Open Access Case study

Gait Disturbance as Conversion Reaction Accompanying Anorexia Nervosa in a Young Adult: A Case Report and Literature Review

Ece Balkuv, Recep Basaran, Mecit Caliskan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 583-591
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6783

Aim: Conversion disorder is a situation where psychological stress is expressed physically. This health problem is usually triggered by a stressful or a mental crisis. When involving a physical problem it is named as ’conversion disorder’. Psychogenic gait disturbance is a common conversion disorder. Anorexia nervosa is a totally different disease than conversion disorder by its clinical presentation and characteristics.
We present a patient suffering from anorexia nervosa and developing conversion disorder in form of a gait disturbance.
Presentation of Case: A 35 year-old woman was suffering from excessive obsessions about her body. She had avoidance of eating and loss of 18 kilograms. She was admitted to our hospital for obtaining a disabled certificate for her walking disability that continued for 6 months. Her gait disturbance was indeterminate as to being neurological or orthopedic and was aggravated by stress.
Discussion: Even though anorexia nervosa and conversion disorder are two different pathologies, they may be seen together, meaning that patients with one disease may develop symptoms of another disease as means of secondary gain. However, a psychogenic movement disorder is a rare presentation in this situation.
Conclusion: Psychogenic gait disturbances are relatively rare psychogenic movement disorders. Conversion disorder may be the underlying problem. In our case, patient was masking, involuntarily, her primary problem (anorexia nervosa) by attracting attention to her gait. Such situations complicate the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases, which should be kept in mind.

Open Access Case study

Very Early Detected Asymptomatic Posttraumatic Syrinx in a Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

Hakan Alkan, Necmettin Yıldız, Ozlem Ercidogan, Necdet Catalbas, Füsun Ardıç

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 639-644
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7571

Aims: Posttraumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is a devastating complication of spinal cord injury (SCI) because of its association with delayed neurological deterioration. In our case report, diagnosis of very early detected asymptomatic syrinx in a patient with incomplete SCI was made incidentally according to cervical spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for unrelated purposes 32 days after the injury and conservative management was considered with periodic spinal MRI and neurologic examination to monitor the progression of syrinx during four years follow up. The present case report is the first to define syrinx at a very early stage in a patient with traumatic incomplete SCI.
Presentation of Case: 19 year-old male patient sustained C4 and C5 linear vertebral lamina fractures and adjacent cord concussion due to a diving accident four years ago. On presentation at the rehabilitation unit, he was diagnosed as C5 American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) grade C tetraplegia according to his physical examination. On completion of the comprehensive rehabilitation programme, the patient showed gradual neurological improvement and was diagnosed as C5 ASIA D SCI. During four years of follow up syrinx had good prognosis by means of both clinical and radiologic findings. There were no symptoms or signs related to PTS, also periodic cervical spinal MRI performed annually showed no change in the size of syrinx.
Conclusion: We conclude that posttraumatic syrinx should be considered even in the earlier stages of the postinjury recovery period and syrinx which are particularly limited and asymptomatic could be followed up conservatively with close clinical and radiological observation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biomimetic Materials Mimicking Nature at the Base of EU Projects

Pierfrancesco Morganti

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 532-544
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5645

Many marine organisms, such as mussels, are able to produce viscoelastic adhesive materials made of polymeric protein-polysaccharides, active in aqueous environment also. Some EU research groups are working to identify the same materials and processes for producing ecologically -friendly glues, at industrial scale. To obtain this and other goals, innovative bio-polymers will be produced by the use of plant biomass and by-products from fishery waste. These biopolymers will be used for making eco-friendly non-woven tissues by the electrospinning technology to obtain advanced medications, and producing food-packaging films by the casting technology. The multi-functionality of the bio-polymers obtained, useful to produce innovative goods, will be of great importance to reduce pollution and save the environment, also because they have to substitute the use of petrol-based compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Clinico-hematological and Immunophenotypic Profile in Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Eastern India

Debmalya Bhattacharyya, Sidhartha Das, Sudha Sethy, Sarat Chandra Singh, Rina Mohanty

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 545-552
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/4044

Aims: To study clinical, hematological and immunophenotypic profile of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a tertiary care centre of eastern India.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study
Place and Duration of Study: Postgraduate Department of Medicine and Department of Clinical Hematology, SCB Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India between August 2011 and July 2012.
Methodology: Sixty naïve consecutive cases of adult ALL were taken into this study. Secondary and relapsed cases of ALL were excluded. Along with clinical evaluation, full blood count, bone marrow aspiration study, immunophenotyping by flow cytometer was done in all of the cases.
Results: Patients between 15 to 24 years constituted 58.3% of cases in the study. Mean age was 26.58 years and median age (50th percentile) was 22 years. Pallor (96.7%) and fever (81.3%) were the most common presentations. Bleeding manifestations and fever were significantly associated with B-ALL (P<.01). Lymphadenopathy and mediastinal mass were found significantly higher in patients with T-ALL(P<.01).On bone marrow morphology, FAB L1 was found in 38.3% and L-2 was seen in 61.7% of cases. Myeloperoxidase stain was negative in all cases.68.3% cases came out as B-ALL and 31.7% as T-ALL after immunophenotyping. CD19 and cytoplasmic CD79a were the most commonly found to be positive in patients with B-ALL whereas CD7 and cytoplasmic CD3 were the most common antigens expressed in those with T-ALL. Anti-MPO was negative in all of the cases. Aberrant myeloid expression was also found in 21.7% cases. There was no significant association of aberrant myeloid expression with B or T-cell immunophenotype (P=.32).
Conclusion: Clinico-hematological and immunophenotypic profile of ALL patients in this region were almost similar with the reports published from other parts of India but there were a few differences from the Western data. This, however, needs further work from this region of India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Physiological Changes during Storage, and Shelf Life of Some Nigerian Varieties of Yams (Dioscorea species)

C. Ogbo Frank, C. Agu Kingsley

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 553-562
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7013

Aims: The objectives of this work were to study the influence of proximate composition and physiological changes during storage, on the shelf life some Dioscorea sp. This is needed to complement knowledge of the influence of extrinsic factors of the storage environment in improving the shelf life, a key attribute of yam quality.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology & Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria between January 2012 and July 2013.
Methods: AOAC and sensory methods were used to determine proximate composition and shelf life respectively, while physiological changes during storage were monitored by moisture and pH measurements.
Results: Moisture content of yams ranged from 61 - 70 %; protein, 0.48 – 1 %; fat, 0.39 – 1.67% and carbohydrates, 24 – 32 %. These contents varied among the yams at the varietal level. Ash ranged from 1.33 – 2.17 % and crude fibre, 2.83 – 4.33 % and were largely similar in all varieties. During storage, different varieties of yams maintained different contents of moisture (%) but all shared similar characteristics in respiratory activity. Methanolic extracts from the peels of some Dioscorea dumentorum and D. rotundata varieties inhibited the growth of Aspergillus sp. The shelf life of the yams ranged from low 27 weeks in D. alata to a high of 40 weeks in D. rotundata. Moisture content (P = 0.1) was negatively correlated while fat (P = .05) and carbohydrate contents were positively correlated with shelf life of yams.
Conclusion: The chemical composition of yams plays a role in the determination of their shelf lives. A better understanding of this relationship will help in efforts to increase yam production through the reduction of post harvest losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Components of the Subsurface Sediments with Emphasis of Diatoms Frequency and Their Palaeoecological Significance at the Tennis Island and Its Environs, Western Port Said, Egypt

Mona Gaballah, Hamdy Aboulela

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 563-582
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5524

Objective: The study gives a view of the major textural and compositional components of subsurface sediments around Tennis Island and its environs. It provides data on distribution and frequency of diatoms in the subsurface sediment as well as describes and combines the achieved results of paleo-environment processes and its response to water level change.
Methodology: Twelve subsurface sediment samples were collected to show major textural and compositional components as well as describing diatom flora around a unique natural ecosystem called Tennis Island.
Results: The grain size analysis of the collected samples revealed a high content of fine sand, mud (silt and clay) and characterized by low organic matter (average 10.4%) and widely varied content of CaCO3, with an average of 53.8%. 39 diatom species belonging to 25 genera were identified. Analogue for the island with high proportion of Planktonic species compared to benthic ones was established. Planktonic species represented by dominant forms like Cyclostephanos dubius; Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella stelligera. The non Planktonic species were Navicula alpina; Campylodiscus spp. and Diplonies bombus; while the other benthic forms were often sparse. Island is influenced by water input from the sea and drains from the south.
Conclusion: The study revealed that diatoms experience climate change directly and indirectly through changes in sea water level, tectonic activity and trophic status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Relative Humidity on Some Chemical Composition and Browning Development of Treated Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) Corm Flour

James E. Obiegbuna, Augustina U. G. Okeke, Ernest C. Igwe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 592-609
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7132

Aim: Some unstable compounds namely ascorbic acid, anthocyanin and reducing sugar contents were used to monitor the stability of differently processed cocoyam flours stored under different relative humidities.
Place and Duration of Study: Federal Polytechnic Idah, Nigeria; January to August 2011.
Methods: Peeled cocoyam corm slices (3–5cm thick) were washed and divided into three parts that were respectively sundried (NT), blanched and sundried (BT); and sulphited, blanched and sundried (SBT). The milled samples (<200um) were stored under different relative humidities (RH) and analysed at time intervals for ascorbic acid (AA), anthocyanin (ACY) and reducing sugar contents; and for alcohol soluble colour (non-enzymatic browning) developments.
Results: Ascorbic acid content of cocoyam flour ranged from 8.65mg/100g in NT to 14.13mg/100 in SBT while anthocyanin and reducing sugar contents ranged from 8.62 and 317.5mg/100g, respectively, in NT to 13.37 and 302.0mg/100g in BT flours. These values decreased with increasing storage RH and time. At seventh month, AA was retained in NT flour stored only at 11% RH and in BT and SBT flours stored at ambient, 11% and 33% RH. Similarly, only storage at 11% RH retained ACY for 5 months in NT and for 7 months in BT and SBT cocoyam flours. Reducing sugar decreased with increasing storage RH and time. Initial absorbance of flour alcohol extract was highest in NT and least in SBT, indicating greater browning in the former. Regression analysis revealed that the rate of non-enzymatic browning development was lower in the SBT cocoyam flour; and seemed to be higher in BT flour than in NT at RH of 53% and below, and vice versa at RH above 53%. Correlation coefficients of reducing sugar contents and non-enzymatic browning development were significant (P=0.05) in RH conditions studied.
Conclusion: Cocoyam flour stability was improved by sulphiting and blanching treatments and low RH storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace Metals Levels in Inorganic Fertilizers Commercially Available in Nigeria

Nsikak U. Benson, Winifred U. Anake, Usoro M. Etesin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 610-620
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7465

Aims: To investigate the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) in commercially available inorganic fertilizers (calcium superphosphate and urea).
Place and Duration of Study: Urea and superphosphate fertilizers were purchased from a local market in Uyo, Southern Nigeria.
Methodology: A total of twenty seven fertilizer samples were randomly taken representing triplicate samples from three urea and six superphosphate original fertilizer bags. Each sample were digested and extracted using the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction technique. The elemental analysis was performed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES) (Optima 3000 – Perkin Elmer).
Results: The analyses indicated the presence of trace metals in commercially available fertilizers sold in Nigeria. Cadmium was found in comparatively high concentrations. Zinc was found present in relatively high concentrations in both urea and phosphate fertilizer samples but As was found in low concentration. By comparison, the superphosphate fertilizer contained higher concentrations of Cu, V and Zn as impurities while urea fertilizer recorded slightly elevated concentrations of Ni, Pb and Cd. The levels of some trace metals in the urea and superphosphate fertilizers analyzed were within the allowable limits.
Conclusion: This study led to the conclusion that urea and superphosphate fertilizers sold in Nigeria could act as sources of trace metal enrichment of agricultural farmlands. Enhanced trace metals in inorganic fertilizers could constitute a threat to human health and the sustainability of farming practices. This study provided a new data for the agriculture and health authorities in Nigeria. Relevant government agency (ies) should regularly monitor trace metals impurity levels in imported fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Sensory, Rheological Properties and Glycemic Index of Fresh Date Ice Cream

Mohammad Alizadeh, Maryam Azizi-lalabadi, Sorayya Kheirvari

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 621-629
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7178

Aim: The aim of this study was to formulate and develop a low calorie and low glycemic index (GI) soft ice cream by using mixture of sucrose and date.
Methods: Five different formulations of ice cream were produced by using different proportions of sucrose and date. Physicochemical characteristics, hedonic sensory evaluations and GI determination of products were carried out following conventional methods.
Results: Replacement of sucrose with date resulted in a significantly higher viscosity (.000) and brix (.034) degree with a higher overrun and melting rate, in a dose dependent manner. Sucrose free ice creams had significantly lower caloric value from (143.03 to 113.51 Kcal) and GI from 79.06±4.0 to 72.51±4.61 as compared to date free those of sucrose based formulation indicating a 29.52% and 6.55% reduction, respectively.
Conclusion: We concluded that substitution of sucrose with date is may be a choice to produce a low calorie and glycemic index ice creams with no impeding effect on physicochemical and sensory properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Optimization of Solvent and Enzymatic Extraction of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Oil

Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu, Festus Omotere Igbe, Abdulrahaman Babatunde Sanusi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 630-638
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/4199

Aims: The work seeks to extract oil from Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using both solvent and enzymatic processes, and to find out which of the processes will be better in terms of quantity and quality
Study Design: Box-Behken model of response surface methodology with three-levels-three-factors was used which produced seventeen experimental runs.
Place and Duration of Study: Experment was carried out in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between March and December, 2012.
Methodology: The solvent extraction was optimized using Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology; while the enzyme assisted aqueous extraction was carried out using ground okra mixed with distilled water at a ratio of 1:6 w/v. The oil obtained from both extraction methods were subjected to gas chromatography for characterization of okra oil.
Results: The results showed that the enzymatic extracted okra oil contained higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acid when compared to the solvent-extracted oil, hence better oil quality. Optimized oil yield of 30.4% was obtained at 2.25h, 45g sample mass and 175 mL solvent volume for the solvent extraction process.
Conclusion: Qualitatively, enzymatic extraction was the preferred method while quantitatively, solvent extraction was better.