages, including lower greenhouse gas emissions, biodegradability, and enhanced engine lubricity compared to traditional fossil fuels. Moreover, utilizing it for biodiesel addresses waste disposal issues, reducing the contamination of land and water resources. Despite these benefits, several challenges remain, such as the variability in its composition, contamination, and the need for efficient purification and transesterification processes. The review explores various methods for converting WCO into biodiesel, highlighting the key stages of the transesterification process, including the use of catalysts, alcohols, and reaction conditions. Additionally, advanced techniques such as ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted transesterification are discussed for their potential to increase efficiency and reduce processing time. This paper also addresses the sustainability aspects of biodiesel production from it, emphasizing its role in promoting a circular economy and reducing waste. The use of its contributes to a closed-loop system, where waste is transformed into a valuable resource. Furthermore, the review explores the economic and social impacts of biodiesel production, noting its potential to create jobs, reduce import dependence, and support local communities. In conclusion, this review underscores the significant potential of waste cooking oil in sustainable biodiesel production. It calls for continued research and technological innovation to optimize processes, enhance efficiency, and overcome existing challenges, thereby contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable energy landscape.</p> Sreelekha Nidhi Dubey Harshal Avinashe Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-29 2024-04-29 30 6 222 234 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62036 Water Chestnut (Trapa natans) a Crop of High Nutritional and Economical Importance-Recent Guidelines on Farming Practices https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2046 <p>The global food problem could be resolved to some extent by the production of Water chestnuts. Moreover, waterlogging developed due to global warming would be better utilized by the cultivation of Water chestnut. The cultivation of thornless Water chestnuts alone or along with fish takes place in water bodies or ponds with depths ranging from 1.20 to 1.80 m as well as in shallow agricultural fields with depths of 0.30 to 0.45 m. The major carp fish could be successfully incorporated in the Water chestnut growing ponds. The water chestnut prefers to be grown in organic matter rich ponds or shallow lands. It has been found that <em>T. natans</em> is very efficient in absorbing nutrients, particularly N, P, K, Cu and Zn. The fruit of the Water chestnut has considerable nutritional and economical significance. The entire herb and fruit of the Water chestnut have been acknowledged in traditional medicine for their medicinal properties, serving as remedies for various diseases.</p> I.S. Singh S.B. Tarate A.K. Thakur Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 30 6 310 321 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62046 Soil Phosphorus Distribution across Diverse Land Use Systems: A Comprehensive Review https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2050 <p>Phosphorus (P) is a crucial nutrient necessary for healthy plant growth. While soils typically contain a sufficient total amount of P (200-300 mg P kg<sup>–1</sup>), less than 1% of it is readily available to plants. In India, despite an adequate total P content, approximately 42% of soils are deficient in plant-available P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and 38% have medium availability. The dynamics of phosphorus in soil are influenced by various processes, including dissolution-precipitation, sorption-desorption, and mineralization-immobilization reactions. These dynamics are highly responsive to agricultural practices and land-use patterns, which play a significant role in shaping the P distribution of P in the soil. One major factor that affects the distribution and availability of phosphorus in the soil is a change in land use. When natural ecosystems are transformed into plantations or croplands, it substantially alters the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. This transformation impacts soil fertility and can lead to significant changes in the distribution of P within different chemically defined pools. Consequently, this affects the availability and stability of P in the soil. Soil P fractionation, a method used to assess P availability, solubility and dynamics, is a suitable tool to understand how P behaves under different land-use systems. However, the specific effects of land-use changes on P fractions are not well-documented. To gain a better understanding of how land-use changes impact the distribution and availability of different P fractions in the soil, research studies have been conducted.</p> Annappa N N R. Krishna Murthy Bhavya. N Govinda, K Uday Kumar, S. N Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 30 6 352 364 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62050 Micro Plastic Pollution in Soil Environment: A Comprehensive Review https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2057 <p>Plastic is a substance that is fundamental to current human existence. However, the issue of plastic trash polluting the environment has emerged due to the rapidly growing demand for plastic use. Even though some used plastics are recycled or burned for energy, a significant amount of plastic waste is landfilled or released into marine and terrestrial habitats worldwide. Particularly, trash made of microplastics smaller than 5 mm is regarded as a rising global problem for contamination. Nonetheless, the majority of studies on the effects of microplastic pollution conducted in the previous ten years have been on the marine ecosystem, with relatively few on the terrestrial ecology. One may argue that soil serves as both a significant source of microplastic pollution and a conduit for it into the aquatic ecosystem. The majority of microplastic sources in soil settings enter through a variety of openings, fragment, and spread both vertically and horizontally to the surrounding surroundings. Additionally, there are detrimental effects on the soil biota, which could influence the food web and raise questions about human health. This overview of microplastics' properties, research trends, analytical techniques, migration and degradation processes, impacts on soil biogeochemistry, and interactions with soil organisms highlights the significance of continuing studies on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems.</p> Vikas Gupta Ayushi Trivedi Nirjharnee Nandeha Duyu Monya K. Dujeshwer Amit Kumar Pandey Ashutosh Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 30 6 412 419 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62057 A Look at Genomic Selection Techniques for Climate Change Adaptation and Production in Livestock https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2059 <p>Livestock production profoundly intersects with global climate dynamics, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and confronting vulnerability to climate impacts. In addressing these challenges, imperative adjustments are requisite to fortify the climate robustness of livestock systems. Notably, the prevalent reliance on commercial breeds with limited genetic diversity exposes production strategies to disruption, especially if these breeds are confined to environments that may lose economic viability under future climate scenarios. Consequently, understanding the adaptability of animal populations to forthcoming environmental conditions is paramount for sustaining livestock production. Assessing the genetic underpinnings of climate adaptation necessitates the exploration of tailored genomic selection techniques encompassing both production traits, presumed to have moderate heritability, and adaptation traits, presumed to have low heritability. Through a nuanced examination of genomic selection dynamics, insights into the genetic mechanisms fostering resilience in livestock populations amidst shifting environmental contexts are garnered. Employ genomic analysis to pinpoint genetic markers associated with traits like heat tolerance, disease resistance, and feed efficiency in livestock. Collaborate across disciplines to develop tailored breeding programs integrating these markers, and validate their effectiveness through rigorous field trials and ongoing monitoring to enhance livestock resilience and productivity in varied climatic conditions. Elucidating these mechanisms and their application in breeding programs offers a comprehensive understanding of how genetic advancements can enhance both production efficiency and climate resilience in livestock. This discourse aims to bridge the chasm between scientific inquiry and pragmatic implementation, thereby facilitating informed decision-making in livestock breeding strategies tailored to mitigate the ramifications of climate change.</p> Anjali Arya Prachi Sharma M. M. Trivedi R. J. Modi Y. G. Patel Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 30 6 427 436 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62059 An Overview of Artificial Insemination: A Journey from Past to Present https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2061 <p>Artificial insemination (AI) has a rich history spanning centuries, beginning with early experiments in plant and animal reproduction. This article traces the development of AI from its earliest recorded instances in 1322 A.D. to modern-day advancements. Notable pioneers such as Spallanzani, Hunter, and Ivanoff contributed significantly to the evolution of AI techniques. The introduction of AI across various animal species, including cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry, revolutionized breeding practices worldwide. Key milestones include the development of semen extenders, the invention of artificial vaginas for semen collection, and the advent of cryopreservation techniques. Moreover, advancements in sperm quality assessment and estrous synchronization further enhanced AI efficiency. The introduction of sexed semen technology has provided a means to control offspring gender, offering new avenues for genetic selection. Overall, AI has played a crucial role in improving livestock genetics, disease control, and reproductive efficiency, making significant contributions to agricultural productivity and sustainability.</p> Prachi Sharma Damini Arya Anjali Arya Shilpa Doultani K. K. Hadiya L.B. George H. N. Highland Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 6 449 458 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62061 Monetary Policy, Digitalisation and Banking Industry Performance in Nigeria https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2062 <p>In the evolving financial landscape of Nigeria, the interplay between monetary policy and digitalization significantly influences the performance metrics of banks. This study explores the multifaceted impact of these two critical factors on the Nigerian banking sector. Monetary policy, orchestrated by the Central Bank of Nigeria, regulates the economy's money supply, affecting banks' lending behaviors and liquidity. Digitalization, on the other hand, offers a transformative potential for banks to enhance operational efficiency, customer experience, and service delivery through technological advancements. The study examines how money supply, lending rate and digitalization (proxied by mobile cell subscription) affect banks’ financial performance, focusing on bank credit and liquid assets, while controlling for inflation and exchange rate variables. It also examines the interaction between digitalization and monetary policy variables on bank performance. Employing an interactive multiple regression model, the study analyzes time series data from 1996 to 2022 sourced from the World Bank. Findings indicate that while stringent monetary policies can constrain bank performance by tightening credit and reducing liquidity, digitalization provides an opportunity for banks to counteract these effects through enhanced efficiency. However, the successful integration of digital technologies is contingent upon adequate investment, regulatory support, and strategic alignment with the banks’ core objectives. The study concludes that Nigerian banks must adeptly manage monetary policy fluctuations and leverage digitalization to sustain and enhance performance. These insights could guide policy formulation and strategic decision-making within the banking industry.</p> Sunday Enebeli-Uzor Adam Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 6 459 468 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62062 Breeding for Resistance against Pest and Diseases in Tomatoes: A Review https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2063 <p>Diseases and pests have a substantial effect on tomato production, greatly affecting both the quantity and quality of this crucial vegetable crop. Although fungicides and insecticides have been important in controlling plant diseases and pests, their excessive usage raises significant environmental issues. Vegetable breeders are increasingly concentrating on developing cultivars with natural tolerance to biotic stresses to promote sustainability and environmental friendliness. The change in focus is intended to cultivate tomato cultivars with inherent resistance to diseases and pests, hence decreasing the need for chemical treatments. Advancements in creating high-yielding genetically resistant tomato cultivars are a result of detailed study on the genetic basis of pest and disease resistance in tomato crops, as well as the complex interactions between the host plant and pathogens. For effective breeding programs and pre-breeding activities, scientists and breeders must have access to sources of resistance and a thorough grasp of the genetic complexities involved. This requires examining the genetic composition of both the tomato plants and the different infections that are impacting them. Breeders may generate tomato cultivars with strong resistance to common diseases and pests by using the inherent defensive mechanisms found in certain tomato types via selective crossing. Continuing to study how hosts and pathogens interact and the molecular processes involved in resistance is crucial. This information offers vital insights on how to improve and expand resistance, leading to the creation of cultivars with long-lasting and wide-ranging resistance. Currently, the emphasis on breeding is a proactive and sustainable strategy for transfer of resistances in high yielding tomato cultivars. Researchers aim to develop tomato cultivars that provide high yield and demonstrate tolerance to changing disease and pest stresses by integrating genetic knowledge with sophisticated breeding methods. This comprehensive method protects tomato crops and encourages environmental sustainability by decreasing the need on chemical inputs in agriculture.</p> SK MD Ajaharuddin Madan Lal Ashwani Yadav Nitin Kumar Atul Dhakad Gayatri Sinha Budhesh Pratap Singh Archana Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 6 469 479 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62063 A Review on Efficacy Effect of Newer Insecticides and Biopesticides against Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) Guenee https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2066 <p>Eggplant (<em>Solanum melongena</em>) holds significant importance as a vegetable in regions characterized by hot and wet climates. Brinjal plants face infestations from 26 insect pests and several non-insect species, with the brinjal shoot and fruit borer (<em>Leucinodes orbonalis</em> Guenee) standing out as a primary threat. This pest poses a significant challenge, causing crop damage year-round. Yield losses attributable to this pest range from 70 to 92 percent. This scenario has presented a challenge for farmers engaged in the commercial cultivation of brinjal. Upon reviewing research papers, it was discovered that newer insecticides and biopesticides exhibited notable superiority. Spinosad 45SC emerged as the top performer, followed by Indoxacarb 14.5SC and Emamectin benzoate 0.5SG.</p> Abhishek Mahala Usha Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 30 6 496 501 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62066 Artificial Intelligence in Water Management for Sustainable Farming: A Review https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2068 <p>Artificial Intelligence (AI) is capable of enhancing water management for sustainable farming. The growing demand for agricultural productivity and sustainability in the context of finite water resources and climate change drives the necessity for more efficient water management practices. AI technologies, through automated and precision irrigation systems, AI-based predictive models, and AI-driven water quality monitoring, offer significant improvements in water efficiency and agricultural output. These systems optimize irrigation scheduling based on real-time data, enhance the precision of water application, and ensure water quality, thus supporting sustainable agricultural practices. However, the implementation of AI in water management is not without challenges. Technical difficulties in adapting AI to diverse agricultural environments, data privacy and security concerns, ethical considerations, and barriers to adoption among small-scale farmers are critical issues that need addressing. This study addresses both the transformative impacts and the inherent challenges of integrating AI technologies. Furthermore, the review identifies a gap in research regarding AI’s adaptability to variable climates and its integration with socio-economic data, suggesting that future studies focus on these areas. Policy recommendations are also discussed, emphasizing the need for developing standards and best practices, increasing funding and incentives for AI research, promoting training and capacity building, and establishing robust regulatory frameworks for data management. By tackling these challenges and leveraging AI’s full potential, water management in agriculture can be significantly improved, leading to enhanced global water security and sustainability in farming practices. The review concludes that while AI presents a promising future for agricultural water management, strategic and thoughtful approaches are required to overcome obstacles and fully realize the benefits of this technology.</p> Ashoka, P B. Rama Devi Nilesh Sharma Madhumita Behera Abhishek Gautam Ayushi Jha Gayatri Sinha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-16 2024-05-16 30 6 511 525 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62068 Effect of Zero Tillage and Different Weed Management Practices in Direct Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Indo Gangetic Plains: A Review https://journaljsrr.com/index.php/JSRR/article/view/2071 <p>Millions of rural and urban residents depend on the rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) for their food security and means of subsistence. About 18 million hectares (m ha) of rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) and wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) are rotated across Asia, of which 13.5 m ha are in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India. This agricultural system’s viability is currently in jeopardy due to static yields of both wheat and rice and a decline in total factor productivity. The North West IGP's high input crop culture has allowed weeds to dominate the weed flora, including <em>P. minor</em> in wheat and <em>Echinochloa crus-galli</em> L. in rice. Farmers in North West India have largely used zero tillage for growing wheat, and recently, farmers in the eastern IGP have done the same. Perennial weeds in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain, such <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> L. and <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> L. can occasionally be a nuisance under zero tillage. As an alternative to puddled transplanted rice, the focus is currently on dry direct-seeded rice and machine transplanting of non-puddled rice. As a result of changes in tillage, crop establishment techniques, water use, and weed control brought on by the switch from transplanted rice to direct seeded rice, weed composition and diversity frequently vary. In nations where DSR is frequently used, weedy rice has become a significant concern. Using the Zero Tillage DSR system, certified seed, cultivars that are weed-competitive, stale seedbed procedures, living mulches, and chemical and biological weed control might change weed-crop competition in the crop's favour. However, more research on emergence characteristics and mulching effects of different crop residues on key weeds under zero tillage, cover cropping, and breeding crops for weed suppression will strengthen nonchemical weed management programs. In this review, we examine the extent of weed infestation, weed flora shift and the non-chemical alternative weed management in DSR.</p> Dharani Dhar Pradhan Sandeep Rawal Mo Asif Swagat Ranjan Behera Urmila Panda Simran Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 30 6 543 557 10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62071