Journal of Scientific Research and Reports <p><strong>Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (ISSN: 2320-0227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JSRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Scientific Research and Reports) (Journal of Scientific Research and Reports) Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Cranberry Juice Inhibit Bacterial Pathogens Associated To Urinary Tract Infection <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate <em>in vitro</em> antimicrobial potential of 35% reconstituted juice (RJCr) against bacterial pathogen related to urinary tract infections (UTIs).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong>&nbsp; Food and Biotechnology Laboratory, Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Cranberry juice for <em>in vitro</em> evaluation by agar well diffusion assay and direct <em>in vitro</em> assay.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Cranberry fruits were used to produce RJCr pH 3. Five bacterial pathogens were tested: <em>Escherichia coli</em> ATCC 35218, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> ATCC 700603, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> ATCC 29212, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 27853 and <em>Proteus mirabilis, </em>an isolate of clinical origin. Two methods were used to assess antimicrobial activity. In the agar well diffusion (AWD) assay, each pathogen was inoculated on agar plates and the juice was added in wells drilled on this agar by incubation at 35°C/24hours. Then, the diameter of the inhibition zone was measured (mm). Based on dilutions methods, a direct <em>in vitro</em> assay (DA) was also performed. In test tubes 4.5 ml of RJCr was added an inoculum of each pathogen for a final concentration of &gt;10<sup>6</sup> and &lt;10<sup>7</sup> CFU.mL<sup>-1</sup>.The performance was evaluated based on CFU.mL<sup>-1</sup> resulting on agar plates (35°C / 24 hours).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>By using AWD the RJCr inhibited <em>E. coli</em> and the average size of the diameter of inhibition halo reached 23.3 mm, that is, greater when compared to the group with Chloramphenicol (11.6 mm). However, for the other strains the RJCr was not inhibiting with this method. But, by using DA, the action of RJCr was inhibitory for all strains here tested, with an average of 5.1 Log cycles of reduction in relation to initial concentration. For <em>E. coli </em>and <em>P. mirabilis </em>the reduction reached six Log cycles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The inhibitory effect of RJCr was evident to <em>E. coli</em> by both types of inhibitory methods, a relevant result since it is the most recurrent microorganism in UTIs. Cranberry juice was stronger in inhibiting <em>E. coli</em> than antibiotic chloramphenicol as observed by AWD. Thus, the study reinforces the importance of Cranberry, even in the form of juice, in inhibiting <em>E. coli.</em></p> Camila Coppini, Jane Mary L. N. Gelinski, Mônica Frighetto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investment in the Water Supply and Economic Problems: Solutions <p>The article analyzes the importance of investing in the development and development of the water sector economy, and investment policy is a key area of economic development in the country. It is proposed to solve the problems of attracting investments into the sector's economy. Projects for land reclamation and land reclamation, developed by the Ministry of Water Resources, will be financed through foreign investment in the implementation of a program to improve irrigation and drainage infrastructure. In order to further develop irrigation and land reclamation measures, we believe it is expedient to strengthen investment activities in the water sector of the country and attract foreign investments into the economy of the water sector.</p> Babadjanov Abdirashid Musaevich ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 On Generalized Reverse 3-primes Numbers <p>In this paper, we introduce and investigate the generalized reverse 3-primes sequences and we deal with, in detail, three special cases which we call them reverse 3-primes, reverse Lucas 3-primes and reverse modified 3-primes sequences. We present Binet’s formulas, generating functions, Simson formulas, and the summation formulas for these sequences. Moreover, we give some identities and matrices related with these sequences.</p> Yuksel Soykan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Human Capital and Dynamic Capabilities on Competitive Advantage: Mediating Analysis <p><strong>Aim: </strong>A better understanding of farm-level competitiveness of agribusiness sector provides the necessary framework for agribusiness farms to compete at domestic and global markets. This study aims to determine the relationships of human capital, dynamic capabilities and competitive advantage in the minor export crop sector in Sri Lanka.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Minor export crop farm owners involved in the commercial cultivation of cinnamon, pepper and clove in Sri Lanka were surveyed using a personally-administered, structured questionnaire. The regression-based path analysis was used to test the model.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results indicate significant relationships between human capital and capabilities of learning and relationship building as well as between human capital and competitive advantage.</p> <p><strong>Implications: </strong>The findings provide useful insights where an understanding of the link between human capital, as a resource, in dynamic capabilities and competitive advantage which allows human capital to be configured appropriately and deployed effectively and efficiently based on dynamic capabilities of the minor export crop farms to achieve competitive advantage.</p> <p><strong>Original: </strong>The study has extended our understanding of the importance of human capital for in relation to dynamic capabilities.</p> Vilani Sachitra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (Leap) on Its Beneficiaries in the Ga East Municipality in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana <p>The purpose of this study was to find the impact of Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (LEAP) on its beneficiaries in the Ga East Municipality in the Greater Accra Region. The explorative and descriptive research designs were used in this study. Data was collected through questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The multi-stage and snow ball sampling methods were used to select 90 respondents for the study. This study found that the program had captured more than 1,000 individuals from 207 households onto the LEAP program. Some of these beneficiaries had relatives who were indirectly benefiting from the amounts that they received every two months. It was also found that there were 300 additional relatives of the 90 respondents who were indirectly benefiting from the LEAP as they were either being taken care of or their fees were paid by the beneficiaries. The LEAP money was used by the beneficiaries for trading activities, paying the school fees of their children and the orphans who lived with them, and others used the money solely for feeding. It was concluded that the implementation of the LEAP in the Ga East Municipality had helped in improving the conditions of the beneficiaries even though few shortcomings like delays in payment of the LEAP money were encountered by the. The study recommends among others that officials of LEAP at the Municipal level should ensure that the beneficiaries get the information of their payment dates in time and subsequently get their LEAP money at the right time without any delay.</p> Benzies Isaac Adu- Okoree, Daniella Delali Sedegah, Olivia Emma Sakyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 11 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Value Chain Analysis of Wicker Willow in Kashmir <p>The present study was carried out in four blocks, viz., Ganderbal, Sherpathri, Lar and Kangan of Ganderbal district of Kashmir valley, owing to the presence of majority of wicker willow cultivators and handicraft makers in the district. A total number of 120 respondents were selected for the study. A well-structured interview schedule was constructed for the collection of primary data from the respondents. Data derived from the respondents were analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Three main varieties of wicker willow species were determined in the study area, i.e., <em>Salix triandra, Salix dickymat and Salix viminalis</em>, with <em>Salix triandra </em>being the most prominent among the three as almost 53.33% of the respondents were cultivating this particular specie of wicker willow<em>.</em> From the study, it was concluded that the main wicker willow handicrafts made in district Ganderbal were <em>tokris</em>, dry-fruit bowls, round cups, decorative ducks, buckets, <em>chapatis</em>, <em>kangris</em>, etc. Mainly two marketing channels were being followed in the marketing of wicker handicrafts. In the first channel, the wicker handicraft moved from producer to consumer through wholesaler and retailer. In the second channel, the wicker handicraft moved from producer to consumer through retailer only. Out of the two marketing channels, channel 2<sup>nd</sup> was found out to be more suitable and profitable than channel I<sup>st</sup> as far the marketing efficiency, price spread and producer’s share in consumer’s rupee were concerned. One of the main constraints faced in marketing of these handicrafts was the limited marketing facilities followed by the influence of wholesalers and retailers and others.</p> Mudasir Rashid, Sajad A. Saraf, S. H. Baba, P. A. Sofi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 11 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Environmental Benefits of Trees in a Changing Climate: A Nigerian Experience <p>The paper presents a micrometeorological study on the environmental benefits of trees in the Taraba State University, Jalingo in Nigeria. Temperatures under three different surfaces (under trees and among different tree species, bare-ground and asphalted surfaces) within the campus were measured. The temperature under trees such as Mahogany (<em>Khaya senegalenses</em>), Eucalyptus (<em>Eucalyptus sp</em>.), Gmalaina (<em>Gmalaina aborea</em>), Mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>) found on the University campus alongside bare-ground (no vegetal coverage) and asphalted road surfaces were measured in degree Celsius for a period of three weeks. Additionally, 113 copies of some self-structured questionnaires were administered to the students of the University from the departments of Geography, Agricultural Science, Biological Science, Medical Laboratory Technology as well as the Male and Female hostels on campus. Data collected were analysed using frequency, percentage, line graph and pie chart. The study showed that there is a temperature variation under different surfaces. Under the trees recorded lowest mean temperature of 29.5°C followed by bare-ground with 32.5°C whereas asphalt surface recorded the highest mean temperature of 37.5°C. The temperature under different tree species shows that trees with bigger crown and broad leaves had lower temperatures. Mean temperature under the Mango tree was 28°C while under the Neem tree, mean temperature was 32°C. On the benefits of trees to the University campus, trees as a wind breaker constituted the highest benefit as expressed by the respondents (how many in %). The following recommendations were made among others; Students should be encouraged to plant trees by giving those who are willing the seedlings of trees as incentives and water should also be made available and accessible in different in locations order to maintain the planting and maintenance of trees. Cutting down of trees should be discouraged and environmental education on the benefits of trees should be a routine activity. There should be a follow-up study on carbon sequestration in Nigeria based on solid data on benefits.</p> V. N. Ojeh, A. Philip- Humshie, H. A. Garba, E. Naabil, E. C. Obiano, O. P. Boyitie, K. K. Boyiga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A New Analytical Model for Predicting Natural Gas Transportation Compressor Power <p>The compressor power requirement for gas pipelines is critical to the efficient delivery of natural gas over long distances. Existing models for predicting compressor power using pipeline length and gas throughput as input parameters are limited. This study focused on developing a new analytical model using the general energy equation to capture better interrelationships between compressor power and other parameters affecting compressor power requirements of horizontal natural gas pipelines. The developed model was validated using Bryan Research and Engineering (BRE) ProMax 2.0 process simulation software. The results indicated that the developed model was reliably consistent and accurate when compared with ProMax results. In other to improve the efficiency of the developed model, correction factors for both pipe length and gas throughput were developed. The percentage average absolute deviation (% AAD) was 4.37 for the fixed pipe length with variable throughput and 0.68 for the fixed throughput with variable length, scenarios.</p> V. J. Aimikhe, N. E. Ezendiokwere ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers’ Information Literacy and Productivity Performance of Smallholder Horticulture in a Highland Zone, Kenya <p>The horticulture sub-sector contributes substantially to the Kenyan economy, but smallholder productivity is low. This study investigated the role of information literacy on smallholder horticultural productivity performance in a lower highland zone of Belgut Sub-county, Kericho County, Kenya<strong>. </strong>The study used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected between January and April 2019. Smallholder horticulture farmers who previously participated in a program; NALEP, in Belgut Sub-county were purposely selected and interviewed. Data was collected from 31 respondents through face-to-face household interviews using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedules and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics were utilized to document the farmers’ information sources. Associations between attributes were analyzed by running Goodman and Kruskals’ gamma and Somers’ d. Findings indicated that the smallholder horticulture farmers obtained horticultural information mostly from the public extension, but also from private companies, NGOs/FBOs, mass media, and other farmers. Farmers’ level of formal education, organizational skills, accounting, and farming skills; as indicators of information literacy, showed moderate strength of relationship with productivity and profitability (Gamma = 0.200 to 0.563) but showed mixed strength with horticultural produce quality (Gamma = 0.138 to 0.948).Somers delta showed similar patterns (Somers d = 0.089 to 0.684). When the four indicators of information literacy were amalgamated into an information literacy score, there was evidence of a moderate strength monotonic relationship between information literacy and performance as measured by the Spearman rank correlation; r<sub>s</sub> (29) = .571, <em>P</em> = .001.The study concludes that farmers obtain horticultural information from diverse sources. Information literacy contributes to the productivity and profitability of smallholder horticulture. Capacity building of the farmers on information literacy is recommended.</p> Nelly Chebet Sang, Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of the Lockdown Measure on the Confirmed Cases of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Nigeria <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study examined the impact of the lockdown measure on the confirmed cases of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Nigeria.&nbsp; The objectives of the study include to identifying an appropriate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model that is adequate for estimating the reported cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria and to ascertain whether the ease of lockdown has a significant impact on the reported cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The source of the data used for this study was the secondary data obtained from the daily report of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) from 1<sup>st</sup> February 2020 to 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The statistical tools used for data analysis are the ARIMA time series model and the Chow test analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nigeria ranked 1st in West Africa sub-region with a total of 25, 133 confirmed COVID-19 cases, followed by Ghana with 17, 351 confirmed cases while Gambia recorded the least number of confirmed cases with 47 cases of COVID19. The ARIMA (0, 1, 1) was identified as the best model for forecasting the confirmed COVID-19 cases in Nigeria within the observed period. It was found that there exists a significant difference in the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 during the lockdown period and the post lockdown period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed that Nigeria has the most confirmed cases of COVID-19 in West Africa region. Also, the ease of the lockdown was found to increase the number of confirmed virus cases in Nigeria.</p> Charles Okechukwu Aronu, Nkechi Udochukwu Otty, Jacob Chinedum Ehiwario, Patrick Nnaemeka Okafor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge about Physical Hazards and Use of Personal Protective Equipment Based on Demographic Characteristics and among Small Scale Welders in Nairobi City, Kenya <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The sprawling of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the developing world provides several challenges to ensuring health and safety practices among workers in the urban poor.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The main objective of the study will be to determine the knowledge of physical hazards and the use of PPEs based demographic characteristics among welders in Embakasi constituency, Nairobi County.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among 214 welders from 72 workshops in the Embakasi region, namely in Kariobangi South Light Industries, Kayole, and Umoja. Data collection procedure entailed observation, focus group discussions, and interviews with welders in Embakasi, Nairobi. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22 and both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were conducted to explain the association between the study variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study indicated that 90.2% of welders knew the activities at the workplace that pose health hazards. Welders’ knowledge of physical hazards at their workplace was significantly associated with experience (Fishers Exact Test =45.025, p = .05), number of hours worked per day (Fishers Exact Test = 9.322, p = .05), and PPE use (c<sup>2</sup> = 3.884, df = 1, p = .05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Factors such as age, earning a level, hours per day worked, level of education, type of training, and knowledge of physical hazards or PPE use are significantly associated with self-reported injuries among welders.</p> Onguto Nicholas Odhiambo, Warutere Peterson, Mwanzo Isaac ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary Studies of Ca-Al-Layered Double Hydroxide (Ldh) and Its Effect on the Compressive Strength in Concrete <p>This research work involved the preliminary studies of CaAl-LDHs using co precipitation method and applying it in the preparation of concrete to evaluate the compressive strength in grade 15 concrete. Slum and compressive strength test were carried out on the concrete control and concrete mixed with CaAl-LDH, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractogram (XRD) was carried out on the synthesize LDH, concrete control, and concrete mixed with LDH. From the results obtained in the work failure load test, it was observed that there was an increase by 62.60% in the compressive strength of concrete mixed with 30kg of CaAl-LDHs, the SEM micrograph also shows the increase in the density and the less porosity of the concrete mixed with CaAl-LDH which explained the increase in the compressive strength of the concrete. CaAl-LDH has therefore shows a promising effect on the increase on the compressive strength of concrete.</p> Archibong Ukeme Donatus, Ojeagah Kenneth, Michael Christopher Ukuegboho, I. E. Chiedu, Obasuyi Emmanuel Idemudia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000