This work we present the synthesis, microstructure, surface alkaline-acidic behavior and photo catalytic property of the cobalt zine ferrite Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0–1.0) nano-particles. The oxidation-reduction potential of methyl blue aqueous solution in presence of the ferrite nano-particles at pH=7 under natural sunlight irradiation is obviously negative and increased with increase in Zn content. The degradation rate of methyl blue in aqueous solution on the nano-particles also decreases as increase in Zn content in sunlight. The variations of the oxidation-reduction potential and photo catalytic efficiency with Zn content were discussed on basis of the light absorbance, microstructure, and physicochemical characteristics of the nano-particles. The quasi-kinetic rate constant was estimated to be in the range of ~1.03− 1.92 h-1 that increased as decrease in Zn content.
Aims: The presence of natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients called antinutrients causing itching in the mouth has, resulted in the underutilization of cocoyam and therefore requires some processing methods to reduce these limiting factors. Effect of drying at different temperatures on the proximate composition, functional properties and anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and investigation into moisture reduction pattern of cocoyam flour were therefore studied. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between June 2011 and March 2012. Methodology: Raw cocoyam (RC), cocoyam; dried at 60ºC (CF1), 70ºC (CF2) and 80 ºC (CF3) were grounded to fine flour and their proximate composition, antinutritional content and physicochemical properties were determined. Results: The flour samples have low bulk density values with samples dried at 60 and 70 ºC being the lowest which is significantly different from that of the other treatment. The flours have high water absorption capacity and high swelling power values with the flour dried at 70 ºC being highest and significantly different from the other samples which are not significantly different from each other. Crude protein was highest in CF1 and lowest in CF3. The difference in crude fat was significant (p<0.05) at the different temperatures used compared to RC. Contents of ANFs [tannins, phytate, oxalate, and saponin] were not significantly reduced by the drying temperatures adopted compared with the RC but was below the threshold limit. Conclusion: The results showed that the drying temperatures adopted enhanced the nutrients and physicochemical properties with no significant reduction in the antinutrients. This was suggested to be due to the low temperature treatments employed.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of yoghurt supplied to the consumers from retail outlets in Sabaragamuwa province Sri Lanka. Set yoghurt samples (50), which represent yoghurt samples from five manufacturers and fruit yoghurt samples (30), which represent yoghurt samples from three manufacturers were collected. All collected samples were analyzed for chemical composition (fat, protein, total solid, solid non fat, ash, pH, and titrable acidity), physical (syneresis and firmness), microbial (total bacterial count, Coliform count and yeast and mold count), and organoleptic (color, appearance, taste, odor, texture and overall acceptability) properties. Chemical, microbiological and physical properties of most of the tested yoghurt samples were within the Sri Lankan Standards. However, total plate count, yeast and mold count of some fruit yoghurt samples were not within the Sri Lankan standards. Highest and lowest microbial and physical properties respectively were recorded by the products of manufacturer D and C respectively. However, those two products were the mostly preferred products in terms of sensory evaluation. Yoghurt of good quality in terms of microbial, physical and chemical properties should be encouraged for consumption.
The ever increasing incidences of occupational diseases among workers have continually drawn the attention of researchers towards ameliorating the situation. Investigation was launched to assess occupational diseases among artisans and factory workers in Ifo, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires with oral interview were employed to complement the health records of the respondents at the Government accredited health center. Of the one hundred and fifty six (156) respondents, ninety six (62%) are males and sixty one (38%) female, sixty one point fifty four percent (61.54%) are youths of age 20 to 39 years, fifty one (32.69%) are illiterates and one hundred and eight (69.21%) earn N100, 000 ($615) and below as monthly wages. The diseases prevalent in these workers were evaluated to include but not limited to disorders of muscles, bones, joints, skin and the respiratory organs indicating that most of the jobs are such that causes damages to these special parts of the body and could lead to deformities/incapacitation in old age. Common amongst these diseases are Pre-patellar bursitis and Eczema (1.92% each), Tuberculosis, Asthma and Sunburn (5.77% each). Toxic/inflammatory syndrome, hearing impairment, allergies and computer vision syndrome (7.69% each). Two (1.28% in each case) have been diagnosed of Lead poisoning, Lung cancer, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Pulmonary fibrosis, Meniscus lesion and Olecranon bursitis. Upper airway disorders (4.49%), Irritations (3.21%), Post-traumatic stress syndrome (11.54%), skin allergies (13.46%). Chronic bronchitis; Pneumonia; Pneumoconiosis; Hepatitis and Anthrax-like infection (0.64% each). The causes of these diseases/disorders include dusts from quarry, textile, cotton, metal, paper, mineral, wood, cereals, cement, and chemical fumes industries, extreme posture of wrist, repetitive movements, inhalations from petrol fuel, prolonged pressure of the elbow region, prolonged kneeling/ squatting position, forceful exertions and microorganisms. Adequate occupational health and safety awareness through training and campaign should be provided. The use of personal protective equipment among workers should also be encouraged.
Knowledge of aquifer parameters is essential for the assessment, management and protection strategy of groundwater resources. The values of these parameters are best estimated through pumping tests but are costly and time consuming. Data from Electrical resistivity survey carried out at the vicinity of a borehole where pumping tests have been acquired together with pumping test data provides a cost-effective and efficient alternative to estimate aquifer parameters in sites where pumping tests are not available using the surface geophysical methods. In this Paper a simplified geo-statistical integrated approach to derive aquifer parameters from pumping tests data and surface resistivity soundings (VES) is presented. This method was explored by using pumping tests analysis data especially hydraulic conductivity to calculate the transmissivity (T) of the same boreholes from data (thickness) acquired through surface resistivity soundings (VES). A graphical linear relationship was established from a set of data and subsequently used in places where pumping test is not available for the determination (estimation) of aquifer hydraulic parameters. When the method was compared with existing data, the compared result was further used in deriving transmissivity factor and subsequently used in the determination (estimation) of other aquifer hydraulic parameters. It was concluded that hydraulic conductivity can be accurately predicted using this approach. The main advantage of the estimation method presented here is its simplicity and accuracy.
The proximate and valuable minerals were determined in freshwater crabs. Samples were collected from male and female exoskeleton, flesh and whole body. The samples were subjected to proximate analysis using methods recommended by the Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and with the aid of spectrophotometer for the determination of the mineral content of the crabs. The results showed that in the exoskeleton samples, crude protein was the highest in the male with value of 39.84±0.25% while in the flesh samples, carbohydrate was the highest in the male with 41.59±0.27% and in the whole body sample, and carbohydrate was the highest in the female flesh with 57.89±0.28%. Nine minerals were analyzed. Sudanonautes africanus was found to be rich in Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus. Information on the nutrient composition of S. africanus is needed to encourage the processing, utilization and marketing of this commonest species of West Africa. Nutritive values recorded in this S. africanus suggest that the species could be employed as an alternative dietary supplement of protein and minerals.
The Gulf of Arzew, northwestern Algeria, constituting one of the biggest petroleum area in the world, is one of the most polluted region in the Mediterranean Sea. A good way to know the degree of this pollution that undergoes this region is to assess the number of living pollution sensitive species. Consequently, the mollusks populations seem to be a good indicator of the intensity of this pollution. For this purpose, it has been recorded a certain heterogeneity in the distribution of mollusks species and one found low densities in the different Twin analyses which seems to be due to the progression of the mud in some stations in one hand and the impact of pollution from the industrial area in the second hand. This set of species is, therefore, characterized by a stable installation of muddy species. However, in all Twins, has been reported the appearance of a transition zone, consisting of a mixture of sand and vases and characterized by low diversity where species muddy dominate.
The present work is a review on the geoelectrical characteristics, and a study of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater in parts of Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The aim was to collate, synthesize and analyse geoelectrical parameters from available literature together with physico-chemical parameters in order to evaluate the geophysical and geochemical character of the aquifer systems; and subsequently determine the quality of groundwater in the area. The study shows that aquifer thickness varies from 24.5m to about 201.1m, the Formation Factor ranges from 2.02 to 13.53, and the groundwater is naturally potable. Total Hardness (TH) values range from 17.86mg/l to 46.91mg/l. The concentrations of major cations and anions are far below the permissible limit for drinking and domestic purposes recommended by World Health Organisation (WHO). With respect to agricultural and irrigation purposes, using the values of Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and Electrical Conductivity (EC), the groundwater samples are excellent.
Aims: The aim of the paper is to study the annual and seasonal precipitation inequality over Ukraine in the last 55 years and to discuss their trends. Place and Duration of Study: Marine Hydrophysical Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (MHI NASU), Sevastopol, Ukraine. Air-Sea Interaction Department, January 2012 - June 2013. Methodology: Concentration index (CI) method was used to analyze a precipitation inequality over Ukraine and standard statistical procedures. Results: The annual values of concentration index ranges from 0.54 to 0.71 over Ukraine. It increases in southward direction from north-west and north-east of the country. Seasonal scale is characterized by CI maximum values in spring (0.71) in the south-west regions. Linear CI trends above Ukraine are predominantly negative; the positive ones are typical for south-east region. Conclusion: It was shown that the typical space structure of precipitation inequality over Ukraine is characterized by southward CI increasing during annual and all seasons for 1951 - 2005 from the north-west and north-east region. At the same time, linear trends are characterized mostly by a negative sign in all seasons. That indicates a reduction of daily precipitation inequality in the last 55 years associated with low-frequency processes in the global climate system.
Consumers’ preference to natural colours for edible purposes is of general interest. Annatto dye also called as poor man’s saffron is widely used in the food industry. Annatto is obtained from the thin resinous aril portion of seeds of Bixa orellana - a tropical plant of great agroindustrial interest. Bixin and norbixin are the main components of annatto colour which imparts red to yellow hue to the food matrix. Annatto is the most sought after natural colorant in the food industry in view of its availability, affordability and viability. It also finds wide use in cosmetics, pharmacy and dyeing purposes. An outline of recent developments in annatto dye extraction, efforts to improve the extract yield, stability aspects of annatto color in food products, potential viable methods to be employed for better economic prospects is warranted which will be useful to prospective entrepreneurs.