Open Access Case study

Distribution of Fishery Incomes between Fishers and Fishing Gear Owners: A Case Study of Lake Tanganyika Fisheries in Kigoma, Tanzania

Odass Bilame

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 361-375
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3794

This study attempted to show the distribution of fishery incomes between fishers and fishing gear owners with particular focus on Lake Tanganyika. The study was cross section case study. Field work took place in Kigoma, Tanzania along the lake from May 2010 to August 2011. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methodology was used to gather information from both fishers and fishing gear owners. The sample size for the study included 33 fishers and 15 fishing gear owners. The study came up with mixed results that show that both fishers and fishing gear owners generated profit during high catch season (October – March) and experienced low profit and even losses during low catch season. During high catch season, a fisher with the highest monthly income netted Tshs. 5.5 million and that with the lowest netted 0.96 million. With fishing gear owners, the highest monthly income earner netted Tshs. 22.7 million while the lowest income earner netted as much as Tshs. 2.4 million. On the contrary, fishers were hardest hit during low catch season (April – September). Neither was the situation for fishing gear owners appealing; the monthly incomes generated during low catch season were far below those generated during high catch season, with very few exceptions. The study concludes that fishers are poor because of unequal distribution of the incomes that were generated. Fishers got very little of what they generated while fishing gear owners, who actually did not do the actual fishing task, took the lion’s share of what was generated.

Open Access Short communication

Complex Systems: Thoughts on the Causes of Nature

Marcel Lourel, Nicolas Gueguen, Alexandre Pascual

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 103-110
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2383

This short note presents a dialectic that discusses certain limits that are assumed to be intrinsic according to the work of author Robert (1978). Work of Serge Robert relates to the study of logic, epistemology and sciences cognitive. We therefore suggest the idea that there is a hidden and omnipresent variable that stirs up the expression of unpredicted phenomena in a complex and determined system given the error calculation. The future and epistemological implications are discussed.

Open Access Short communication

Continuous Biological Treatment of Membrane Concentrates of Deinking Wastewater Streams from Pulp and Paper Industry

Unity Oviasogie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 347-360
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3714

Aims: The aims of this research paper is to investigate the elimination rates of chemical oxygen demand in 5 days (COD5), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), suspended solids (SS or AFS) denoted as “food” (F) to biomass (M; microorganism) ratio (F:M), by targeting varying rates and concentrations of influent stream in a continuous biological treatment (CBT).
Study Design: The experiment initially consisted of two acrylic cylinders with cone-shape bottom with an inner diameter of 20 cm and 65 cm, respectively. The setup is fitted with a heater and aeration system. Temperature of wastewater range is maintained at 30 – 36 degree Celsius to promote the growth mesophilic microorganism.
Place and Duration of Study: Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management, University of Stuttgart, Bandtale 2, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany, between January 2011 and August 2011.
Methodology: The experiments were carried out in continuous activated sludge systems for short periods with variable feeds. COD5 is the main parameter which is used to evaluate the carbonaceous organic matter removal capacity. COD5 analysis was performed on the effluent of every experiment. CODmf was measured to assess the effect of SS content in the effluent on the COD5 elimination. CODmf analysis was performed in all stages of the experimental period and served as an indicator of true COD5 values. BOD5 is measured to evaluate whether the effluent is fully biodegraded after the experiments.
Results: The COD5 result showed the highest elimination rate on day 89 at 45%.CODmf showed the highest elimination rate on day 89 at 44%. Biological oxygen demand in 5 days results showed the highest elimination rate on day 90 at 89%. Suspended solids (AFS) result showed the highest elimination rate on day 89 at 79% all parameters with Influent rate of 16.7 liters per day. DFZ436 showed the highest elimination rate on day 64 at 82%. DFZ525 and DFZ620 showed the highest elimination rate for both wavelengths recorded on day 64 at 84%, and 79%, respectively, with Influent rate of 7.2 liters per day.
Conclusion: High level of elimination of non-biodegradable organics, inorganic and color constituents in the highly toxic and concentrated wastewater is ample proof of the effectiveness of the CBT in combination with the activated sludge system and membrane filtration technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Designing, Realisation and Testing of Combined Dryer-Smokehouse/Cow Dung Based Biogas Production Unit Module in Cameroon

Benjamin Diboma, Jacques Bikai

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2075

This article deals with the setting up of a module combining a biogas production unit and a fish dryer-smokehouse. The prototype was designed at the Thermal and Environmental Laboratory (LATE) of the University of Douala, and then experimented during 66 days. The dryer-smokehouse bears a drying or smoking compartment of volume 0.162m3 partitioned with three perforated grids separating each other by 20cm. On the back part of the drying compartment is mounted a fan which will assure the mixing of the dying air. The combustion compartment of 0.4m3 locks up the oven which produces heat from the combustion of biogas, regulating organs and air entries. The biogas produced from cow dung serves as fuel to the dryer-smokehouse. The digester used is a batch reactor loaded one time with 150 kgs of cow dung diluted at 45%. The biogas was measured by a liquid displacement method. Experimentations show that the cumulated biogas production is of about 9.13m3 in 66 days. The average drying time of 4 kgs of fish (salmo salar) was 8 hours with our combined module and 7 hours with other traditional dryers. The dried fishes are unblemished compare to that dried by traditional biomass dryers. The designed prototype with an overall efficiency of 1.7 kg of dried fish/ kg of cow dung input is cheaper (€ 600) and ecological, therefore could be a green alternative to traditional biomass dryers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Archaeometric Non-Invasive Study of a Byzantine Albanian Icon

Enrico Franceschi, Dion Nole, Stefano Vassallo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 17-34
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2381

The present study is part of a project concerning the characterization of Albanian Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons, through the identification of pigments, of painting technique and the state of conservation of the artworks.
The Albanian iconographers produced an incredible number of icons from the 14th to the 19th century and about 6000 of them are conserved in the Museum of Medieval Art of Korça (Albania). The study of these artworks is conducted by non-destructive methods, X-ray fluorescence, visible light reflectance spectrophotometric measurements and UV fluorescence analysis, according to an analytical procedure developed in our Laboratory. With this procedure we can recognize the inorganic pigments from their typical features. Moreover, the study of the optical properties of paintings is of fundamental importance for correct restoration. Eleven areas were selected in order to carry out the measurements. The present work, concerning the study of an icon of 14th century, has allowed us to recognize the palette and the painting technique used in this artwork by the anonymous painter. We have also compared this icon with other Byzantine works housed in the same Museum.
Aims: The main purpose of this research was to identify the original pigments, those added during restoration interventions, the restored areas, as well as the painting technique used by the anonymous painter; and together provide useful information to art historians and restorers.
Study Design: The present study is part of a project concerning the characterization of Albanian Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons, through the identification of pigments, of painting technique and the state of conservation of the artworks.
Place and Duration of Study: Museum of Medieval Art of Korça, Albania, between June 2008 and July 2009.
Methodology: The study is conducted by non-destructive methods, namely, X-ray fluorescence, visible light reflectance spectrophotometry and UV fluorescence analysis.
Results: The non-destructive study allowed us to identify the pigments’ palette of the anonymous 14th century artist. For the ground, the painter employed calcium white coloured with brown ochre, ivory/bone carbon and copper based compounds. We also detected the previously restored areas of the icon and the pigments utilized by restorers.
Conclusion: The set of non–destructive techniques employed in this study has proved to be very useful for recognizing pigments, including those not detectable with certainty by means of X-ray fluorescence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Rural Households Poverty in Nigeria: Evidence from Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria

S. O. Olawuyi, M. O. Adetunji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 35-45
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2196

Poverty is a topical issue in developing countries especially Africa and Nigeria in particular. The dearth of studies on quantitative determinants of poverty in Nigeria is a major weak point in the country’s poverty reduction policy and strategy formulation. This study analyzed the incidence, severity and the determinants of household poverty in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria using the data collected through well-structured questionnaire from 120 respondents who were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analytical techniques used include descriptive statistics (frequency counts, percentages and mean values), poverty Indices and ordinary least square technique (OLS); this was used to assess the determinants of poverty among the households. The findings revealed that poverty is higher among households that have old heads, female heads, and large household size, engage in farming as the only occupation and have no formal education; poverty therefore rises with the increase in household size while it reduces with increase in level of education, farm size and participation non-farm jobs as alternative livelihood source (livelihood diversification). Gender, household size, years spent in school, farm size and non-farm jobs were found to be important and significant factors determining poverty in the study area. The study recommends that, there is the need to control household size, invest in human capital development, increase farm size and embrace livelihood diversification; these and many more are ingredients of effective poverty reduction strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaysian TESL Students’ Challenges: Instructional Use of Video Production

Laleh Khojasteh, Jayakaran Mukundan, Nasrin Shokrpour

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 46-62
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2248

Aims: The study aims at identifying the challenges with which Malaysian students of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) are faced before, during and after stages of video production process.
Study Design: Interpretive.
Methodology: In this study an interpretive analysis was done on daily journals and observations of 42 Malaysian TESL students producing a video of a scene of a Shakespearean play, Macbeth. Peer assessment was then applied in order to give students a chance to evaluate their peers’ work.
Results: The findings revealed that students encountered various difficulties before, during and after production stages which should be taken into account in teacher training programs.
Conclusion: The findings are useful for teachers and teacher education institutions involved in teaching the use of digital video to enhance pedagogy. This study suggests that TESL students should perhaps be exposed to basic video production techniques from early stages of their teacher training in order to be prepared to integrate video production in their future classes to enhance student learning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stepwise Reducibility of the n-th Order Linear Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients

Kazbek A. Khasseinov

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 63-73
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2360

This article introduces the concept of gradual (or partial) reducibility of linear differential equations (LDE) with variable coefficients. In this article we construct algorithm for reducing the order of LDE with variable coefficients which after replacing variable has at least one solution of exponential form y(t) = eλt.
So reduced equation with new variable coefficients has at least one solution of the eλt form. The second order LDE with variable coefficients is studied in details.
The method of solution of LDE by step-by-step reducibility is offered and some specific equations are solved for illustration purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Threshold Velocity for a Hybrid Short Journal Bearing with the Injection Ports in the Symmetric Points

Valeriy Nosov, D.E. Rivera Arreola, J. C. Gómez Mancilla, J. A. Meda Campaña

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 74-92
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2142

Aims: Analytical determination of the eccentricity and attitude angle, rotordynamic coefficients (stiffness and damping), stability threshold velocity of the hybrid short journal bearing with the oil injection ports situated in symmetric points for ß= 7Π/4, 5Π/4, 3Π/4, Π/4. Analyzing the influence of external pressure allows to obtain some qualitative and quantitative behaviour characteristics of such bearing, which are of great importance to understand the process of pressurization when the injection port is placed in different points of the journal bearing. Also these results can be used at preliminary stages of pressurized bearing design for turbomachinery. The analytical results are validated by numerical calculation solving the Reynolds equation by finite difference method.
Place and Duration of Study: Vibrations and Rotordynamics Lab. Department of Mechanic Engineer, IPN-SEPI-ESIME Building 5, 3er Floor, Zacatenco, Av. Wilfrido Massieu s/n, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. México, between January 2012 and July 2012.
Methodology: The well-known Reynolds equation for journal bearings is solved by means of the Ocvirk approximation for short bearing solution. The model of the spatial Dirac delta function δ(x) allows to analyze the influence of the external pressurization.
Results: The analytical solution using the new model of punctual pressurization is very reliable since the results are sufficiently similar to those obtained by the numerical method. Several tables are calculated which allow finding given values of eccentricity due to pressurization.
Conclusion: The journal dynamics shows that is better to locate the injection port of lubricant in ß= 7Π/4 in order to postpone the instability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanical Handling Characteristics of Briquettes Produced from Water Hyacinth and Plantain Peel as Binder

R. M. Davies, D.S. Abolude

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/1963

Aims: The effect of process variable on shattering index and compressive strength characteristics of the water hyacinth briquettes were evaluated.
Study Design: The experimental design for this study was 5 x 3 x 4 Randomized Complete Block Design.
Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from Port- Harcourt, Niger Delta and are located between latitudes 4º 2" and 6º 2" North of the equator and longitudes 5º1" and 7º 2" East of the Greenwich meridian, between Jan 2009 and March 2010. The laboratory work was conducted in the Mechanical Engineering Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Methodology: The experimental design for this study was 5 x 3 x 4 Randomized Complete Block Design. This study involved three particle sizes of dried and ground water hyacinth ( D1, D2, D3) at levels 0.5, 1.6 and 4mm, pressure (P1, P2, P3, P4 ) at level 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0MPa with plantain peels were used as binder ( B1, B2- B3, B4, B5 ) in the ratio of 10, 20, 30 40 and 50% by weight of residue. They were arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications per experiment.
Results: The shattering index and compressive strength of the briquettes produced from this densification variables competed favourably with charcoal. The mean shattering index ranged between 0.62±0.02 (B1) to 0.96±0.01 (B5) and variation of the values were significant (P<.001). The compressive strength of the briquettes ranged between 0.84±0.05 Nmm-2 (B1) and 2.66±0.05Nmm-2 (B5) at different binder proportions. It could be inferred that the amount of binder used have significant influence on the durability rating of the briquettes (P<.05).
Conclusion: The observation showed that briquettes produced from water hyacinth are durable, reliable and able to stand mechanical handling and as well transportation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ignition and Burning Rate of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

R. M. Davies, D. S. Abolude

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 111-120
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/1964

Aims: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of compaction pressure, binder proportion and particle size on ignition time and burning rate of fuel briquettes produced from a mixture of water hyacinth and plantain peel.
Study design: The experimental design for this study was 5x3x4 Randomized Complete Block Design.
Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from Port-Harcourt, Niger Delta, located between latitudes 4º 2´ and 6º 2´ North of the equator and longitudes 5º 1´ and 7º 2´ East of the Greenwich meridian, between Jan 2009 and March 2010. The laboratory work was conducted in the Mechanical Engineering Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Methodology: The experimental design for this study was 5x3x4 Randomized Complete Block Design. This study involved three particle sizes of dried and ground water hyacinth (D1, D2, D3) at levels 0.5, 1.6 and 4mm, pressure (P1, P2, P3, P4) at level 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0MPa with plantain peels were used as binder (B1, B2- B3, B4, B5) in the ratio of 10, 20, 30 40 and 50% by weight of residue. They were arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications per experiment.
Results: The effect of particle size, binder ratio and compaction pressure on burning rate of the briquettes varied from 0.92±0.03 g-1min (D1) to 2.66± 0.05 g-1min (D3), 1.57±0.11g-1min (B5) and 2.30±0.15g-1min (B1) and1.68±0.11 g-1min (P4) and 2.13±0.13 g-1min respectively.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that Increased in compaction pressure, binder ratio and decreased in particle size caused decrease in the burning rate but elongated the ignition time of the briquettes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Dates on Morphological Characteristics, Root Yield and Chemical Composition of the Root of Withania Somnifera Grown in the Semi-Arid Regions of Andhra Pradesh, India

Pandu Sastry Kakaraparthi, Dharmendra K Rajput, Karnati Komaraiah, Niranjan Kumar, Ramesh R Kumar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 121-132
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2675

The present study was undertaken to study the effect of sowing date on morphology, yield and chemical composition of root of Withania somnifera grown in the semi arid regions of Andhra Pradesh, India. The experiment was carried out in the research farm of Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Research Centre, Hyderabad, India during 2009-2011. The experimental material included two morphologically different ashwagandha cultivars i.e. Poshita [variety developed by CIMAP] and Nagore [local variety grown in Madhya Pradesh, India]. Treatments consisted of two varieties [Poshita and Nagore] sown at ten different sowing dates [June to October at 15 days interval] replicated thrice in a randomized complete block design. The influence of treatments on morphological characters, root yield, seed yield, starch, fibre content and the total alkaloid content of the roots were studied. Among the varieties tested, Poshita produced significantly more number of roots having more dry weight which ultimately resulted in significantly higher root yield compared to variety Nagore. Variety Poshita exhibited superiority over Nagore in all the morphological characters studied also. Early sowings (June-July) resulted in higher root yield. The yield variation in the varieties in relation to sowing time is discussed in this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Senior Volunteering – How Does Volunteering of the Elderly Influence Their Individual and Social life? (A Qualitative Research Study of Slovak Elderly Volunteers)

Lukas Pavelek

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 133-144
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2396

Aims: To find effects, motivation and barriers of senior volunteering in Slovak republic. To evaluate the impact on health, individual and social life of the elderly.
Study Design: Grounded theory (according to Strauss & Corbin’s approach).
Place and Duration of Study: The municipal district of Trnava, Slovak republic, between November 2009 and September 2010.
Methodology: The research sample consisted of fifteen senior volunteers and fifteen volunteer coordinators or representatives of non-profit organizations working with volunteers. The volunteers were located in the municipal district of Trnava (Slovak republic), the coordinators were chosen from all-over the country. The sampling method used was snowball sampling and the method used for data collecting was a semi-standardized interview. This data were complemented with various other textual data sources, such as documents from the NGO’s (formal and informal), electronic documents and e-mail conversations. All the collected data were analyzed with the software Atlas.ti according to the open and axial coding processes of the grounded theory approach.
Results: Open and axial coding procedures helped to develop the paradigmal model of the process of senior volunteering.
Conclusion: The findings support the thesis that volunteering in a higher age can significantly improve the individual life of seniors, although many barriers and obstacles were identified too.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cost Estimates and Study of the Characteristics of the Discontinuity of Electricity Supply of Industries in Cameroon

Benjamin Diboma, Thomas Tamo Tatietse

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 145-172
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2854

This article treats the cost estimates and study of the characteristics of electricity supply interruptions in industries. The impact of the characteristics (duration, timing, warning time and frequency) on the cost of interruptions is put in evidence. The model described in this article uses data collected through a survey with questionnaire of a representative sample of industries and from previous statistical studies. The choice of the sample of industries was made thanks to a two degree sample survey method. The results obtained indicate that the average costs of interruptions are €1,050/h and of €815/h respectively for the scenarios without advance notice and with advance notice. The cost by interruption per industry is on average €6,300 for a supply interruption without advance notice and of €4,890 for a supply interruption with advance notice, thus a difference of 8.4%.The average cost varies from €2.58/kWh to €4.83/kWh lost for a 1-hour interruption and from €1.75/kWh to €3.75/kWh for a 4-hour outage. The trend of the interruptions’ costs shows a decrease after the first hour, they are not proportional to the frequency of the outages. The supply interruptions are more frequent at the peak periods (6 pm -11pm); we record an increase of 10% in the costs compared to the costs at normal periods. However, disparities of 5 to 15% were observed between the costs of interruptions in industries according to the equipment and the measurements which exist in order to mitigate the effect of outages. A mastery of the electricity supply interruption cost structure would make it possible for industries to be better prepared to face them and the company in charge of electricity called Applied Energy System- SONEL (AES-SONEL) could easily improve the performances of the electricity network.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Inorganic Chemical Contaminants at Refuse Dumpsites in Awka, South Eastern Nigeria: A Public Health Implication

J. K. Nduka, C. Anyakora, E. Obi, F. O. Obumselu, T. E. Ezenwa, L. C. Ngozi-Olehi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 173-189
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3051

Aim: Is to determine the levels some PAHs and inorganic contaminants in refuse dump soil samples within residential areas in Awka in Anambra State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Ten soil samples (five study samples and five control samples) taken from five major refuse dumpsites in Awka, South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (organic contaminant) and inorganic contaminants using their respective standard methods.
Place and Duration of Study: Soil samples were collected from Awka in Anambra State while the analysis was carried out at the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Lagos Nigeria between November 2010 and January 2011.
Methodology: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the analysis of 16 specific target compounds which included naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, flourene, phenanthrene, anthracene, flouranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]flouranthene, benzo[k]flouranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene,dibenz[a, h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene. Four isotopically labelled polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (acenaphthene-d10, phennanthrene-d10, chrysene-d12 and perylene-d12) were used for internal standardization. Inorganic contaminants were analyzed using their respective standard methods, these include nitrate, nitrites, chloride, hardness, TDS in addition to heavy metals, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc reported in our previous study.
Results: All 16 PAHs were found in most of the samples and their controls, with highest concentration in sites A, B and C. The range of PAHs in the sites where as follows; site A (14.20 – 710.02mg/kg), site B (Nd-2392.06mg/kg), site C (Nd – 1158.22mg/kg), site D (Nd – 0.92mg/kg) and site E (Nd – 0.84mg/kg). Nitrates were as follows: site A (52.43mg/kg), site B(50.30mg/kg), site C(62.45mg/kg),site D(45.20mg/kg) and site E(38.50mg/kg). These and other examined parameters were present in an amount that can constitute environmental and public health problem.
Conclusion: It is concluded that indiscriminate dumping of refuse within residential areas can accentuate the environmental and public health- problem of the inhabitants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electrophoretic Deposition of Alumina and Nickel Oxide Particles

Bintou Ouedraogo, Oumarou Savadogo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 190-205
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2559

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of alumina and nickel oxide particles on nickel substrate has been investigated. Pure ethanol and a mixture of ethanol and water were used as solvents. The stability of Al2O3 and NiO suspension in two solvents was studied and compared in terms of zeta potential, electrophoretic mobility and conductivity. The influence of different solvents and deposition parameters such as suspension conductivity, applied voltage and time of deposition on the weight gain and the morphology of deposits were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that mixture of ethanol and water as a solvent appears to be advantageous over pure ethanol for EPD of Al2O3 and NiO from standpoint of a good stability of suspension, a higher electrophoretic mobility and also due to the uniform deposits in terms of microstructures and thicknesses. Studies the relationship between the increase in applied voltage during EPD and the decrease in conductivity, have shown that the increase in voltage was completely caused by the decrease in conductivity of suspension.

Open Access Original Research Article

On Photodynamic Therapy of Alzheimer’s Disease Using Intrathecal Nanorobot Drug Delivery of Curcuma Longa for Enhanced Bioavailability

Kal Renganathan Sharma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 206-227
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2942

Robotics was first instructed as a collegiate course about 20 years ago at Stanford University, Stanford, CA. From the first IRB6 the electrically powered robot in 1974 over a 30 year period the industry has grown. A leading supplier of robots has put out over 100,000 robots by year 2001. Robot capable of handling 500 kg load was introduced in 2001, IRB 7000. A number of advances have been made in nanostructuring. About 40 different nanostructuring methods were reviewed recently [2]. Nanorobots can be developed that effect cures of disorders that are difficult to treat. Principles from photodynamic therapy, fullerene chemistry, nanostructuring, x-rays, computers, pharmacokinetics and robotics are applied in developing a strategy for nanorobot, treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The curcuma longa that has shown curative effects in rats’ brain with Alzheimers is complexed with fullerenes. The drug is inactive when caged. It is infused intrathecallyinto the cerebrospinal system. Irradiation of the hypothalamous and other areas of the brain where Alzheimer’s disease is prevalent lead to breakage of fullerenes and availability of the drug with the diseased cells. Due to better mass transfer better cure is effected. The other plausible reactions such as addition polymerization of fullerene, polycurcumin formation and other hydrolysis reactions are modeled along with the drug action under the Denbigh scheme of reactions. The fractional yield of drug-curcumin interaction is a function of intensity of radiation, frequency of radiation, patient demographics, age, gender, other disorders etc. Chromophore in curcumin is used as a sensor and computer imaging and feedback control design can result in more bioavailability for curcumin therapeutic action to cure Alzheimer’s disease. This study examines the principles used in the design, the strategy of the design of the nanorobot drug delivery system with a specific target and pharamacokinetic formulation of the associated competing parallel reactions. The burrow and link capabilities at a nanoscopic level is also available if needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Sources of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons of the Sediments of River Oluwa at Agbabu Bitumen Deposit Area, Western Nigeria

Olubunmi E. Fagbote, Edward O. Olanipekun

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 228-248
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3063

Aims: This research is aimed at determination of the distribution, concentrations, sources and origins of petroleum hydrocarbon in sediment.
Study Design: River sediment samples were collected from five sampling sites from the sediments of River Oluwa at Agbabu bitumen deposit area and analyzed for n-alkanes content.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Agbabu bitumen deposit area, Western Nigeria, in years 2008 and 2009.
Methodology: Analysis was carried out using gas-chromatography flame ionization detector. Diagnostic parameters used in identifying and estimating the origins of n-alkanes in the study area included Carbon Preference Index (CPI), Average Carbon Chain (ACL) and %Plant Wax Contribution.
Results: n-alkanes ranged from 54.72mg/kg to 2002.4mg/kg, which were all higher than the recommended limit of 10 mg/kg. Sampling station OLSW1 had CPI value of 1 in the two sampling seasons, showing petrogenic source. The remaining sampling stations had CPI values that ranged from 0.22 and 0.52, showing bitumen related sources. ACL values were constant at 28 in all the sampling stations, except sampling stations OLSW1 (27.19) and M2SW (27.71), where they were lowered due to petrogenic contamination in the study area. Analysis of variance of the concentrations of n-alkanes with SPSS at α = .05 showed statistically non-significant differences.
Conclusions: The sediments of River Oluwa at Agbabu bitumen deposit area were heavily contaminated with n-alkanes due to bitumen deposit, microbial activity, phytoplankton and algae, insects and plant waxes, and anthropogenic activities which included petroleum product transportation, fishing and laundry. Source diagnostic analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons with CPI gave values that were less than 1 at all sampling points, except OLSW1, indicating that bitumen deposit in the study area had impacted on the sediments of River Oluwa at Agbabu bitumen deposit area as a result of the predominance of even numbered n-alkanes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Power Outage Cost Evaluation: Reasoning, Methods and an Application

Johannes Reichl, Michael Schmidthaler, Friedrich Schneider

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 249-276
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3167

This paper analyses different assessment techniques used for power outage costs evaluation. Socio-economic analyses to quantify the effects of power cuts are essential for energy policy and to provide a rationale for investments in electricity supply security enhancing measures.
Different analytical approaches are presented. An application of these assessment options provides insights in the macroeconomic value of electricity supply security. This is an essential input in the current discussion of grid extensions and investments in renewable energy sources.
The applied analysis tool for the simulation of different power outage scenarios is available for download and enables policy makers to base decisions on the ground of the economic dimension of electricity supply security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorptive Removal of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solution Using Cow Hooves

Ilesanmi Osasona, Albert Ojo Adebayo, Olubode Olumuyiwa Ajayi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 288-303
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2405

Aim: To investigate the use of Nigerian cow hooves for the removal of chromium VI from aqueous solution.
Place and Duration: Chemistry Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure and Chemistry Laboratory of Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, from September 2011 to June 2012.
Methodology: The adsorption process, which was carried out through batch method, was investigated over a range of pH (2-7), agitation time (0-150 mins) and adsorbent mass (1.0-3.0 g per 50 mL of metal solution). The adsorption isotherms were obtained using initial metal concentrations ranging from15 to100 mgL-1. After agitation, the resultant solution was analyzed for Cr (VI) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
Results: The optimum operating parameters obtained for the adsorption process are pH 2 (89.5% removal) and time of 30 mins (34.4% removal) while the highest metal uptake (mgg-1) was recorded for 1g of the adsorbent per 50ml of solution. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich (D-R) isotherm models were applied to describe the experimental data. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of the cow hoof for Cr (VI) at 298, 308 and 318 K were determined to be 3.57, 4.81 and 5.71 mgg-1 respectively. Freundlich isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data better than Langmuir and D-R models. The mean free energy (E) which was calculated from D-R model indicated that the sorption process was dominated by physisorption mechanism. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model.
Conclusion: This study revealed that cow hoof powder can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater under the optimum conditions of pH 2 and contact time of 30mins while the thermodynamic parameters- ∆G0, ∆H0 and ∆S0 indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic, feasible and spontaneous.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Solvent Extraction of Oil from Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Its Characterizations

O. O. Awolu, R. O. Obafaye, B. S. Ayodele

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 304-314
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3705

Aims: Optimization of neem oil production and its characterization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was carried out in this study. The effects of three factors: sample mass, particle size and extraction time on the response, neem oil volume extracted, were investigated
Study Design: The Box-Behnken design of RSM was employed which resulted in 17 experimental runs.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, between July, 2010 and July, 2011.
Methodology: This was carried out in a 250 ml Soxhlet extractor. The solvent used was Petroleum-ether. The neem seed powder was packed inside a muslin cloth placed in a thimble of the Soxhlet extractor. The extraction was carried out at 60ºC using thermostated heating mantle. The solvent in the extracted oil was evaporated and the resulting oil further dried to constant weight in the oven. The fatty acid profile of the extracted oil were determined using gas chromatograph analysis while the physicochemical properties were determined using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1990 methods.
Results: Results showed that optimized value of 49 % (47 ml) of neem oil was obtained at 45 g mass of sample, 1.39 mm particle size 2 h extraction time. In addition, neem oil had 0.15 % moisture contents, 0.88 specific gravity, 201.21 mg KOH/g saponification value, iodine value 78 gI2/100 g, acid value 10.21 mg KOH/g, peroxide value 6.80 meqO2/Kg, Cetane number 54.38 and Calorific value 40.01 MJ/Kg. The neem oil showed that the percentage unsaturation was 83.05% while the percentage saturation was 16.95 %. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results of the Response Surface Methodology showed that all the linear coefficients and the quadratic coefficients were significant (p = 0.05). The R2 and R2adj values of 0.9966 and 0.9935 respectively indicated that the regression model was a good one.
Conclusion: Extraction of neem oil has been successfully optimized using RSM. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile showed that the oil extracted is suitable for renewable fuel raw material source.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) on Psychological Symptoms in Addiction Treatment: A Pilot Study

Dawson Church, Audrey Brooks

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 315-323
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3500

Objective: Studies have found a frequent co-occurrence of psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression with addiction. This pilot study examined the effect of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), a widely practiced form of energy psychology, on 39 adults self-identified with addiction issues attending an EFT weekend workshop targeting addiction.
Measures: Subjects completed the SA-45, a well-validated questionnaire measuring psychological distress. It has two global scales assessing intensity and breadth of psychological symptoms and 9 symptom subscales including anxiety and depression. The SA-45 was administered before and after the workshop. Twenty-eight participants completed a 90-day follow-up.
Results: A statistically significant decrease was observed in the two global scales and all but one of the SA-45 subscales after the workshop, indicating a reduction in psychological distress (positive symptom total -38%, P<.000). Improvements on intensity and breadth of psychological symptoms, and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive subscales were maintained at the 90-day follow-up (P<.001).
Conclusion: These findings are consistent with those noted in studies of other populations, and suggest that EFT may be an effective adjunct to addiction treatment by reducing the severity of general psychological distress. Limitations of this study include a small sample size, lack of a control or comparison group, and attrition between primary and follow-up data points.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technology for Probability Assessment of Elementary Hazard Events

O. M. Serebrovsky

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 324-336
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3047

The aim of the work is to develop a technology for Basic Events (BE) probability assessment at a given predictive interval, with consideration of the situation at potentially hazardous facility (plant, factory, storage; armory) at the beginning of the predictive interval. With this objective, the following tasks are formulated: 1) Develop a logical basis for BE probability assessment which includes (a) formalization of possible situations, (b) formalization of situation impacts on cumulative distribution function (CDF) of BE, (c) computation of BE probability assessment; 2) Develop technological stages of the BE probability calculation. The computing technology for probability assessment of undesirable events occurring at the elements of potential hazard facilities is proposed. The technology uses the expert knowledge, statistical data and analytical methods. The user’s role is reduced to the setting of predictive interval and formalizing of the situation description. Novelty: The proposed technology enables to use the failure models together with expert knowledge about the situations arisen at potentially-dangerous objects. Practical importance: since the technology reflects a real-life situation at a facility, the prognosis is more reliable.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of the Milk Quality in Cameroon. A Study in Adamawa Region

H. C. Edima, E. T. Awono, R. Ndjouenkeu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 337-346
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4198

Aims: In order to assess the milk sector in Cameroon, the research and development sector is being questioned about the global quality of milk, as well as the specificity of the breeding context, since the milking activities are essentially based on rudimentary practices. The present work aims at shedding more light on the ongoing discussion on the quality of unpasteurized and fermented milk in the Adamawa region, by presenting the current practices and analysing the milk samples.
Place and Duration of Study: To achieve this, this study was carried out in Ngaoundéré in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon, between October 2011 and February 2012.
Methodology: Milk was supplied by 5 production units found around the town. A questionnaire aimed at describing the milking techniques was equally administered to the suppliers. Two series of 80 milk samples were collected on each site for physical, chemical (pH, dormic acidity, blue methylene test, density) and microbiological (total bacteria, salmonella, streptococcus, and coliforms) tests, in accordance with the standards.
Results: The main results show that the “Peulh” ethnic group represented by the “Mbororos” and the “Fulbe” hold the monopoly of the breeding sector in the Adamawa region. As concerns production techniques, 67 % of breeders carry their milk to the collecting centers within 12 to 15 minutes after milking. The quantity of milk collected by each breeder at the level of the collecting centers is 77 liters on average during the dry season, as opposed to 116 liters in the rainy season. These results also show that the udder and the collecting cans are critical points of milk quality. The precarious hygiene conditions of milking, conditioning and conservation illustrate these results, as confirmed by the microbiological tests which reveal that none of the samples are in conformity with the standards.
Conclusion: Finally, the milk production conditions in the Adamawa are not likely to ensure the quality of products put on sale. This study will help to better master the sector, by showing the contribution of hygiene in the milk production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling of Mass Transfer Rate During Biocoagulation-Flocculation of Coal-Rich Wastewater

L. A. Jimoda, E. O. Oke, K. K. Salam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 376-390
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3492

The study was aimed at modeling rate of mass (diffusing particles) transfer during bio-coagulation/flocculation of coal-rich wastewater at different operating conditions. Diffusion equation was developed from law of conservation of mass and partial differential equations were used to describe rate of mass transfer during the process. The equations were firstly solved by method of separation of variables which resulted to initial-boundary value problem. Then, integral properties were used to calculate Fourier coefficient of the series. Codes were later developed in MATLAB enviroment for computer simulation. The predicted results were compared with experimental data obtained from the literature and it was found in good agreement. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of bio-coagulation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Price Convergence and Forecasting Returns by V/P Ratio: Evidences from TSE

Javad Moradi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 391-407
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4088

Aims: This study investigates the convergence of prices to fundamental value of stocks to deepen the insights of investors about the market mechanisms. The paper checks the value relevance of accounting and financial reporting information and addresses the usefulness of V/P ratio as a good predictor of stock returns which can be exploited by analysts.
Study Design: The study design consist of the following steps: Fundamental value estimation, Calculating the V/P ratio, Classification of the sample based on Johnson and Xie Model (2004), Normal and abnormal return calculation, Factorial correlation analysis.
Place and Duration of Study: The society consists of all the firms accepted in TSE from 2002 through 2010 which the sample (consist of 87 firms) has been selected by some restrictions.
Methodology: This paper introduces the concept of "Convergence of prices to fundamental values" based on Johnson & Xie model (2004) and tests its predicting ability. This is an applied research utilizing correlation and regression methods to describe the variables and the relations.
Results: The Findings support the prediction ability of V/P ratio with respect to long-run normal and abnormal returns. Also, the results show the return accumulation in price convergence subgroup of sample; say that the primary source of this abnormal return is the convergence of prices to fundamental values of stocks. The correlation between accounting and financial reporting information with market prices has been evident, too.
Conclusion: The results support the value relevance of accounting book values for fundamental value estimations and the prediction ability of V/P ratio especially in long-run period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Gastric Ulcerative Activity of Ocimum gratissimum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Okon Uduak Akpan, Obembe Agona Odeh, Olubobokun Titilope Helen, Owu Daniel Udofia

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 408-422
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4236

Aim: It has been observed that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) cause altered acid secretion and increased rate of ulceration. Ocimum gratissimum (OG) have been reported to possess hypoglycemic properties. This study therefore set out to determine the effect of DM on ulcerogenic indices and how OG could ameliorate them.
Methodology: The phytoconstituents and median lethal dose of the plant extract was determined before administration. Eighteen rats were used; the animals were divided into three groups of six rats each. Group 1 was the control and were given normal feed only. Group 2 was diabetic untreated rats (DM) while group 3 was OG treated diabetic rats (DMT). All the groups had access to water ad libitum. After 28 days, the gastric acid output, mucus secretion rate and ulcer scores were determined.
Results: The result showed that the basal acid output in the DM group was significantly higher than control. The peak acid output in the DMT was significantly lower (P=.001) when compared with control and DM. The mean mucus secretion was significantly (p=.001) lower in the DM and DMT compared with control. The mucus secretion in DMT was significantly (p=.001) higher compared with DM. The mean ulcer score was significantly higher in DM than in control (p =.01) and significantly higher in DMT than in control (P =.01) but significantly lower than in DM group (P =.01).
Conclusion: We therefore conclude that OG mitigate ulcerogenic activities in STZ - induced diabetic rats by reducing gastric acid secretion and increasing mucus secretion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Analysis of Fruit Juice and Soft Drinks Bought From Retail Market in Accra, Ghana

Hayford Ofori, Margaret Owusu, George Anyebuno

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 423-428
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3377

Aims: To determine the levels of Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn in fruit juice and soft drinks bought from retail markets in Accra as heavy metals contamination has become a matter of public health concern but this has not received much research attention in Ghana especially fruit juice and soft drinks contamination through heavy metals.
Study Design: The results obtained from the analysis were compared with WHO specifications of heavy metals in drinking water.
Place and Duration of Study: Food Chemistry Division of CSIR- Food Research Institute in Accra, Ghana between June and December 2012
Methodology: Twenty bottles comprising of fruit juice and soft drinks bought from retail markets in Accra, were analysed using the dry ashing method. Acid digestion was carried out during the sample preparation and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer used to read the absorbance values at appropriate wavelength of the interested metal in the sample solution. The metal content of the samples were derived from calibration curves made up of minimum of three standards.
Results: The mean concentrations of heavy metals were in the order Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu for fruit juice and soft drinks. In the fruit juice samples analysed, the mean concentrations of heavy metals determined were 0.83±0.48 mg.L-1, 9.07±3.62 mg.L-1, 1.59±0.90 mg.L-1, 3.33±1.29 mg.L-1 for Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn respectively whiles in the soft drink samples, the mean concentrations of heavy metals determined were 0.34±0.05 mg.L-1, 7.72±3.12 mg.L1, 0.72±0.99 mg.L1-, 1.07±0.66 mg.L-1 for Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn respectively.
Conclusion: The concentration of some of the heavy metals found in both fruit juice and soft drinks were above the safe limit recommended by WHO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Neural Networks for Predicting the Workability of Self-Compacting Concrete

Moosa Mazloom

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 429-442
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4027

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a complex material and modeling its workability is a complicated task. To evaluate the workability of SCC, five different tests have been conducted, which are slump flow, V-funnel, J-Ring, L-box and U-box. In fact, executing L-box and U-box tests are more difficult than the other ones, especially on sites. Therefore, this research studies the possibility of predicting the results of L-box and U-box tests from the results of the other tests utilizing artificial neural networks (ANN). For this purpose, multi layer perceptron (MLP) networks and radial basis (RB) networks were chosen. The conclusion was that the MLP networks could foresee the L-box and U-box test results in all situations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Time Interval, Age and Gender on Perception and Recall Ability of Nigerian Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) Plate Numbering System Using Tachistoscope

K. N. Tlhabano, S. K. Balogun, M. Selemogwe, M. M. Pheko

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 443-459
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3628

Aims: To investigate the effects of time interval, age and gender on recall efficacy of Nigerians with the newly introduced vehicular plate numbering system using a tachistoscope.
Study Design: A repeated measure design
Place and Duration of Study: Ibadan, Nigeria, February 2013
Methodology: One Hundred and thirty one (131) students of the University of Ibadan (65 males and 66 Females) were randomly selected from a list of volunteers. Participants were then exposed to three types of vehicle plate numbers for recall purpose varying the time interval, age and gender. Participants were repeatedly exposed to the tachistoscope over three trials (one for older series – sample A, one for the old series – sample B and one for the new plate number – sample C). Measures were taken on how many information characters were verbally recalled.
Results: It was observed that, contrary to expectation and concern of the authors, there was better recall of the latest version (sample C) of the vehicle plate numbering system. There was no significant difference in recall ability by gender or age. In addition, time interval had significant influence on recall ability in that those who recalled immediately performed better than those who had delayed recall.
Conclusion: Overall time interval affected both plate number perception and memory recall and there was no effect of gender on perception and memory recall. The recall and recognition results confirmed findings already described in the literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization in Breast Lesions Detection via Integrated Statistical Approach

Luminita Moraru, Simona Moldovanu, Mirela Punga Visan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 460-473
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3852

Aims: The main purpose of this research was to develop a new method to extract the most valuable texture features to differentiate between cyst and solid nodule classes in breast echography images. T-test coupled with leave-one-out cross-validation analysis technique was developed. This technique was used to a breast ultrasound image database in order to select a small number of highly predictive features and to allow algorithms to operate effectively and faster.
Study Design: The image processing was made using the Matlab environment and statistical analysis was accomplished by using the SPSS ver. 17 software.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Echography, St Maria’s Hospital, Galati, between November and December 2011.
Methodology: To reach this goal, a feature extraction method was developed based on the geometric and statistical moments. Features extraction has been successfully accomplished and their further application has been based on an integrated statistical approach. To determine the meaningful features and their efficiency in each studied class, the statistical T-test was carried out. T-score was performed to establish the capability of the features to differentiate between classes and also, as a ranking tool for features. In order to analyze if our results would lead to an independent data set, the leave-one-out cross-validation method has been used.
Results: Experimental results showed that the proposed method is very effective and the selected feature subsets could be used to compare the ability to differentiate between classes. Also the minimum size of the feature subsets was another pursued goal. Three different combinations of the statistical and geometric moment features could characterize the breast nodule (i.e. rectangularity, area convexity and the second order moment) and other three could characterize the breast cyst (i.e. circularity, form factor and eccentricity).
Conclusion: Through this method, the dimensionality of the feature vectors was substantial reduced and the ability to differentiate between cyst and solid nodule classes in breast echography images was improved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Informal Waste Recovery and Recycling: Alleviating Poverty, Environmental Pollution and Unemployment in Douala, Cameroon

L. O. Mbeng

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 474-490
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4436

Aims: The aims of this research paper is to investigate the role of the informal waste recovery and recycling sector in Douala, Cameroon in alleviating poverty, environmental pollution and unemployment.
Study Design: The design consisted of a survey of 72 randomly picked waste pickers involved in the recovery and recycling of four waste fractions: scrap metals, plastics, bottles and papers and cardboards.
Place and Duration of Study: PK 12 “Genie Militaire” landfill operated by HYSACAM,at Douala, Cameroon, between October 2012 and December 2012.
Methodology: The methodology consisted of two parts: a quantitative survey using random sampling and qualitative interviews designed to add depth and detail to the survey results. Participant observation, site visits and literature review from international journals and reports were carried out.
Results: The study reveals that poverty trends in Cameroon is higher in the rural than in the urban areas, a major cause of rural– urban migration. In Douala, a real migration hub for the unemployed, the recovery and recycling of four waste fractions; scrap metals, plastics, bottles, papers and cardboards was found to be very profitable. This is because, the minimum wage of Cameroonians, 746 FCFA (US$ 2) per day was found to be lower than the daily income, 1000 FCFA–1500 FCFA (US$ 2.90–US$ 3.3) of the informal waste sector workers at the Douala landfill. Besides improving the livelihoods of the waste pickers, the amount of waste at the landfill is reduced hence mitigating environmental pollution. This is in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.
Conclusion: In an attempt to put waste pickers on the map, the study recommends alliances based on best practices found in other countries as well as the government to design programmes that will guarantee health, safety, identification and the creation of veritable markets for waste products.