Open Access Original Research Article

Palatal Rugae Pattern for Gender Identification among Selected Student Population in Chennai, India

Seenivasan Madhankumar, Shanmuganathan Natarajan, Uma Maheswari, V. Anand Kumar, Padmanabhan T. Veeravalli, Fathima Banu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 491-496
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4873

Aim: To evaluate the gender differences with regard to the shape of the palatal rugae and identify the most predominant pattern.
Study Design: Cross sectional design
Place and Duration of Study: June 2009 to October 2009 in the Faculty Dental Sciences at Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India.
Methodology: 135 students aged 17-25yrs participated in the study. Based on gender they were divided into two groups comprising of 62 male and 73 female students respectively. Maxillary impressions made were cast in dental stone were utilised to analyse and study the variation in rugae pattern based on classification by Thomas and Kotze. The data obtained were tabulated and analysed using IBM SPSS 19.0 version. The incidence of specific rugae pattern and its association with gender was analysed using chi-square test.
Results: Straight and curve forms were most prevalent rugae shapes in both the genders. Chi-square analysis for association between rugae shape and gender showed significant differences in total number of rugae and unification pattern of rugae.
Conclusion: Observation of rugae pattern is a useful additional method and complementary technique for human identification, providing a significant contribution for forensic identification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Ethylbenzene from Aqueous Solution Using Recycled Rubber from Scrap Tyre

F. A. Aisien, N. A. Amenaghawon, S. A. Akhidenor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 497-512
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4920

The adsorption of ethylbenzene from aqueous solution using waste tyre rubber granules (WTRG) was investigated in a batch system. The effect of various factors such as contact time, initial concentration of ethylbenzene, amount of adsorbent, size of adsorbent particles, and temperature of solution on the adsorption capacity of WTRG was determined. The equilibrium contact time was obtained to be 70 minutes indicating fast adsorption. The adsorption of ethylbenzene on WTRG was observed to increase from 8.4 to 57.85 mg/g with increase in initial ethylbenzene concentration from 250 to 850 mg/L. The adsorption capacity of WTRG increased from 55.35 to 71.6 mg/g with decrease in particle size from 2.36 to 0.212mm. Increasing the temperature of the aqueous solution from 5 to 40oC resulted in a decrease in the adsorption capacity of WTRG from 59.83 to 45.15mg/g. Kinetic and isotherm studies indicate that the adsorption of ethylbenzene was best described by the Lagergren pseudo-first order kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm equations respectively. Results obtained indicate that recycled rubber from scrap tyres can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of ethylbenzene from aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples of Selected Sawmills in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Ajibulu Kehinde Ezekiel, Adefemi Oluyemi Samuel, Asaolu Samuel Sunday, Oyakhilome Gloria Irenosen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 513-521
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4024

The study investigated the impact of sawmill activities in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil around some selected sawmill industries in Ekiti State. Soil samples were collected at 5cm and 20cm depth; at interval of 10m, 20m, 30m, and 40m away from the site. The results obtained showed that the concentration of most of the metals at the different sites were almost similar, depicting that these metals are probably of natural origin with mild contribution from anthropogenic source, since the concentration of the metals decreased with distance from the various site. All metals monitored were detected in the soil samples and the values obtained were within the acceptable International Standards for soil/sediment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arsenic Content in Inactive Tissue: Human Hair and Nail

M. A. Rakib, M. E. Huda, S. M. Hossain, K. Naher, Rahat Khan, M. S. Sultana, M. S. Akter, Mohammad A. H. Bhuiyan, Masum A Patwary

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 522-535
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3091

Nuclear reactor based Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method was applied for the determination of arsenic content in human scalp hair, nail and water samples at the south western part of Bangladesh. Average Arsenic (As) content in male and female hair samples were 0.93 μg/g and 3.71 μg/g respectively and also As content in nail samples for male and female were 1.40 μg/g and 2.03 μg/g respectively. A significant correlation in hair and nail for male (r = 0.615) and female (r = 0.728) were observed. This correlation indicated higher affinity to accumulate in external tissue of human body with exposure time. On the other hand, a significant correlation (r = 0.79 and r = 0.72; p = 0.01) was found in female hair and nail As c content in relation to water content (average 0.89 μg/g). Similar association (r = 0.49 and r = 0.53; p = 0.01) was observed in both matrices for male with water content at the significance level of correlation coefficient. More than 20% people of study area were arsenic affected due to highly contamination of groundwater. Arsenic in both matrices were relatively higher, compare to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended value (>1 µg/g). Results indicated that arsenic content in human hair and nail were greater inconsistency perspective to gender variation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Some Selected Area in Lagos State

Chidi C. Uhuegbu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 536-543
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/3223

Carbon monoxide measurement was carried out in some selected area in Lagos State using carbon monoxide detector (Model DSM 8922). Some of the results are shown in Table 1. CO emission with minimum value of 45 ppm to a maximum value of 835 ppm. The values vary from time to time and depended on the number and age of vehicles plying the road at that time. Some areas have exposure of 100 ppm and above, making them highly toxic to human beings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-Lethal Toxic Effects of a Contaminated Dumpsite Soil to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)

Adeola A. Oni, A. T. Hassan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 544-558
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2013/v2i221287

Aims: Bioassays measure environmentally relevant toxicity. Consequently, increasing attention has focused on incorporating toxicity tests in hazard evaluations of contaminated sites. We evaluated the lethal and sub-lethal effects of contaminated dumpsite soils at various depths using the earthworm Eisenia fetida.
Study Design: Four contaminated dumpsite soils WDA [Waste Dump Area] 1 & 2 representing top soils (0-15cm depth), WDA 3 (15-30cm depth) WDA 4 (75-100cm depth) and field control (CS- control soil) were inoculated with E. fetida (12 worms/500g soil).
Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang, China. March 12-31, 2007.
Methodology: Survival, body weight, and an oxidative stress biomarker (Malondi-aldehyde levels-MDA) of the earthworms were assessed over a seven-to-fourteen day period. Total and bio-available metal and other physico-chemical parameters of the soil were determined using standard procedures. Correlation coefficients and ANOVA were used for data analysis.
Results :Test-soils WDA 1-2 had the highest levels of cadmium: (Mean±SD-28.17±0.01; 24.77±0.003), zinc (1777.98±0.49; 2883.90±1.48); copper (493.08±0.09; 684.57±0.40), and manganese (1345.53±3.46; 1548.03±0.64)mg/kg soil. WDA 3 had the highest levels of lead (356.80±0.18mg/kg). Earthworms showed significant (P =.05) weight reduction in test soils WDA 1-3 from 0.353±0.013g, 0.348±0.035g, 0.348±0.035 to 0.215±0.003g, 0.216±0.019g by day 14; and 0.215±0.030g by day 7 respectively. Mortality in WDA 3 was 100% by day 14. Only earthworms in WDA 4 did not differ significantly in weight from the control. MDA levels showed a general pattern of increased levels by the second day and subsequent declines by the seventh day, suggestive of oxidative stress onset and possible role of anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. Total lead, bio-available cadmium and zinc correlated with growth reduction data on day 7 (-0.919;P=.05), (-0.924) and 14 (-0.995;P=.01) and may partly be responsible for the observed effects. Increased pH in WDA 4 may have through increased metal sorption reduced bio-availability.
Conclusion: These results may explain the absence of earthworms in metal contaminated soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes Induced by Olive Mill Wastewaters Used as Organic Fertilizer on Polyphenol Content, pH and Salinity of an Alkaline Soil

Rachid Razouk, Kaltoum Oubella, Abdelaziz Chergaoui

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 559-570
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5468

Aims: The main objective of this paper is to determine the recommended amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) that should be applied as a fertilizer in alkaline soil, based on evolution of its pH, salinity and polyphenol content.
Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications where the variable factor was amount of OMW.
Place and Duration of Study: The trial was carried in an open glass greenhouse in the Regional Agricultural Research Center of Meknes - Morocco, between February and March 2012.
Methodology: Four amounts of OMW (50, 75, 100 and 150 m3/ha) were tested as organic fertilizer on an alkaline soil in comparison with water treatment based on measurement of soil pH, electrical conductivity and polyphenol content using fenugreek as an indicator plant. The Indicators of stress measured on plants were leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature.
Results and Discussion: The application of the four amounts of OMW induced a decrease of soil pH and an increase of its electrical conductivity whereas soil polyphenol content following significant regression models. Soil pH and electrical conductivity changed slightly under all treatments with a maximal values under the treatment 150 m3/ha. However, soil polyphenol content increased widely under different treatments of OMW. The physiological parameters of the fenugreek showed a certain stress under 150 m3/ha.
Conclusion: OMW may be used as organic fertilizer up to 100 m3/ha on alkaline soil without adversely affecting its quality in the arable layer. Beyond this amount, a particular attention should be paid, to soil polyphenols as far as their phytotoxicity is concerned, since a high concentration of polyphenols may exert an allelochemical effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Generalized Sub-ODE Method and Applications for Nonlinear Evolution Equations

Feng Xu, Qinghua Feng

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 571-581
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5347

In this paper, a generalized Bernoulli sub-ODE method is applied to seek exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. This method is based on the homogeneous principle, and is effective in seeking new travelling wave solutions. As applications, we apply this method to solve (2+1) dimensional Boussinesq and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) equation, and with the aid of mathematical software, some new exact travelling wave solutions for this equation are found.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of Pesticide Residues in Kola Nuts Obtained from Selected Markets in Southwestern, Nigeria

Paul E. Aikpokpodion, O. O. Oduwole, S. Adebiyi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 582-597
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5435

Aims: To assess the level of pesticide residues in kola nuts.
Study Design: Kola nuts were purchased in open markets within South Western, Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: The samples were obtained in markets within Oyo, Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria between November and December, 2012.
Methodology: Kola nuts were sun-dried and pulverized. 3 g of each of the pulverized samples was extracted with acetonitrile saturated with hexane. Each of the extracts was subjected to clean-up followed by pesticide residue determination using HP 5890 II Gas Chromatograph.
Results: Result show that, 50% of kola nuts samples obtained from Oyo State contained chlordane residue ranging from nd – 0.123 µg kg-1; all the samples from Osun State had chlordane residue ranging from 0.103 to 0.115 µg kg-1 while 70% of kola nuts from Ogun State had chlordane residues (nd – 0.12 µg kg-1). All samples from Ogun, Osun and Oyo States had endosulfan residues while 30 and 20% of kola nuts obtained from Osun and Ogun States had alachlor residues respectively.
Conclusion: The presence of alachlor (herbicide), endosulfan and chlordane residues in kola nuts is an indication that, kola nuts processors use hazardous pesticides in the storage of fresh kola nuts. This practice can pose serious health threat to the consumers of the commodity.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Efficient Algorithm for Computation of a Minimum Average Distance Tree on Trapezoid Graphs

Sukumar Mondal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 598-611
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4661

The average distance μ(G) of a finite graph G = (V, E) is the average of the distances over all unordered pairs of vertices which can be used as a tool in analytic networks where the performance time is proportional to the distance between any two nodes. A minimum average distance spanning tree of G is a spanning tree of G with minimum average distance. Such a tree is sometimes referred to as a minimum routing cost spanning tree and these are of interest in the design of communication networks. In this paper, I present an efficient algorithm to compute a minimum average distance spanning tree on trapezoid graphs in O(n2) time, where n is the number of vertices of the graph.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cocoa Beans obtained from Selected Cocoa Producing States in Nigeria

Paul E. Aikpokpodion, O. O. Oduwole, S. M. Ademola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 612-625
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5428

Aims: To assess the level of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cocoa beans obtained from selected cocoa producing areas of Cross River and Ondo States, Nigeria.
Study Design: Sun-dried cocoa beans were collected from cocoa farmers in the studied areas.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected in Boki-Biakwan, Ikom, Etung and Efraya in Cross River; Idanre, Akure and Ile-Oluji in Ondo State between January and March, 2013.
Methodology: Collected cocoa beans were ground with ceramic mortar and pestle. one gram (1 g) of each sample was extracted with hexane : dichloromethane in a ratio of 3:1. The extract was cleaned-up in a chromatographic column filled with silica gel and eluted with methylene chloride after which HP 5890II Gas chromatograph was used for the analysis.
Results: Among the 16 priority PAHs detected in the samples, Dibenzo[ah]anthracene had the lowest concentration ranging from 7E-06 to 5.8E-05 µg kg-1 and 7E-06 to 5.8E-05 µg kg-1 in Cross River and Ondo State respectively while fluoranthene had the highest concentration (mean = 0.1989 µg kg-1) in samples from Cross River while anthracene had the highest concentration (mean = 0.2385 µg kg-1) in samples from Ondo State.
Conclusion: The levels of Benzo [a] pyrene and PAH4 in the studied cocoa beans were far lower than the maximum level set by the European Union for PAHs in cocoa.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of CFRP Laminate Length for Strengthening the Tension Zone of the Reinforced Concrete T-Beam

Muhammad Mukhlesur Rahman, Mohd Zamin Jumaat

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 626-640
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5563

Most of the researches on strengthening so far had been focused on rectangular reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Researches on strengthening of RC T-beams are rather limited. This study focuses on the application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate for strengthening the tension zone of RC T-beam constrained by the presence of a stump (representative of a column) and the effect of varying the length of the strengthening laminates. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strengthening method, a total of three RC T-beams were fabricated and tested. The beams were tested using the three point bending test set-up. The results showed that the load carrying capacities of the tension zone strengthened beams were increased by about 50% compared to un-strengthened beams. The length of the CFRP laminate recommended in the Technical Report 55 did not prevent end peeling but it did increase the load bearing capacity of the RC T-beam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ectoparasiticidal Activity of Herbal Product Keetguard Liquid against Riphicephalus Microplus in Ruminants

Pratibha Jumde, Sandeep Akhare, Mohanji Saxena, Kotagiri Ravikanth, Mangesh Dandale, Ajay Thakur, Shivi Maini

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 641-654
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4023

Aims: The present study was aimed to determine the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of herbal ectoparasiticidal and fly repellant Keetguard liquid (Supplied by M/s Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, HP, India) against Rhipicephalus microplus.
Study Design: 24 non descript cows with natural and heavy tick infestation were selected for the trial and divided into four groups of 6 animals Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV. Each group of animals was kept as control for specific period of time and thereafter they were treated with 1:20 dilution of Keetguard liquid applied over the body coat by spray method once a day and twice weekly.
Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted under field condition and was undertaken by Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur.
Methodology: In vivo efficacy of Keetguard liquid on nymphal, larval and adult stages of ticks was determined by treating the cattles with keetguard liquid as per prescription (The dosage was standardized on the basis of preclinical trails). The number of each stage of ticks per square unit was counted. Observations were noted after 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48 and 72 hours in vitro efficacy of Keetguard liquid towards larval, nymphal and adult stages of ticks from cattle was evaluated by observing mortality of larval, nymphal stages of ticks and adult ticks in filter paper impregnated with keetguard at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of exposure to test solution.
Results: Keetguard significantly removed all nymphs in 10 hrs and the adult ticks in 24 hrs in in vivo study. A time interval of 24 hrs and 72 hrs was required for complete mortality of nymphal/larval stages of ticks and adult ticks respectively when tested in vitro. Besides the immediate effect on adult ticks, the egg-laying property of the survived ticks was also assessed. Keetguard significantly afflicted oviposition percentage in adult female ticks (5%) as compared to untreated females (92.5%). The average egg mass in both groups was 3.2 mg and 12.8 mg respectively. No reifestation was observed till 45 days after treatment signifying the potential residual activity of the Keetguard liquid.
Conclusion: The product was found highly efficacious against the ectoparasite infestation in animals as well safe and eco-friendly. It can effectively reduce the ectoparasites nuisance ultimately turning out to high productive performances in animals. Besides the immediate effect on adult ticks, the egg-laying property of the ticks was also reduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Repair of Pre-Cracked RC Beams Using Several Cementitious Materials

Samir M. Shihada, Yasser M. Oida

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 655-664
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5238

This study investigates the use of four cementitious repair materials in terms of restoring the flexural capacities of pre-cracked reinforced concrete shallow beams. Fifteen reinforced concrete beams are cast, pre-cracked, repaired and then tested under four point-loading. The repair materials used include Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC), Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC), Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) and Cement-based Repair Material (CRM). Added to this, three beams are cast, tested and considered as control beams. The outcome of this study shows that the four repair materials can achieve flexural capacities ranging from 97 % to 111% of the control beam capacities. In addition, mid-span deflections and crack patterns are also compared.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimisation of Plantain - Brewers’ Spent Grain Biscuit Using Response Surface Methodology

O. S. Omoba, O. O. Awolu, A. I. Olagunju, A. O. Akomolafe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 665-681
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4944

Aim: To optimize the formulation of plantain – brewers’ spent grain biscuits using Response Surface Methodology with the purpose of achieving the maximum quality and overall acceptability of produced biscuits.
Study Design: Central composite design model of Response surface methodology was employed to design the work. This produced thirteen experimental runs, the variables considered were Brewer’s spent grain (94-97 %) and plantain flour (3-6 %) while the responses were percentage soluble dietary fibre, percentage insoluble dietary fibre and iron contents.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, between January to December 2012.
Methodology: The variables considered for the research were Brewer’s spent grain (94-97 %) and plantain flour (3-6 %) while the responses were percentage soluble dietary fibre, percentage insoluble dietary fibre and iron contents. Thirteen (13) runs were obtained.The optimization was carried out on plantain flour and brewer’s spent grain in order to know which of the combinations will give best total dietary fibre and iron content.
Results: Optimized values, which are the highest total dietary fibre and iron values of 68.55 % and 0.80 mg /100g respectively, were obtained from blends of 95.5 % and 4. 5 % of plantain flours and Brewer’s spent grains respectively (PS 4). The best response surface model for the insoluble dietary fibre was quadratic that of soluble dietary fibre was linear while it was quadratic also for iron content. The lack of fit, (p=0.4208) is non significant. A non significant lack of fit is required confirming that, the model of is adequate. The R2 value of 52 % signifies a good model. This is in view of the fact that R2 must be at least 50 % to be a good model.
Conclusion: Response Surface Methodology was effective in optimizing iron and dietary fibre in the formulation of plantain-spent grain biscuit. The nutritional composition of the plantain-spent grain biscuit indicated good levels of dietary fibre (IDF, SDF and TDF), Iron.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grasping a Concept as an Image or as a Word – A Categorical Formulation of Visual and Verbal Thinking Processes

Goro C. Kato, Kazuo Nishimura

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 682-691
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5472

Aim: Categorical formulations for thought processes and communications are provided.

Study Design: Category theory and Sheaf theory.
Place and Duration of Study: June 2010 to April 2013 in the Department of Mathematics, California Polytechnic State University and the Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University.
Methodology: In order to capture the changing state of an individual over a time period, we introduce a state controlling "variable" in terms of objects (called generalized time) in a site (i.e., a category with a Grothendieck topology). We also capture communications (information flows) as observation morphisms between individuals. The interplay among the change of the state of an individual, the communication between individuals, and the thought processes of those individuals is unified as the commutativity of the fundamental diagram in Section 3 of [1].
Results: We provide formulations for communication diagrams (information flows) between the language dependency type and the image dependency type which are denoted as Type (L) and Type (I), respectively.
Conclusion:We have used categorical notions to formulate to express Type (I) and Type (L) of thought patterns. Then we have formulated the information flows in terms of the induced morphisms between Type (I) and Type (L).

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Empirical Formulae Used in Groundwater Recharge in Ogun – Oshun River Basins

M. O. Oke, O. Martins, O. Idowu, O. Aiyelokun

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 692-710
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4557

Quantification of the rate of natural groundwater recharge is a pre-requisite for efficient groundwater resource management. It is particularly important in regions with large demands for groundwater supplies, where such resources are the key to economic development. However, the rate of aquifer recharge is one of the most difficult factors to measure in the evaluation of groundwater resources. Estimation of recharge, by whatever method, is normally subject to large uncertainties and errors. In this paper, an attempt has been made to derive groundwater recharge from rainfall in ogun-oshun river basin using three empirical formulae and they include modified chaturvedi formula (1936) and Krishna Rao (1970) in Kumar, (2009); Kumar and Seethapathi (2002). Results from these three empirical formulae were compared using line graph, inter-item correlation and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A correlation coefficient of the range of 0.99-1.0 exist between each formula, and the rejection the null hypothesis that the means of the three formulae are not different from each other leading to the conclusion that any of the formula can be used for recharge estimations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dental Fear- a Cross Sectional Study among Various Age Groups of South Indian (Chennai) Population

V. Anand Kumar, Seenivasan Madhan Kumar, Shanmuganathan Natarajan, Padmanabhan T. Veeravalli, Karthigeyan Jeyapalan, Fathima Banu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 711-718
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4828

Aims: People who suffer from dental anxiety often fail to visit the dentist for routine care. Apprehension prior to or during dental treatment is a normal human reaction, but higher levels of anxiety and fear can be a barrier to receive regular dental care and to maintain good oral health. Several factors, especially direct and indirect conditioning have been reported to contribute to dental fear and anxiety among people of different age groups. This study evaluates the various levels of dental fear and anxiety in south Chennai population of different age groups using Likert rating scale.
Study Design: Cross sectional verbal survey.
Place and Duration of Study: Chennai, 3 months duration.
Methodology: A randomized cross sectional verbal survey was conducted on about 550 adults aged above 18 years, by utilizing the Likert rating scale. A significance level of data was analysed using IBM SPSS 19.0 version. Pearson’s chi-square tests were used for comparison of means and relationship between the attributes.
Results: Mean value represented people above 50 years of age were found to have high levels of dental fear; 30-50 years had moderate levels, whereas, people of 18-30 years age group were found to have comparatively least levels of dental fear. But there was no significant difference in levels of dental fear between different age group and sexes.
Conclusion: The study shows that dental fear was high among the research participants irrespective of their age. Higher dental fear was found among those who were 50 years and above.

Open Access Original Research Article

Macros Development for Create the Reusable Programs and Generate Customize Result in Clinical Data Reporting

Vasanth Kumar Kunitala, Praveen Kumar Jinka, Varun Kumar, Ahamed Kabeer

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 719-740
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/4415

The article is mainly describe the purpose of the macro facility and efficiency of macro-based applications in clinical domain for create, tests and provides resolution to bugs, defects and other changes to the SAS macro library. It mainly focus on fundamental concept of program flow, tokenization, %INCLUDE statement, %LET statement, macro triggers, macro statements, macro variables, global and local symbol tables, automatic macro variables, macro variable reference, substitution within a macro statement, substitution within a SAS literal, unresolved reference, substitution within SAS code, referencing macro variables, combining macro variables with text. It will give the brief idea about macro functions, defining a macro, macro compilation, calling a macro ,macro storage, macro parameters, SYMPUT routine, creating a series of macro variables, creating macro variables in SQL, the need for macro-level programming, conditional processing, monitoring macro execution, macro syntax errors, parameter validation, developing macro-based applications, iterative processing, the SYMPUTX routine, rules for creating and updating variables, rules for resolving variables, multiple local tables. This article shows complete concept of the macro system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crude Aloe vera Gel Reduces Small Intestinal Transit and Increases Body Weight in Normal Albino Wistar Rats

Nna Victor Udo, Akpan Ubom Paul, Olubobokun Titilope Helen, Osim Eme Effiom, Antai Atim Bassey

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 741-753
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/5489

Aims: This study was carried out to determine the effect of crude Aloe vera gel on blood glucose level in normal animals and to ascertain the relationship between food intake, body weight changes and intestinal transit in animals administered crude Aloe vera gel.
Methodology: The phyto-constituents and median lethal dose of the plant material were determined before administration. Sixteen albino wistar rats were randomly assigned one of two groups thus, control group and test group. The control group was fed with rat food and water while the test group was given a daily oral dose of crude Aloe vera gel (0.2ml/100g body weight) in addition to free access to food and water. Food intake, water intake, body weight and fasting blood glucose levels were measured during the research work. At the end of 21 days, intestinal transit was determined using the method described by Uwagboe and Orimilikwe [15].
Results: Intestinal transit was significantly lower (P<0.001) in the test group compared to control. Food intake, water intake and blood glucose level in the test group was not significantly different compared to the control group. The test group had a significantly (P<0.001) higher body weight change when compared to control.
Conclusion: Crude Aloe vera gel reduces small intestinal transit, thus resulting in longer periods for absorption of digested food materials and may be responsible for the increased body weight observed in the test group since food intake was not significantly increased.