Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Medium Supplementation on Proliferation and Hormone Production of Bovine Granulosa Cells in a Defined Culture System

L. H. Montrezor, C. A. Piccinato, C. V. A. Collares, A. A. Vireque, A. A. M. Rosa e Silva

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 645-659
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7168

Aims: The objective of this study was to develop a serum-free bovine granulosa cell (GC) culture system in which estradiol (E2) production could be maintained in a defined media, with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and without FSH and compared the effects of two different macromolecules (PVA vs, BSA) on steroids output and cell proliferation during in vitro culture.
Study Design: Bovine granulosa cell culture.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil, 2011.
Methodology: Bovine ovaries were collected from adult cows at a local abattoir and were transported in warm saline solution. Small follicles were dissected according to their vascularization and follicular fluid conditions. GC were cultured in α-MEM containing IGF-I, insulin, androstenedione, 0.1% PVA or 0.1% BSA, without FSH. After 48, 96 and 144 h of culture were analyzed GC morphology and secretion of E2 and P4. The relationship among cell shape, cell proliferation, and GC time course of steroidogenesis in vitro was further explored.
Results: In the presence of PVA and BSA, E2 production reached its highest production at 144 h. There was a significant increase on P4 production on the medium containing BSA at 48 and 96 h. The changes in E2 production/P4 production ratio in PVA-cultures indicate that there was a larger increase in E2 production by these cells at 48 and 96 hrs than by cells from medium with BSA. The results of the cellular proliferation demonstrated significant tritiated thymidine incorporation in both PVA and BSA cells cultured at 144 hours.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate the development of a relevant culture system for bovine GC under defined conditions with PVA. This chemically defined culture system will enable us to study the factors that regulate the physiological control of GC proliferation, differentiation and steroidogenic characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fat Quality and Cold Saponification of Shea Nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) Fat Extract

A. A. Warra, J. I. Komo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 660-667
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7339

Aims: To extract, carry out chemical analyses and saponify shea nut fat.
Study Design: Triplicate Chemical analysis using standard procedures was employed.
Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Kebbi State University of Science & Technology, Aliero, Nigeria.
Methodology: Shea nut fat was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using analytical grade hexane (n- hexane) as refluxing or extracting solvent for the work. At the completion of the extraction process the oil was recovered from the mixture by evaporating the residual extracting solvent in an oven set at 50°C and stored in the bottle. This process was repeated until a substantial quantity of oil was achieved. Each batch of extraction lasted for about 5 hours on the average. Standard reported procedures were used to carried out the chemical analyses.
Results: The powdered seed gave 38.74% oil with density of 0.96g/ cm³. The oil is yellowish in color before it solidified to fat at room temperature. Chemical analysis of the oil reveals saponification value 166.10±0.84mgKOH/g, iodine value53.54±0.39g I2/100g, acid value of 14.26±0.33mgKOH/g and free fatty acid value of 4.20±0.04. A simple cold-process alkali hydrolysis of the shea nut oil was used to produce a brown colored soap with a foam height of 31cm³. The chemical properties of the soap were 58.66 % total fatty matter , 0.57 % total alkali, 1.26 % percentage chloride, and pH of 10.7.
Conclusion: Due to the favorable chemical characteristics of the soap in comparison with literature reports, it can be used as cosmetic toilet soap especially when other ingredients such as sequesterants, silicates and glycerine are added.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Copper Nanowires in Highly Ordered Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Template

Alireza Abbasi, Majid Ebrahimzadeh, Hamed Rezazadeh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 668-674
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/4777

In this paper, the fabrication of nanoporous anodic alumina template from aluminum foil has been demonstrated using hard anodization process. Copper nanowires arrays were fabricated using continuous and pulse electrodeposition technique into the porous alumina template. Copper nanowires are grown successfully in anodic alumina nano-template. The pulse deposition technique using 50 ms off-time showed better quality samples than those made with continuous deposition technique due to cooling of barrier layer during the off-time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reducing Ambiguity with Geoelectric Investigations: Implications for Near-Surface Cavities

David O. Anomneze, Ajana G. Onwuemesi, Benard I. Odoh, Chibuzor V. Ahaneku, Churchill C. Okonkwo, Oladotun A. Oluwajana

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 675-685
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/4995

Aims: The purpose of this study include to evaluate the theoretical and practical aspects of the 1D and 2D resistivity data types, especially with respect to precision as they pertain to cavity depth investigation for site characterization in Ogbunike community, Southeastern Nigeria.
Study Design: The results of geoelectrical survey carried out at the Ogbunike community, Southeastern Nigeria where underground cavities exist are presented and discussed.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Ogbunike community, Southeastern Nigeria and it lasted for about six months from November 2011 to April 2012.
Methodology: The 1D and 2D electrical resistivity method using schlumberger array and dipole-dipole array respectively were applied in the course of the geophysical investigation of known and unknown cavities. Anomalous zones of the cavities were distinguishable by the zones with very high resistivity, surrounded by the lower background resistivity zones.
Results: The 1D resistivity method revealed the depth to the subsurface cavities only while the 2D resistivity method gave a more precise definition of the size of the cavities including the width and depth to the target. From the results obtained, the 2D electrical method interprets depth to known cavity to be deeper than the actual depth while the 1D electrical method interprets the depth to known cavity to be less than the actual depth to the cavity. Also, from the results of the geoelectrical survey an unknown cave was detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional Production, Processing and Quality Attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana in Savannah Region of Cameroon

S. Dairou, P. Biyanzi, D. Pallet, R. Ndjouenkeu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 686-699
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5638

Aims: Jaabi, the local name of the fruit of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam, endemic in the savannah region of Cameroon, is processed into flour and cooked into small round cakes commonly called "Yaabande." The present work aimed at understanding the relation between the processing practices and the quality of the product.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out from October 2011 to May 2012, in the savannah regions of Cameroon, the main area of Jaabi production.
Methodology: The study was done through: i) a survey towards 455 actors representing harvesters, processors, traders and consumers; ii) the follow-up of processing operations; and iii) physico-chemical analysis of intermediary and end products.
Results: The processing practice, exclusively traditional, is the panacea of women who use steam cooking, sun drying or stifle cooking to bake the cake. The steam cooking method is more popular. The quality attributes of the cake, as perceived by operators and consumers are based mainly on the maturity of Jaabi grain and the color and texture of the cake. These attributes are particularly dependent on the flour fineness and baking time.
Conclusion: The use of flour with particle size under 125µm, and a steam cooking time of about 10 minutes seem convenient to obtain a cake with light color, firm texture, and to maintain antioxidant activity of the product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation of Air Quality and CAQI at Tummalapalle Uranium Mining Site and Surrounding Villages

A. Murad Basha, N. Yasovardhan, Suggala V. Satyanarayana, G. V. Subba Reddy, P. Padma Savitri, K. Vishwa Prasad, A. Vinod Kumar, R. M. Tripathi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 700-710
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5731

The air quality levels of Tummalapalle Uranium mining site is studied using Combined Air Quality Index (CAQI) and Z – score. Samples of PM10, TSP, SOx and NOx were collected by installing high volume samplers at Ten locations of Tummalapalle Uranium Mining site and its surrounding villages. The locations are selected based on the wind roses and these are classified as core zone, buffer zone – 1 and buffer zone – 2, based on radial distance from the mining site. The samples were collected twice a month during November - 2010 to February – 2012, of all the seasons i.e., winter, summer and monsoon. The CAQI has been estimated to assess the air pollution in ten selected sampling locations using concentrations of four common pollutants (PM10, TSP, SOx and NOx). The spatial concentration distributions of pollutants were standardized by means of Z - scores to avoid any effects of unity scale on the distance measurements. These Z – scores are used to assess the air quality in three spatial zones (core zone, buffer zone – 1 and buffer zone – 2). The evaluated CAQI values for all the three seasons are varying in the range of 20–50 at all the sampling locations. The CAQI values indicate moderate air pollution at the locations of UCIL–Mining site and Tummalapalle during winter and summer seasons. This is also supported by the high Z–scores obtained for the core zone containing these two locations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic Peel Extract (Allium sativum) and Its Use as Natural Food Additive in Cooked Beef

B. O. T. Ifesan, E. A. Fadipe, B. T. Ifesan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 711-721
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5726

Aims: To investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of garlic peel extract and its possible use as natural food additive in cooked beef
Study Design: Multifactorial Design
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between August 2011-September 2012.
Methodology: Crude ethanolic extract from garlic peel was investigated for its total phenol content (TPC), according to Folin-Ciocalteu method and calculated as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), while the flavonoid content was determined using the AlCl3 colorimetric method and expressed as Quercetin Equivalent (QE). In addition, antioxidant test was carried out using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The crude extract at different concentrations (2.7mg/ml, 5.4mg/ml and 10.8mg/ml) were incorporated into minced beef, cooked in the microwave, inoculated with selected bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Proteus vulgaris) and stored at 4°C for 9 days. The effects of garlic peel crude extract on lipid peroxidation and microbial growth was then evaluated.
Results: The results obtained showed that garlic peel extract added to the beef was able to lower the pH of the beef significantly when compared with the control. Furthermore, garlic peel crude extract demonstrated antioxidant activity which lowered thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (mg malonaldehyde/kg muscle) from 11.23 in control meat sample to 2.62 in sample treated with 10.8mg extract on day 9. Antibacterial activity of the extract against tested bacteria inoculated into the cooked beef revealed that at a concentration of 10.8mg of extract/100g of meat, the extract reduced the bacterial population (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris), by at least one log compared to control at 9days of storage.
Conclusion: Garlic peel ethanol extract demonstrated both antioxidant and antibacterial activities in cooked beef.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Electrical Resistivity Method to the Location of Aquifers of Precambrian Basement in the Department of Tanda (North-Eastern Côte d’Ivoire)

A. Coulibaly, T. Lasm, K. E. Kouadio, W. F. Kouassi, O. Z. De Lasme, D. Baka, K. T. Yao, I. Savane, J. Biemi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 722-741
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6463

The complexity of fissured aquifers, the lack of exhaustive studies about these aquifers and bad choice of drilling’s sites make difficult access to groundwater. That explains lack of water supply to population in the Department of Tanda. The main objective of this study is to identify success indicators of drillings establishment by using electrical resistivity methods such as Electric Trailing (ET) and Electric Sounding (ES). Electric profiles highlighted discontinuities and geologic structures such as vein zones, fractures, faults and geological contacts. Electric curves of surveys allowed to distinguishing three levels: lateritic cuirass, clay-sand weathered material and bedrock. Also, curves such “peak in trough” and "staircase on the rising branch" and other indices, reveal some conducting anomalies which are potentially aquifers zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Solar Flares and Cosmic Rays on Atmospheric Decay

M. M. Khoshyaran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 742-752
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7870

Aims: The objective of this paper is to introduce a Relativistic Stochastic Process that calculates the number of cosmic ray and high energy solar flare particles that enter the atmosphere.
Study Design: The Relativistic Stochastic Process is tested against the Arley model.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of research and development, at Economics Traffic Clinic in Paris, between January 2013 and March 2013.
Methodology: The Relativistic Stochastic Process is a derivative of the Arley's probabilistic model. Although Arley's simplified model gives satisfactory results, it does not adequately address the phenomenon of cosmic ray and high energy solar flare particle showers.
Results: The simulation with the Relativistic Stochastic Process gives better results compared to the Arley model.
Conclusion: Relativistic Stochastic Process is more realistic and thus accurate and reliable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Etiology and Clinico-biochemical Profile of Patients Admitted to Medicine ICU or Ward with Metabolic Acidosis in Eastern India

Sitarasmi Rath, Sarat Chandra Singh, Pratima Sahu, Sidhartha Das

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 753-763
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/4273

Aims: To understand the etiologies and clinical profile of metabolic acidosis in patients’ admitted to medicine ICU or ward. To study biochemical parameters and their prognostic importance like the following:- 1.serum cations ( Na+, k+ ,Ca+2 ,Mg+2 ) 2.serum anions (Cl-, HCO3-, PO4-3, albumin-, lactate-) 3.Sao2; Pao2; Paco2 4.base excess 5.anion gap, strong ion gap, strong ion difference 6.(Na+-Cl-); (Cl- /Na+); (Cl- -HCO3-) ;(Cl - / HCO3-) 7.blood pH 8.urinary pH.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study
Place and Duration of Study: Postgraduate Department of Medicine, SCB Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India between August 2011 and July 2012.
Methodology: 100 consecutive patients diagnosed following analysis of arterial blood gas (ABG) and electrolytes. Inclusion criteria: - 1. All cases clinically suspected to have acid base imbalance and found to have low HCO3- along with low or normal pH. 2. All cases with high anion gap even with normal pH and HCO3-. Respiratory compensation, AG, delta ratio, SIDe, SIG, SIDa were calculated.
Results: Among 100 cases 61 were primary metabolic acidosis, 39 cases were mixed acid base disorders. Among etiologies 32% were lactic acidosis, 13% ketoacidosis, 30% chronic renal failure, 3% poisoning, 19% diarrhea, 3% renal tubular acidosis. Among causes of lactic acidosis septicemia accounted for 56%, heart failure 19%, hepatic failure 10%, malaria 9%, seizure 3%, malignancy 3%. Among keto acidosis diabetic ketoacidosis accounted for 69%, alcoholic ketoacidosis 31%. Among various clinical features tachypnea was noted in 96%, tachycardia 92%, clear chest 72%, altered sensorium 54%, hypotension 46%, decreased urination 46%, hypertension 39%, vomiting 36%, diarrhea 29%, abdominal pain in 23% cases. By binary logistic regression lactate, phosphate, blood pH, PaCO2, SIG, AGc, SIDe, SIDa levels were independent predictors of mortality (p values 0.001, 0.001, 0.027, 0.044 ,0.003,0.035,0.001,0.001 respectively). Notably, base excess, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-,HCO3- , (Na+ - Cl- ) , ( Cl- /Na+) (Cl- -HCO3- ), (Cl - / HCO3- ), urinary pH, PaO2, SaO2 were not predictors of mortality.
Conclusion: Lactic acidosis, and chronic renal failure were common etiologies. Tachycardia, tachypnea with clear chest, altered sensorium were common clinical manifestations. Lactate, phosphate, blood pH, paCO2, SIG, AGc, SIDe, SIDa were significant predictors of mortality.