This paper presents the investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of two autopilots: a fuzzy Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller and, its hybrid with a PID controller for the control of pitch plane dynamics of an aircraft. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system is employed for the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) in the fuzzy logic controller design. The dynamic modeling of system begins with a derivation of suitable mathematical model to describe the longitudinal motion of an aircraft. This research set the platform for thorough investigation into the various structures available for PID-FLC and its hybrids. Considering hardware implementation challenges and limitations, not all PID-FLC and its hybrid structures are viable. The PID-FLC is constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-FLC and a PI-FLC, with the output signal of the control loop, y serving as the input for the derivative parameter of the PD-FLC. The output of the PID-FLC is formed by algebraically adding the outputs of the two fuzzy control blocks as suggested in Guanrong et al., 2000. Also, the proposed hybrid fuzzy PID autopilot consists of the PID-FLC with a traditional PID controller structured by algebraically adding the outputs of the two control blocks. Result of simulation in MATLAB®/Simulink® shows that the proposed PID-FLC autopilot gave an unacceptable trend when subjected to a step response and Dirac’s delta impulse response investigation. While the intelligent hybrid autopilot; PID-FLC with PID controller gave an acceptable time response characteristics.
Aims: To determine whether an association exists between TNF-α 308 A/G, IL-6 174 G/C, and IL-10-1082 A/G promoter polymorphisms and the corresponding systemic cytokine concentrations and outcome in patients suffering from sepsis. Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga. Between 1 August 2006 and 31 July 2008. Methodology: We enrolled 103 consecutive intensive care unit patients with sepsis into a prospective case control study. Blood samples were obtained for extraction of DNA amplifying regions of interest by means of polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) using specific primers for TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Simultaneously, plasma cytokines and standard laboratory variables were determined during the first 24 h after the diagnosis. Presence of septic shock, sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA), demographic data and clinical outcome was noticed P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Non-survivors had significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. The carriage of the IL-6-174C allele and IL-10 -1082G allele were associated with a higher risk of mortality in patients with severe sepsis. Presence of the TNF-α -308 A allele did not influence mortality differently from those lacking this allele. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated an association of the IL-6 -174 and the IL-10 -1082 with increased mortality in patients suffering from severe sepsis. We found no direct association between the examined polymorphisms and the corresponding cytokine levels.
Aims: The present research study describes leaching kinetics of F- by loading NaF on undisturbed vertical soil column of the soil collected from Sambhar region of Rajasthan, India. Place of Study: Government College Kota, University of Kota, Kota, Rajasthan, India. Methodology: Alkaline soil (pH=8.2) had been collected from Sambhar region of Rajasthan, India and was dried in open air in sunlight. Dried soil was sieved for uniform particle size. The leaching kinetics of NaF has been studied by determining the fluoride concentrations in the leachate with time. Fluoride was estimated using Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode with TISAB. Results: Linear relationship is established between the concentrations of leachable fluoride [F-]i and initial rate of leaching (LRobs). [F-]i and LRobs are found to decrease with increase in Na+ and Ca2+ levels of extractant, while an increase has been observed with increase in temperature and OH- ions. While viewing the affect of OH- ions, the effect of its accompanying cation was also investigated which indicated that maximum [F-]i are resulted with addition of NH4OH in percolating water and minimum with addition of KOH. Total leachable F-was found to be unaffected by incubation time. Conclusion: On the basis of the results, it is concluded that in alkaline soils, fluoride leaching will increase with increase in added NaF salts. An increase in Ca2+ levels of extractant has decreased [F-]i and LRobs. An increase in Na+ level of extractant, some of the unleachable fluoride converts into leachable form as [F-]extra. The result of the study is of great significance for developing various mathematical models for salt transport processes in alkaline soil preferable in Sambhar region of Rajasthan and elsewhere in the world.