Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change and Growth Rate of Food Grain Output in Nigeria (1970-2010)

K. C. Igwe, J. O. Uguru, S. A. Shomkegh, C. O. K. Igwe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 397-406
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/4346

The study examined climate change and growth rate of food grain output in Nigeria from 1970-2010. Time series data of maize, rice, millet, sorghum, wheat, temperature and rainfall were used for the study. Data analysis involved the use of Descriptive Statistics and the annual additive series (Trend) Analysis measured in years by getting the annual average of parameters which depict the factual position of climate change by variations of the weather parameters over time. Findings showed that the preferred weather parameters (rainfall and temperature), and the food grain (maize, rice, millet, sorghum, wheat) exhibited significant changes in trend of growth during the 1970-2010 period. Rainfall grew at the compound growth rate of 5.3 % more than temperature per annum. The compound growth rate of maize, millet, sorghum, and wheat output were less than the compound growth rate of rice by 0.9%, 6.5%, 5.9% and 6.4% respectively, and the compound growth rate of maize, rice, sorghum, and wheat outputs were more than the compound growth rate of millet output by 5.6%, 6.5%, 0.6% and 0.1% respectively. Acceleration was witnessed in the growth rate of temperature, rainfall, sorghum, and millet; deceleration for wheat, while stagnation was witnessed in the growth rate of rice and maize over the 1970-2010 periods. There was significant difference in the average growth rate of rainfall and each of maize, millet, sorghum and wheat yield; and no significant difference between rainfall and rice. There was no significant difference also in the average growth rate of temperature and each of maize, millet, sorghum and wheat yield; but there was significant difference between temperature and rice. The conclusion of the study is that food grain yield was influenced by rainfall and temperature. It is therefore recommended that if increase in food grain production is to be sustained, proper irrigation and drainage should be applied.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Small and Medium Enterprise Owners’ Occupational Safety and Health Efforts: The Case of Southerton, Harare, Zimbabwe

N. Mudavanhu, T. Zhou, P. Dzomba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 407-418
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6263

Aims: To assess Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) owners’ efforts towards the occupational health and safety scenario of their companies.
Study Design: This study followed a survey approach.
Place and Duration of Study: Southerton industrial area, Harare, Zimbabwe, between March 2013 and June 2013.
Methodology: Questionnaires were used to collect data from 26 managers and owners of SMEs (3 – 49 employees). Hundred and forty (140) questionnaires were administered to employees other than managers from the 26 SMEs. The number of employee participants were stratified from the size of the SMEs. A descriptive analysis of owners’ characteristics, the interventions they have put in place and how employees felt about the management of safety at their work places was done.
Results: Research findings indicate that most SME managers attained tertiary level of education, and have relevant expertise and experience. This makes them capable of having sound occupational safety and health (OSH) management principles. Generally management responses show that SMEs’ safety and health scenario can be characterized as inadequate. It was found that despite 70.8 % of the managers having tertiary education and 38.9% having more than 2 years’ experience still all (100%) SMEs had no safety management system, 92.3% had no safety policy, 96.2% had no hazardous exposure control strategies and 92.3% had no hazard management principles. Furthermore employees indicated that their managers used a reactive approach towards risk (87.5%), attached low priority to OSH against production, lacked commitment (62.9%), and had a blame attitude towards accidents causation (79,3%). Most employee responses indicate dissatisfaction with the OSH scenario at their work places.
Recommendations: It is recommended that SME managers may improve workplace safety and health and consequently improve business performance by implementing basic safety management principles. Secondly, there is need to improve employees involvement in safety matters. Thirdly, managers should seek OSH knowledge and advice through attending workshops or taking courses on OSH management. Training of managers and owners may make concertize them on how compliance to safety may improve productivity, quality and minimize production costs. Furthermore policy makers should develop a cost effective, simple and easy to use regulatory OSH framework for SMEs managers to implement. An SME easily-accessible-database should be developed and frequently updated to allow exchange of information within the sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Honey Samples from Lokoja and Suleija North Central Nigeria

S. A. Agaja

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 419-426
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5849

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using Ghana Research Reactor (GHARR-1) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GHAEC) operating at 15kW at a thermal flux of 5 x1011n cm-2s-1 was used to determine nine elements in honey samples from Lokoja and Suleija North Central Nigeria. The elements were; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and V. The concentration of the elements varied in the different samples ranging from few ppm to few percentages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Toxic Metal Concentrations in Selected Ready-to-use Medicinal Plant Roots and Stem Barks in Ibadan, Nigeria

F. Offor Ifeanyi, C. Ehiri Richard, U. Etim Effiong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 427-436
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5929

The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of selected toxic metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) in some herbal plants sold in 3 markets within Ibadan, Nigeria. Sampling was done on a daily basis for 7 days in 2012. Blended plant samples were heated at 550ºC for 4 hours and digested using 2M HNO3. The extracts were subjected to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) to determine their toxic metal concentrations. Metal recovery study was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cu ranged from 0.04mg/kg in Olax subscorpioidea to 9.44mg/kg in Adansonia digitalia. For Zn, the concentration was lowest (0.94mg/kg) and highest (35.40mg/kg) in Senna podocarpa and Kigelia Africana respectively. Pb concentration ranged from 1.6mg/kg in Adansonia digitalia to 6.15mg/kg in Sphenocentrum jollyanum. Cr, Cd and Ni levels were below the detection limits [Cr (0.04mg/L), Cd (0.01mg/L) and Ni (0.10mg/L] of the spectrophotometer used. The mean Zn (8.04mg/kg) and Cu (1.80mg/kg) concentrations in the plants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) limits for Cu (0.3-1.0mg/kg) and Zn (0.05-0.5mg/kg) respectively in the plant roots and stem barks. Spearman partial correlation showed variation in selected trace metal (Cu and Zn) concentrations in the plant samples. Recovery study for Zn in Bridelia ferruginea and Adansonia digitalia were (94.85%) and (101.40%) respectively. On the average, the concentrations of toxic metals in the herbal plants studied were within WHO acceptable limits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthropometric Comparison of Nasal Indices between Hausa and Yoruba Ethnic Groups in Nigeria

I. Y. Anas, M. S. Saleh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 437-444
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/3958

Aims: To measure the nose of the Hausa and Yoruba ethnic groups in Nigeria and to compare same with other ethnic groups. The working hypothesis is that the two ethnic groups will have the same nose type since they share same environmental conditions.
Study Design: This was a prospective study involving students from two schools in Kano, Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: Goron Dutse Secondary School in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State and Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The study started from September 2005 to November 2008.
Methodology: Five hundred and eighty two (582) subjects (both parents and 2 grandparents) purely Hausa or Yoruba, were randomly selected. They included 385 Hausa and 197 Yoruba ethnic groups. The nose height and breadth of each participant were measured in each subject using a sliding vernier caliper and the nasal index for each was calculated using the formula Nasal breadth/Nasal height X100. The data were analyzed using Minitab 16 software and Two-Sample T-Test was conducted to find out whether there is a statistically significant mean difference between sexes within a group and between same sexes between the two groups. The P value of .05 or less was considered statistically significant otherwise insignificant if more than.
Results: The mean nasal index for the Hausa ethnic group males was found to be 70.7 ± 11.3 which is greater than that of their females’ counterpart that was 67.2 ± 8.3. The Yoruba mean male nasal index was 100.9 ± 8.9 also greater than that of the Yoruba females which was 94.1 ± 8. The mean nasal index of the Hausa males as compared to the nasal index of the Yoruba males, showed statistically significant difference (P<.001). The same statistically significant difference between the nasal indices of both Hausa and Yoruba females was also found (P<.001)
Conclusion: Both ethnic groups (Hausa and Yoruba) do not have the same nasal index and therefore not the same nose type with a sexual dimorphism existing in both ethnic groups. In this study, we were able to establish nasal index appropriate for this ethnic group and may be useful as a reference data to the plastic surgeons and other clinicians.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Ethanolamine for the Treatment of Eggs; Its Influence on the Postembryonic Biochemistry of Broiler Chicks and Indicators of Meat Quality

I. S. Yartseva, T. O. Azarnova, Ye. N. Indyukhova, S. Yu. Zaitsev, M. S. Naydenskiy, L. Ju. Azarnova, M. A. Radkevich

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 445-456
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6729

Aims: To study the effect of ethanolamine on the development of broiler chickens, blood chemistry, and safety of meat of broiler chickens using ethanolamine in the incubation of eggs.
Place of Study: The experiments were carried out at the Michailovsky Broiler closed joint-stock company.
Methodology: Several experimental groups, as well as a control one, were formed of about 250 eggs each. These groups were analogous in regard to laying time and storage period, weight and quantity of the eggs. The incubating eggs were taken from Habbard F15 crossbreed hens (whose age was 295 days). Ethanolamine was sprayed on the eggs before incubation and again when the eggs were transferred to the hatchers. Biochemical and zootechnical parameters were measured according to standard procedures.
Results: The hatching of the experimental group was 88% against 8% for the control group level. The following biochemical parameters of the poults’ blood were obtained: peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased by 17.0% and 10.5%, respectively, but the Schiff bases and malondialdehyde decreased by 1.6% and 0.85%, respectively.
The safety and quality indicators of the broiler meat for the experimental group were better than those for the control group; moreover, such indicators meet basic health standards.
The use of ethanolamine achieves an optimum level of the metabolic processes, protection of the cell structure and the cell’s energetic homeostasis, i.e., it ensures a high-viability level for the chicks at the postembryonic stage and it guarantees high-quality and safe products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of a Global Land Cover Classification Allocated Across the Landscape of Georgia (USA)

Pete Bettinger, Krista Merry, Zennure Ucar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 457-478
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7167

Aims: To assess the agreement of a global land cover map to reference imagery when applied to a region (state) of the southern United States and to determine whether different sampling designs or the use of broader land class definitions can overcome problems associated with the inherent heterogeneity of land use in the region.
Study Design: We assessed the agreement of the Glob Cover 2009 global, medium resolution land cover assignments within the State of Georgia to USDA NAIP reference imagery. We performed the assessment using two statistically random sampling methods: pixel-based and block-based sampling. We then grouped some land classes according to possibilities of agreement relationships expressed by others, and assessed the agreement using these systems.
Place and Duration of Study: State of Georgia (USA). Imagery and reference data acquired in 2009.
Methodology: Sample: We examined 3,930 sample pixels or pixel blocks from 16 land cover classes. Each sample was allocated a land class in the GlobCover 2009 database. Each sample was interpreted as a land class through photo-interpretation of USDA NAIP imagery. An omission-commission matrix was developed from the relationship between land cover map and reference interpretation, as was an estimated population matrix. Statistics regarding agreement were developed using the latter matrix.
Results: Overall agreement for the state of Georgia was approximately 48% using both pixel- and block-based assessments. Agreement increased with the implementation of the possibilities of agreement relationships for both pixel- and block-based assessments. Three forested land cover types, representing about 78% of the Glob Cover land classes in Georgia, had agreement levels between 60 and 97% when possibilities of agreement were employed.
Conclusion: The use of the Glob Cover 2009 land cover classification may be well suited for broad, regional analysis and assessment of land cover trends. Moderate levels of classification agreement for important resources (forested areas) were estimated within the State of Georgia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Anthropogenic Challenges of Water Resources in Lebanon

Amin Shaban

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 479-500
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6990

Challenges of water resources in Lebanon are well pronounced. Even though sufficient water resources exist and high precipitation is often recorded, Lebanon’s water is threatened by several physical and anthropogenic challenges that make it a country under water stress. This issue has been exacerbated in the last few decades. There are several studies, projects and even donations to enhance the status of water resources in Lebanon, but no remarkable progress has been achieved yet. This is attributed, in a broad sense, to unidentified figure of the hydrologic cycle accompanied with the lack of sufficient data and information upon which strategies and policies can be built for better management approaches. This study highlights the key issues of water problem in Lebanon including the existing challenges and their impacts. The existing challenges are not well understood by the decision makers, and often water shortage is attributed to undefined reasons. The approach in this study followed a number of indicative elements for data and information analysis. It utilized available records and time series, new techniques of remote sensing, as well as diagnosed previous studies and projects by the author. It introduces a clear understanding of the problematic issues of water resources in Lebanon, and then proposed the most applicable solutions for better stable water balance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation and Prediction of Atmospheric Pollutants Coming from Vehicles: Case of Yaounde City from 2005 to 2035

André Talla, Pierre Meukam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 501-513
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6368

Aims: The aim of the present work is to estimate and to predict the pollutant concentrations coming from vehicles in Yaounde city.
Study Design: A sample of vehicles was selected and experimental measurements of pollutants were made using a combustion analyser.
Place and Duration of Study: October 2012 to June 2013 in the University of Yaounde I, National Advanced School of Engineering, and the Energizing and Water and Environment Laboratory, Yaounde, Cameroon.
Methodology: We used, for this study, the statistical data, from the National institute of Statistics, concerning the importation of vehicles in Cameroon estimated at 312,259 in 2005. The measurements of pollutant concentrations in gas, coming from a sample of 218 vehicles, were made using a combustion analyser. Using the statistical data obtained, the correlation of the evolution of importation of vehicles in Cameroon was established following the case of Yaounde city. The evolution of the number of vehicles, the measurements of pollutant concentrations and the quantities of fuel consumed were used to estimate the pollutant concentrations, during the emergence prediction year 2035 in Yaounde city, representing a population of 1.82 million inhabitants. Analysed atmospheric pollutants, for motor vehicle exhausts, were carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC).
Results: Until 2005, the estimate of the pollutant concentrations coming from vehicles in Yaounde city showed that the average quantities emitted every year were 82.26×106 kg of CO2, 1.16×106 kg of CO, 2.35×106 kg of HC and 9.18×106 kg of NOx. According to the provision alem ergence in the year 2035, the quantities of the four pollutants would attain the following values: 472×106 kg of CO2, 6.65×106 kg of CO, 13.51×106 kg of HC and 52.72×106 kg of NOx.
Conclusion: The results obtained from this work are a useful tool to monitor the air pollution levels caused by urban transport.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial and Physiochemical Quality of Effluent Water from a Brewery in Benin City, Midwestern Nigeria

Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Otitoloju Kekere, Osazuwa Omoregbee, Faith Iyobosa Omokha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 514-531
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7061

Aims: The present study w as set up to investigate the physicochemical and microbial contents of waste water discharged into the Ikpoba Rivers as well as water samples obtained from the river at different points of collection with a view to determining impact on the water body.
Study Design: The design chosen for the study was complete randomization, considering the homogeneity of the experimental plots from which samples were collected.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected during the late rainy season of August 2012 from both the Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria and from effluent treatment plants in a brewery in Benin City.
Methodology: Samples were collected in three different locations; in the brewery, from the brewery effluent samples point, as well as in the Ikpoba River, where brewery effluent samples mixes with the river water. Non-effluent samples were also collected from the brewery, these included glycol, condensate, boiler feed, brew cold and cooling tower water (CTW). Samples of the brewery effluent discharged into the river were also collected from the brewery effluent samples channel. On the Ikpoba River, five different sampling point were identified; contact point (CP) of the discharged brewery effluent samples with the river water, 5m and 10m before contact point, as well as 5m and 10m after contact point, respectively.
Results: The pH of glycol was 7.8, compared to those of the condensate and boiler feed which were both 5.8 and 5.5 respectively. The pH of the brewery effluent samples was 5.8, however at the point of contact of brewery effluent samples with Ikpoba River, pH dropped to 4.8. The surface water temperature ranges of non-effluent samples materials was 29.6 – 29.9ºC, as compared to 29.2ºC which was the temperature of the brewery effluent samples before contact with Ikpoba River. The heavy metals detected in the non-effluent samples and brewery effluent samples samples were iron, magnesium, copper and zinc. Lead was only detected in the non-effluent samples while nickel and vanadium were not detected in both samples.
Conclusion: Results showed that the effluents samples from the industry altered the physical, chemical and biological nature of the receiving water body. However, comparison with WHO and FMENV standards showed no deviation from required benchmarks, and as such the samples were adjudged ecologically safe.