Background: Our understanding of the amount of time children spend sitting, standing and stepping during a typical school day is limited. The ActivPAL monitor, which can differentiate between sitting and standing, was used in this study to objectively assess free-living activities in children. Aims: The main purpose was to objectively quantify the time children spend sitting, standing and stepping in a typical school day. A secondary purpose was to compare the ActivPAL monitor step counts with those obtained from Actical accelerometers. Study Design: Pilot observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Elementary school in Auckland, New Zealand, July 2010. Methodology: A total of 78 elementary school children (age 8.4±1.4 years; mean ± SD) participated in the study for one school day in July 2010. Within-day differences in the proportions of time spent sitting, standing and stepping were assessed using ANOVA. The effect of sex and age on mean scores was also evaluated, using independent-samples t-tests and one-way between-groups ANOVA respectively. Bland and Altman analyses were used to estimate the agreement in step counts between devices. Results: From an average of 303±6 minutes, children spent 170±35 min (56%) sitting, 77±24 min (25%) standing, and 56±19 min (18%) stepping. Most of children’s sitting time occurred in class (149±10 min; 49%). Boys and girls accumulated similar proportions of sitting, standing and stepping. On average, 33% more steps recorded by the Actical accelerometer compared to the ActivPAL. Conclusion: Our results suggest that children spend over half of their time at school sitting. Furthermore, the ActivPAL monitor steps are not equivalent to the Actical accelerometer steps.
Aims:Bartonella species are significant emerging infectious bacterial pathogens in dogs and humans. They are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. In this study, the seroprevalence of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffi (Bvb) and Bartonella henselae(Bh) infections in healthy looking urban stray dogs in Eskisehir, Turkey was determined. Methodology: One hundred eighty six sera were collected randomly from clinically healthy looking shelter dogs during July 2011 - November 2012. Serological tests were performed using (Bh) and (Bvb) antigens using the Indirect Fluorescein Antibody test (IFAT). Results: Twenty (10.8%) samples were positive for Bvb IgG and 39 (21.1%) for Bh IgG, showing that Bvb and Bh are significant zoonotic pathogens in dogs in this region. Due to the se zoonotic potency of these pathogens and the close relationship between dogs and humans, further studies are required to understand the mechanism of transmission. Conclusion:Bh and Bvb infections are common in stray dogs (21.1%-10.8%) in EskiÅŸehir/Turkey. As a result, veterinarians play an important role in advising for the public health of epidemiologic and zoonotic pathogens that indicate a significant risk of artropod born diseases. Eliminating or minimizing of flea and tick exposures is very important for public health.
Magnesium hydroxide eliminates DSC exotherm of polypropylene oxidation and thus the peroxidation process. At the same time, non-isothermal thermogravimetry experiments show that the temperature of the maximum rate of volatiles released due to polypropylene decomposition is significantly higher than that from original polypropylene. It appears that in the presence of magnesium hydroxide, the degradation products are not formed predominantly from decomposition of peroxides but from direct scissions of polypropylene chains. Chemiluminescence experiments confirmed that magnesium ions in alkaline conditions have the activating effect on oxygen from surroundings contributing thus to the more pronounced oxidation of soot and to the decrease of the smoke released during polypropylene burning. The links with the burning of the polypropylene with alkaline magnesium compounds were searched.
Aim: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a haemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. The aim of this study was to describe the seroprevalence rate of bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep in Kurdistan province, west of Iran. Also the history and epizootiology of bluetongue (BT) infection in Iran are reviewed. Study Design: method depends on Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA). Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Veterinary, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center and Departments of Animal Virus Disease, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, in west of Iran during 2011-2012. Methodology: A total of 297 field sera collected from Healthy sheep with no symptoms in western Iran were screened for the present of group-specific BTV antibodies by competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). Results: The overall BTV antibodies prevalence was 42.42% in sheep (at 95% confidence level). Also a result was showed a significant increase in seroprevalence BT antibodies with classes of age. Conclusion: This investigation evaluates the present status of BT in western Iran. As well as the outbreak of BT in farm animals in the country was not recorded. A serological survey has indicated the presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies in sheep, goats, cattle and other farm animals in several states in Iran. However, clinical BT has not been observed in farm animals to date. BTV has not been isolated from Culicoides midges, although virus serotypes 3, 4, 9, 16, 20 and 22 were isolated in Iran.
Aims: Riboflavin is a B vitamin that is required for a wide variety of cellular processes. The absorbance spectrum of riboflavin was determined at different pH utilizing several buffers. The buffer at pH demonstrating stable absorbance peaks with high numerical values of molar absorptivity is followed by accurate and sensitive assay of riboflavin by spectrophotometer. Study Design: The absorbance spectrum of riboflavin is determined in an aqueous buffer at various pH values. After identifying the absorbance peaks providing maximal molar absorptivity the assay of riboflavin in the identical buffer was undertaken. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska, Omaha Nebraska between August 2013 to December 2013. Methodology: An amount of riboflavin was dissolved in distilled water to make a stock solution of 0.0001100 molar concentrations. For determination of the absorbance spectrum one milliliter of the stock was diluted into various buffers of differing pH. The buffer having pH of 5.03 was selected for following assays with standard curve. Measurements of many aqueous solutions containing riboflavin were accomplished that included vitamin capsules/tablets and water vitamin mixtures. The data was evaluated meticulously utilizing several statistical numerical analysis methods. Results: The riboflavin is highly soluble in a citric acid buffer. The standard curve extended from 6.60E-07 M to 1.100E-04 M (167x spread in concentration). The equation of the line was y = 11882x (intercept at origin) with Pearson r correlation of 0.9998 (R2 = 0.9998). Concentration of riboflavin assayed can range from 0.000248 g per liter to 0.0414 g per liter. Accurate and reproducible results were obtained. Conclusion: The B vitamin riboflavin can be assayed by UV/VIS spectrophotometer at 440 nm in aqueous media and using citric acid buffer at pH 5.03. The assay for riboflavin in aqueous mixtures showed high levels of accuracy and sensitivity.
Aims: To investigate the abundance and prevalence of endoparasites of landed food-fishes from the Calabar River, Cross River State and the public health implications to fish consumers. Place and Duration of Study: Weekly fish samples were collected for a period of six months (2012) at Nsidung beach, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 300 fish specimen were collected from 15 fish species (20 from each species) from local fishermen and transported to the Fish Pathology laboratory, University of Calabar, for identification and examination. Organ squash of some organs (liver, spleen, heart and kidney). Stomach and intestinal scrapes were examined microscopically for parasites. Results: Examination showed an overall prevalence of 60% for Bathygobius soporato, 15% for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, 10% for Clarias gariepinus and 25% for Synodontis clarias. The preferred organs for Parasite infection were the stomach and intestines of affected fish. Nematodes, trematodes and cestodes were found in decreasing order of abundance. Camallanus kirandensis (nematoda) was found in the intestines and stomach of B. soporato, S. clarias, C. nigrodigitatus and C. gariepinus. Clinostomum complanatum (trematoda) in the stomach and intestine of B. soporato; Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda) in the stomach of C. nigrodigitatus; Pomporhynchus laevis (acanthocephala) in the intestine of B. soporato, S. clarias and C. nigrodigitatus and in the stomach of S. clarias. Conclusion: It was concluded that B. soporato, C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus and S. clarias from the Calabar River, landed at Nsidung beach are susceptible to helminth infection and it is recommended that all fish be properly cooked or roasted before consumption to guard against possible human infection by some parasites.
Kwa-Ibo River watershed of Abia State, Nigeria cuts across four Local Government Areas in the State and lies geologically within the Benin Formation of Niger Delta Basin. Due to the prolific nature of Benin Formation aquifers, preliminary investigations for groundwater exploitation are seldom done but due to the recent borehole failures and the ever increasing population density of the area, a proper documentation of the hydro-geological conditions of the area is essential. This led to a geo-electrical investigation whereby thirteen Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data were acquired and the computer-aided Resist software method was used for further processing and interpretation. The interpretation of the VES data reveals the existence of three to seven geo-electric layers in the area and a variation in aquifer thicknesses with the least as 101m at VES Station 4 and the highest as 324m at VES Station 2. A comparison of some geo-electric sections generated from VES stations with some lithologs gave a good geological description of the study area. Water samples were taken from eleven boreholes for hydro-geochemical investigation which reveals the occurrence of two major groundwater types in the area with Calcium+Magnesium chloride bicarbonate [(Ca+Mg)-HCO3 + SO42-Cl] dominating in the entire area except in the North-western part where Sodium+Potassium chloride bicarbonate [(Na+K)-HCO3-Cl] dominates. Further analysis shows that the geochemical processes resulting from the major geologic controls are chloride dissolution, silicate weathering, carbonate weathering and ion exchange and by using Gibb’s Diagram the recharge occurs through precipitation while the local geology is the source of major ion concentrations in the samples.
Aims: Quantitative information is limited pertaining to riparian forest and stream shallow groundwater interactions particularly in karst hydro-ecosystems. Study Design, Place and Duration: Spatiotemporal variability of shallow groundwater flow was monitored along two stream reaches in a riparian Ozark border forest of central Missouri, United States. Each reach was equipped with twelve piezometers and two stream-gauging stations during the 2011 water year (WY). Methodology: High-resolution (i.e. 15 minute) time-series data were analyzed indicating average groundwater flow per unit stream length was -3 x 10-5 m3 s-1 m-1 (losing stream) for the entire study reach (total reach length = 830m) during the 2011 WY. The HYDRUS – 1D groundwater flow model was forced with observed data and outputs were assessed to improve model end user confidence in karst hydrogeologic systems. Results and Discussion: Results indicate rapid groundwater response to rainfall events within two to 24 hours nine meters from the stream. Analyses indicated average stream flow loss of 28% and 7% total volume to groundwater during winter and spring seasons, respectively. During the dry season (June-September), the stream was gaining 95% of the time. During the wet season (March-June), the stream was losing 70% of the time. Based on established assessment criteria, shallow groundwater modeling performance with HYDRUS – 1D was deemed very good (NS = 0.95, r2 = 0.99, RMSE = 2.38 cm and MD =1.3 cm). Conclusion: Results supply greatly needed baseline information necessary for improved understanding of riparian forest management and shallow groundwater transport and storage processes in semi-karst forest ecosystems.
Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints, hypermobility and the association between them in Israeli physical therapy students. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel. Participants: 105 physical therapy students participated in this study. Methods: Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was evaluated using the Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Hypermobility was assessed using the Beighton test. Results: The 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was high: 49.0% for low back pain, 44.1% for knee pain and 44.6% for elbow pain. Hypermobility assessed by the "Beighton test" was found in 4% of males and 30.3% of females. No association was found between hypermobility and musculoskeletal complaints in physical therapy students. Smoking was positively associated with shoulder pain (p = 0.038). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among apparently healthy physical therapy students in Israel. Joint hypermobility is not associated with musculoskeletal complaints, probably because of the non-degenerative nature of musculoskeletal morbidity in this age group.
Soil and water are precious natural resources on which rely the sustainability of agriculture, industrialization and the civilization of mankind. Unfortunately, they have been subjected to contamination due to anthropogenic activities leading to the release of heavy metals into the environment. The history of petroleum exploration, exploitation, refining and marketing in Nigeria is a long, complex and painful one in terms of soil and groundwater pollution, which has resulted to multiple environmental and health problems. The study reveals that in some locations near the refinery, the soil and the groundwater are slightly polluted with heavy metals in the order of Fe > As > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd > Mn, which may be attributed to the natural enrichment of groundwater through weathering of bedrock in the course of groundwater migration and anthropogenic via dumping of untreated effluents from the refinery and petrochemical into the nearby soil and surface water. The use of groundwater from the shallow hand-dug wells by host communities should be discouraged and alternative source of water should be provided by the company or government. Deep sited boreholes should be sunk to replace the existing shallow hand-dug wells in the area. Effluents and waste-water from the refinery and petrochemical should be treated before disposing into the nearby farmlands or surface water.