Open Access Commentary

Challenges of Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria: Urgent Action for Health System that Protects Everyone

Emmanuel Ebuka Abonyi, Patrick Ifechukwu Oliorah, Blessing Chisom Onyemelukwe, Kenneth Nnaedozie Ideh, Justin Chinazor Ndenojuo, Judith Obiageli Obanwudeh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 142-147
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030566

The declaration of universal health coverage (UHC) as a sustainable development goal (SDG), in 2015 was a global resolution to building a world free of diseases and disease-related deaths. The goal is in tandem with many other work frames of the United Nations under the chaperone of the World health organization to create a healthier society. Hence, every country under the United Nations agreed to pursue this mission as part of the UN’s sustainable development goals, targeting 2030 as the project finish line. Improving health service coverage and health outcomes depends on the availability, accessibility, and capacity of the healthcare system and care providers to deliver quality and people-centred integrated care. In this regard, Nigeria has adopted several approaches to ensure the implementation of the UHC even amidst enormous challenges. This article has critically examined common but prominent factors beclouding the attainment of UHC, SDG in Nigeria. Key factors such as the primary healthcare system and health insurance schemes have been identified as major concerns while few recommendations have also been prescribed to improve the existing structures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Length-Weight Relationship and the Distribution of Intestinal Helminth Parasites in Freshwater Fishes from Amansea and Ebenebe Rivers in Anambra State, Nigeria

A. Okeke Obiageli, Obinabo W. Obinna, C. A. Imakwu, Okeke C. Janefrances, Okafor N. Chinwendu, C. C. Nwadike, I. O. Nnatuanya, P. I. Afoemezie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030550

Aims: The current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of intestinal helminths in freshwater fishes. 

Study Design:  The study was a survey done to establish the type of intestinal parasite found in freshwater fish in the rivers.

Place and Duration of Study: The fish samples were collected from Amansea and Ebenebe Rivers from November 2021 to January 2022.

Methodology:  Intestinal parasites of three (3) fish species commonly found in these rivers (Parachanna obscura, Clarias gariepinus, and Ctenopoma kingsleyae) were examined. A comparative evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of the parasite was done in relation to their gender, location, weight, and length.

Results: A total of 24 fish samples were collected in the Amansea River and 26 samples were collected in Ebenebe River. Seventeen (17) samples of P. obscura, 21 samples of C. gariepinus and 12 samples of C. kingsleyae caught with the cast nets of various mesh sizes and gill traps by artisanal fishermen in Rivers were bought early in the morning, transported to the Laboratory and identified based on morphological features.  Out of a total of 50 fish sampled, 17 fishes (34% of the total sample) were infected by intestinal helminths.  P. obscura had the highest parasite prevalence (47.06%) followed by C. gariepinus (42.86%). However, no parasite was recorded in C. kingsleyae.  Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Ebenebe (18.00%) was higher than in Amansea (16.00) with a significant difference in prevalence (p<0.05), while parasite abundance was higher in Amansea (50.94%) than in Ebenebe (49.06%) with significant difference (p<0.05). Females had the highest prevalence (35.00%) against male fishes (33.33%) with no significant difference.   A total number of 53 parasites belonging to 7 genera were recovered in this study. Parasites identified were nematodes: Procamallanus sp. (41.5%), Camallanus sp. (9.43%), Rhabdochona sp. (26.42%), Contracaecum sp. (7.55%), and Spinitectus sp. (5.66%); cestodes: Polyonchobothrium sp. (5.66%); and trematodes: Clinostomum sp (3.77%). The highest parasite abundance was recorded in Procamallanus sp. (41.5%), while Clinostomum sp had the least (3.77%).

Conclusion:  This study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal parasites in freshwater fish is relatively high. Therefore, fish consumers should subject the fish to proper processing before consumption as some of these parasites are of zoonotic importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Cyber-security Problems in Digital Assessment on Students’ Assessment Outcome: Lecturers’ Perspective

Lydia I. Eleje, Ifeoma C. Metu, Anthonia C. Ikwelle, Njideka G. Mbelede, Nneka C. Ezeugo, Florence N. Ufearo, Ijeoma A. Okenwa-Fadele, Ngozi E. Ezenwosu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030551

The increasing use and continuing growth of e-Learning systems has been documented by abundant studies but, little attention has been given to the cyber-security issues in digital-assessment. In fact, there are dearth of studies on research and education about lecturers’ perspective towards the influence of cyber-security problems in digital-assessment on assessment outcome. The current investigation targeted this research gap. Thus, a descriptive survey research was conducted with 200 lecturers purposively drawn from education discipline of government owned degree awarding tertiary institutions in Anambra state, Nigeria. Instrument used for data collection was an 8-item questionnaire developed by the researchers. Descriptive as well as inferential statistics were applied in the data analysis to answer one research question and two hypotheses. Analysis was by SPSS version-23. A p-value ≤0.05 was taken as significant. The results from this study revealed that cyber-security problems in digital assessment mars negatively on students’ assessment outcome. There were significant differences on lecturers’ perspective on the influence of security problems in digital-assessment on students’ assessment outcome based on level and cadre but not on gender. Cyber-security problems in digital assessment mars negatively on students’ assessment outcome and it was significantly influenced by academic level and cadre.  Further research is needed to check the consistency of findings and to identify whether the relationship is causal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Engineering Development in Nigerian Institutions

Chinedu James Ujam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030552

Technical development comprises the learning of professional skills, as well as theoretical and practical engineering knowledge. Engineering departments of different universities and polytechnics in Nigeria were investigated using Pareto Analysis to understand the major causes of poor engineering development in Nigerian Institutions and ways to enhance it. The findings indicate that the major causes of poor engineering developments were  poor funding, a lack of a functional policy framework, non utilization of existing laboratories, poor teaching skills, a lack of functional workshop facilities, an unstable engineering road map, a poor curriculum, decay in educational infrastructure, non-implementation of the educational budget, and poor collaboration between industries and institutions. After the analysis of all the problems hampering engineering development in Nigerian Institution using Pareto Analysis of 20/80 Rules, the result shows that the seven major causes, which mostly affected the engineering development are; Collaboration between engineering department and industries, poor teaching method, non-maximum utilization laboratories, non study of existing products and functions,  lack of functional laboratories, inadequate of professional and experienced teachers, non utilization of research findings. Tackling those seven problems head-on will bring significant improvement in the development of engineering in Nigerian Institutions. Other various methods for enhancing engineering development in Nigerian institutions were stated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of Flow Patterns to Healthcare Facilities in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

K. H. Muibi, Oye Babatimehin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 29-41
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030553

Healthcare facilities in developing countries are most times inadequate and access to the available ones is made difficult by some uncongenial urban environmental conditions.  These among other factors results in the poor health indicators normally reported for cities in developing countries. Hence, this study examined the accessibility patterns of people to healthcare facilities and factors responsible for such patterns in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. The locations of healthcare facilities and respondents in the study area were captured through handheld GPS receivers. Also, a set of 591 questionnaires were administered to elicit information about people’s perception of healthcare facilities in the city. Spatial analyses of phenomena of interest were carried out using GIS analytical tools. Specifically, the road network was digitized with a connectivity rule from Ikonos Satellite Image and was converted to network data set. Also, the analysis of travel patterns to each healthcare facility was done using origin-destination matrix in the network analysis within the GIS environment. Results showed that the travel distance of most patients to tertiary healthcare facilities is above the WHO standard; while the travel distance to primary and secondary healthcare facilities is within the WHO standard. Furthermore, result showed disparities in the preference of people to healthcare facilities occasioned by distance, transport cost, travel time, quality of service and socio-economic factors. Approximately 62% of the household patronized hospital for treatment, 23% made use of herb and 15% engaged in self-medication. The result of this study also showed distance covered to healthcare facilities and flow patterns of healthcare users in which the distance are geometrically measured in numerical unit which has been rarely employed and these were documented in the study. The study concluded that spatial restructuring and reorganization of healthcare facilities is necessary in order to enhance access to healthcare facilities in Kano city.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) under Different Doses of Phosphorus in a Sandy Soil with and without Gypsum

Kelly Delmondes Santana Becalli, Pedro Luís de Sousa Oliveira, Jossimara Ferreira Damascena, Renan Andrade Becalli, Rafael Guimarães Silva Moraes, Geslanny Oliveira Sousa, Wendel dos Santos Moraes, Edson Araujo de Amorim, Juliana Andrade Pereira

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030556

Cowpea is a crop of great socioeconomic importance in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. In these regions, soils tend to be more acidic, causing greater difficulty in root development and absorption of nutrients available in deeper layers. Another limiting factor for the development of the culture is the inadequate management or even the non-use of phosphate fertilizers. In this context, the objective of the research was to evaluate the development of cowpea subjected to different doses of phosphorus, with and without the use of agricultural gypsum applied to a sandy soil surface. The experiment was carried out from February to June 2018, in a completely Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), Replicated four (4) times. The phosphorus dosages used were 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha - in soils with and without the use of gypsum. To verify the results, morphological and productivity parameters were analyzed. The best results were obtained at the dosage of 80 kg ha -1 of phosphorus for treatment with gypsum and without gypsum. The values ​​decreased with doses higher than 80 kg ha -1 in all parameters analyzed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Digital Health Literacy Instruments for Students of the Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro

. Haikal, Enny Rachmani, Bayu Yoni Setyo Nugroho, Muhammad Iqbal, Devi Ade Nirmalasari, Slamet Isworo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030557

Background and Objective: In the health sector, students' ability to filter incoming information and make sound decisions is critical. The purpose of this research is to create a digital health literacy measurement tool for health students.

Methods: This research is a study of developing a digital health literacy measurement tool for health faculty students whose validity and reliability have been tested. Online questionnaires were distributed to 337 active students. The questionnaire went through several stages of development, including literature review, expert review, trial and field test. 

Results: The questionnaires related to digital competence and health literacy were used to conduct the literature review. Following various reviews, the main references for this research are "Digital competency framework for citizens-DigComp 2.1" and "Health literacy scale." According to the expert's opinion, the invalid (unimportant) questions were "I can distinguish appropriate and inappropriate digital content to share on social media so that my privacy and that of others are not jeopardized." and "I know how to find useful health information on the internet." Questions were removed in order to be distributed to trials. According to the test results, all questions meet the validity assumption.  The Pilot Test results were tested on 337 respondents during the field test stage to ensure that all valid questions and question items were accepted.

Discussion: This study found 24 good questions to measure digital health literacy based on nine indicators, namely: Access to Health Information (2 questions), health information management (2 question), integration of health information (2 questions), and evaluation of health information (2 questions), information and data literacy (2 question), communication (1 question), collaboration (2 question), digital content creation (2 question), safety (4 questions), and problem-solving (5 questions).     

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Application of Zinc on Seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla

Cleidiane de Andrade Ferreira, Jossimara Ferreira Damascena, Rafael Guimarães Silva Moraes, Márcio Silva Melo, Bruno Silva Melo, Karolinne Silva Borges, Lorrayne Martins da Silva

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 63-76
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030558

Eucalyptus represents a species with consolidated cultivation in the Cerrado and that has been cultivated in several states that cover this Biome. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the growth and development of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings in response to soil and foliar zinc application in a Cerrado Red Latosol. Two experiments were set up in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and seven replications. The first experiment consisted of five doses of Zn, in the form of zinc sulfate for both experiments, 0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg/dm³ applied via soil and the second experiment consisted of five doses of Zn, 0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg/L applied via foliage plus an extra dose of 20 mg/dm³ of Zn applied via soil, this dose being necessary due to the low zinc content in the soil and which could compromise the initial development of seedlings that would receive applications via leaf. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and after 80 days of planting, the following were evaluated: stem diameter (neck), height, root length, number of leaves, shoot and root dry matter, total dry matter, of macro and micronutrients in leaves and gas exchange: internal carbon concentration, stomatal conductance, transpiration and net photosynthesis rate. Even though Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings did not show statistically significant differences, part of the evaluated variables showed a positive response to the application of zinc, analyzing the linear and quadratic regression graphs, mainly at doses of 10 and 20 mg/L and 10 and 20 g/dm³.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Aerobics Exercise Training on the Pulse Oximetry of Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

A. K. Madume, E. I. Nonye-Enyidah, C. N. Woko, M. E. Inyang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030560

A significant proportion of women stop exercising after knowing they are pregnant, and only a handful begin exercising throughout pregnancy. Adopting or maintaining a sedentary lifestyle while pregnant may contribute to the development of certain illnesses. Given the worldwide epidemic of sedentary behaviour and obesity-related disease, prenatal physical exercise has been demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of these illnesses.  The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aerobics exercise training on the pulse oximetry of pregnant women. Sixty-four pregnant women who completed the study were simply randomized into experimental (n=38) and control (n=26) groups and their pre-intervention values were taken and recorded. A ten week, three times weekly aerobic exercise (40 – 45minutes) training was administered on the experimental group. A post-intervention score was also taken from all participants and the data analyzed using mean and standard deviations. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the impact at 0.05 alpha level. Results showed the Aerobic Exercise Training impacted on the pulse oximetry of pregnant women in the experimental group which reduced from a mean score of 97.82+0.73 to 97.66+1.07 and the control group from 96.96+0.87 to 96.15+0.92 . From the foregoing, it was concluded that the Aerobic Exercise Training was impactful on the pulse oximetry of the pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved YOLOv4 for Water Wastes Detection

Gu Shaokui, Niu Jinxing, Li Longyan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 85-95
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030561

Quantifying plastic refuse in water area helps to understand how plastic refuse accumulates in water area and is essential for targeted cleanup efforts. Currently, the most common methods for quantifying plastic in water area are human visual counting and sampling using nets, but such methods are costly and labor-intensive. This study proposes a watershed refuse identification algorithm based on an improved YOLOv4. Lightweight improvements to YOLOv4. EfficientNetB1 is used to replace the backbone network of YOLOv4, and the Depthwise Convolution is used to replace the original convolution to reduce the number of model parameters and computation. The anchors are re-clustered using k-means algorithm to improve the accuracy. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm improves the detection speed by 11.2% and reduces the number of parameters by 76.54% compared with YOLOv4 at the expense of 0.69% recognition accuracy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cutting Preference of the Leaf-Heating ant atta sexdens by Seedlings of Eucalyptus urophlylla Submitted to Different Doses of Zinc

Cleidiane de Andrade Ferreira, Rafael Guimarães Silva Moraes, Jossimara Ferreira Damascena, Márcio Silva Melo, Bruno Silva Melo, Kaio Cesar Lima Vale, Layane Cruz dos Santos

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 96-103
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030562

Leaf-cutting ants of the genus Atta, also known as leaf-cutting ants, are considered pests in forestry, in various agricultural crops, and also in pastures, causing great damage. Mineral elements are of great importance in increasing crop production and productivity and are involved in the defense mechanism and tolerance of plants to pest and disease attacks, when properly balanced in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cutting preference of leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens for Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings submitted to different doses of zinc (Zn) cultivated in a dystrophic Cerrado Latosol. The doses of zinc provided were 0 (control) and 20 mg/dm³ plus 20 mg/L via foliar, in the form of zinc sulfate. The seedlings used were kept in a greenhouse for up to 80 days and then submitted to laboratory evaluation. The leaves of seedlings treated with different doses of zinc were offered in Petri dishes to three colonies of ants from artificial nests of A. sexdens in the laboratory with free choice between treatments. The percentage of leaf tissue cut and transported to the nests was evaluated for 20 minutes between different doses and colonies, and four sequential offers of leaves were made. Through the data obtained, it was observed that there was no preference for cutting the leaves of eucalyptus seedlings treated with different doses of zinc by the colonies of leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Heavy Metal and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Soils from Selected Mechanic Workshops in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Omotayo Sindiku, Omolola Oluboyede, Victor Oripenaye, Felicia Adesina, Ademola Adelekan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 104-116
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030563

Aim: This study investigated the occurrence of antibiotic and heavy metal co - resistance in bacteria indigenous to mechanic workshops.

Study Design: The study is an experimental study.

Place: Samples were collected at mechanic workshop.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from three mechanic workshops and tested for the presence of heavy metals. Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was also isolated from the soils using Bushnell Haas medium supplemented with 1% engine oil or petrol. Isolates obtained were subjected to antibiotic resistance test and those that showed extensive drug resistance to the tested antibiotics were further tested for heavy metal resistance. Selected isolates were then identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence.

Results: The soil samples contained excessive amounts of Lead, Iron, Copper and Zinc, while the concentrations of Nickel, Cobalt, Cadmium and Chromium were within WHO permissible limit. A total of 10 hydrocarbon-degrading isolates were obtained from the soil samples, seven of which were gram negative and three were gram positive. Three of the isolates showed extensive drug resistance to 14 of the tested antibiotics. Three isolates were then subjected to heavy metal resistance test and all of them showed resistance to the tested heavy metals. They were identified and given ascension numbers as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MW392903, Achromobacter xylosoxidans MW392904 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MW392905.

Conclusion: It was observed that heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance can be selected for simultaneously as organisms adapt ways to cope with man’s activities in the environment, and while traits like hydrocarbon utilization and heavy metal resistance make the organisms promising in bioremediation, the inadvertent possession of antibiotic resistance by these environmental isolates poses a challenge to the health sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Record of Brachyuran Crabs from the Visakhapatnam Coast, Andhra Pradesh, India

Parnasree Mahapatra, Arya Sen, Pradip Panda, J. S. Yogesh Kumar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 117-124
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030564

Crustaceans are a highly diverse group. In particular, the order Decapoda represents a highly diverse order of malacostracan crustaceans. There are 7620 brachyuran species from 104 genera present globally. In India, 910 marine brachyuran crabs are reported, belonging to 361 genera and 62 families. Andhra Pradesh shows typical habitat heterogeneity for Brachyuran crabs. A total of 121 brachyuran crabs have been reported from Andhra Pradesh. Two species of brachyuran crabs, one is Eucrate indica Castro & P.K.L. Ng, 2010 belonging to the family Euryplacidae Stimpson, 1871 and another is Liagore rubromaculata (De Haan, 1983) belonging to the family Xanthidae MacLeay, 1838 are reported here for the first time from the Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India. These crabs were collected from the Visakhapatnam fishing harbour in the trawl bycatch during the coral reef and reef-associated faunal survey in Andhra Pradesh. The morphological features, taxonomical systematic, colour and distribution of these crabs are discussed here.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Numerical Study of the behaviour on Lock Volume Variations in Lock-Exchange Density Current in Cold Fresh Water

Alabodite Meipre George, Evans Fiebibiseighe Osaisai

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 125-141
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2022/v28i1030565

The behaviour of warm discharge through lock-exchange was investigated numerically, with the assumption that density was taken as a quadratic function of temperature. Simulations were conducted eleven different times varying barrier position. This work as presented here is practical and can also enhance policy making towards the protection of the aquatic ecosystems. Such behaviours are evident in lakes, especially in holomictic lakes and warm discharge from thermoelectric power generating plants. The sudden increase in water temperature after discharge may leads to ”thermal shock” killing aquatic life that has become acclimatised to living in a stable temperate environment. The aim of this investigation is to better fathom and as well, gain more insight into such flows. The results show that regimes of flow is dependent on the size of the lock volume. The general behaviours here are dependent on lock volume, density difference and Reynolds number. Effects of back reflected waves on the propagation speed was not significant for small lock volume simulations. A rapid collapsing behaviour of fluid was noticed for simulations with small lock volume, and the velocity decreases with increase in lock volume in this same phase. Propagation speed is not totally independent of the lock volume. Cabbeling was also key at the point where water masses meet, and as well the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Relations that describes the various regimes of flow are given in Table (1 - 11). Though, there are little variations in the scaling laws as compared to the earlier studied cases where density difference was by the means of salt water. Lastly, it will be interesting if measures can be taken to eliminate the effect of this back reflected waves in other to properly fathom the behaviour in the
propagation of the frontal speed after the slumping phase.