Open Access Short communication

Three-dimensional CT Study of the Canine Head Using Volume Rendered 3D Computed Tomographic Reconstruction

Alberto Arencibia, José Raduán Jáber

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 995-1002
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8081

Aims: To provide a description of normal anatomy of the bony structures of canine head using volume rendered 3D computed tomography (CT) reconstruction images as a tool for clinical and educational purposes.
Study Design: Application of CT for the study of the bony structures of the head in two male dogs, using three-dimensional reconstructed images.
Methodology: The images were obtained using a-CT axial equipment. Throughout the procedure, the dogs were positioned in ventral recumbency during scanning time. Contiguous transverse slices were acquired from the external nares to the occipital condyles of the skull. Scans were processed with a detailed algorithm to enhance bony structures using a wide window. The original data were stored and transferred to an image analysis workstation capable of generating 3D volume-rendered CT reconstructed images of the head, using a standard DICOM 3D format. CT images were compared to the corresponding osseous anatomic preparations and textbook to identify the normal 3D CT anatomy of the bony structures of the canine head.
Results: In the volume rendered 3D reformatted CT images, anatomical details of cranial and facial bones, mandible, hyoid bone and teeth were identified and labelled in the corresponding figures.
Conclusion: The volume-rendered 3D reformatted CT images obtained in this study provided valid information on anatomic characteristics of bony structures of the head in dogs. These images should be useful for guiding clinical evaluation of this anatomic region in dogs.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Separation and Performance Management System of Academics in Nigerian Universities: The Mediating Effect of e-HRM

Abubakar Allumi Nura, Osman Nor Hasni

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 894-904
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7704

Aims: To reveal how the relationship between employee separation and employee performance management could be reconciled via electronic human resource management (e-HRM)
Study Design: Multimode survey technique.
Place and Duration of Study: Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Bayero University Kano and Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto from January to July, 2013.
Methodology: The paper employs a quantitative research methodology using a systematic sampling technique. Three universities were sampled in Nigeria. The data collected was subjected to series of analyses using SPSS version 19 and Smart PLS.
Results: The results obtained revealed a mediation effect of e-HRM on the relationship between employee separation and employee performance management. This was confirmed through the t-value of 2.4540088 which is statistically significant at 0.05 level.
Conclusion: No organization would embrace employee separation but the fact that it is inevitable, making adequate preparation for it becomes even more a sine qua non.

Open Access Original Research Article

Waste Paper as Promising Feedstock for Production of Biofuel

Michael Ioelovich

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 905-916
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8025

Modern approach to utilization of non-edible biomass is its conversion to glucose, and the following fermentation of the sugar into final bioproducts. Among various biomass types, the waste of office paper is distinguished by increased content of cellulose and negligible content of lignin; therefore it can be a suitable feedstock for bioconversion into valuable bioproducts. In this article, an advanced technology has been proposed for complete utilization of the paper waste by bioconversion. The technology is comprised of the following main steps: (1). Redispersion of the waste paper and then screening of the pulp in order to separate fibers from mineral fillers; (2). Acidification and washing of the fibers to remove the residual calcium carbonate; (3). High-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of the demineralized paper to obtain fermentable sugar - glucose; and (4). Fermentation of the glucose into biofuel. As a result, from 1 ton of the waste office paper about 280L of bioethanol can be produced that have capacity of the heat energy of 1680kWh. Besides, there remain by-products of the processing including about 260kg of residual fibers and about 270kg of mineral fillers that can be used repeatedly in the papermaking. Thus, the waste paper can be utilized completely for production of the valuable bioproduct and recycled paper materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aflatoxin Contamination in Selected Spice Preparations in the Nyahururu Retail Market, Kenya

William W. Mwangi, Charles M. Nguta, Benson G. Muriuki

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 917-923
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7948

Commercial spice preparations were analysed for aflatoxins contamination in order to determine the incidence of spice samples containing levels likely to pose a risk to public health. In the months of May and June 2012, spice samples were purchased from different randomly selected premises in the Nyahururu town. Forty-six spice preparations were included in the survey. Individual spices were ground and mixed to uniform consistency using a laboratory mill and analysed for aflatoxins using a commercial ELISA kit. Thirty four (73.9%) samples were positive for aflatoxins while twelve (26.1%) had aflatoxin levels below the detection limit. Over 50% of samples analysed contained aflatoxin <10 µg/kg. The highest quantities of aflatoxins were found in cayenne, paprika and cumin (99.6, 99 and 98 µg/kg, respectively). Relatively high levels of aflatoxins were also found in chilli (31.5 µg/kg) while no mean detectable levels were observed in curry and nutmeg. The average aflatoxins level in positive spice samples was 30.6 µg/kg. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in aflatoxin levels between spice types (p <0.001). Maximum acceptable aflatoxins levels were exceeded in most of the sampled spices; therefore it is important for regulatory bodies in Kenya to continuously monitor for aflatoxins in retail spices preparations. Additionally, post-harvest methods for the prevention of fungal contamination should be enhanced by all spice handlers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design Enhancement Evaluation of a Castor Seed Shelling Machine

C. Onyechi Pius, S. P. Obuka Nnaemeka, Okpala Charles, N. Oriah Vincent, A. Igwegbe Chinenye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 924-938
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5557

A milling roller type Castor Seed Shelling Machine (CSSM-1) was designed and produced, considering all active parts on the basis of strength and rigidity. In this current work, the machine was modified to CSSM-2 to correct all the short comings of CSSM-1. The design and characteristics was based on the use of Nigeria-Small Castor Seed size to obtain the performance characteristics by grouping the seeds into six batches. By the reduction in size of CSSM-2, the machine was made portable and lighter by the design improvement on the roller shaft and other component parts. At the optimum milling shaft speed of 276.92 rpm, the shelling, cleaning (separation), and breakage efficiencies of the new machine were recorded as 96.34%, 96.24% and 11.05% respectively; hence CSSM-2 was effectively enhanced up to 96%.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Extent of Employee's Compliance to the Internal Control System on the Reliability and Creditability of Financial Statements

Ziad Al-Zubi, Osama Samih Shaban, Madher Ebrahim Hamdallah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 939-952
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8130

A sound system of internal control depends on an effective management, and the awareness of its employees of the policies and procedures adopted. It is a combined responsibility to maintain it properly and make sure it's effective and reliable. Its management responsibility to make sure that, the internal control procedures adopted and applied is still valid and suitable to achieve. A questionnaire has been designed for this purpose and it was distributed randomly to the working employees and to different management levels. The number of questionnaires analyzed were (100) questionnaires. Resolution data were analyzed using the statistical program SPSS, in addition to other statistical methods. The study concluded that, the effectiveness of the internal control systems in the Jordanian commercial banks is not attributed to demographic variables (sex, age, profession, etc) but mostly, attributed to tight internal control systems adopted, and demonstrated by management. The study recommended that, management should keep tight recruiting policies in order to implement its internal control systems effectively, and finally internal control systems adopted should be applicable and easy to understand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Post-HARVEST Handling Effects on Quality of Cashew Nuts and Kernels in Ghana

Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Samuel T. Lowor, Mike Assuah, Winifred Kumi, Emmanuel A. Dwomoh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 953-965
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8242

Purpose: A large quantity of cashew nuts is lost between harvesting and consumption. Nut quality which determine price in the world market cannot be compromised and this harvesting period is detrimental, therefore the need to evaluate the effects of post-harvest handling practices on quality.
Methodology: A survey was conducted in ten cashew growing districts in five regions of Ghana in 2009 and 2010. A total of 247 farmers, 3 buyers and 3 processors were sampled and interviewed using a questionnaire. Samples of raw nuts and kernels were collected from the cashew farmers, buyers, processors and mother trees and assessed for their processing and nutritional qualities. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Correlation.
Findings: Results from the survey showed that 45.3% of farmers picked their nuts daily from the fields, 53.8% dried the nuts between 3-4 days and 76.1% had no storage facilities and these affected the quality of the nuts. Quality assessment using kernel analysis indicated that 41.2% of samples collected were within the standard grade with the average nut weight ranging from 5.1 to 7.0 g. However, assessment of nuts collected from trees selected for germplasm establishment on farmers’ farms nationwide showed that 73.9% of the nuts were of excellent grade.
Conclusion: Improper harvesting and post harvest practices may result in poor nutritional and processing quality of cashew nuts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycotoxins from Beehive Pollen Mycoflora

Adriana M. Cirigliano, Maria Alejandra Rodríguez, Alicia M. Godeas, Gabriela M. Cabrera

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 966-972
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7218

Aims: The present study was aimed to search for metabolites produced by fungal strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens.
Study Design: The pollen of four beehives each from two apiaries from two locations in Argentina (Balcarce and Mar del Plata) was studied. Nine bee pollen samples were randomly collected from each beehive.
Place and Duration of Study: Study was undertaken during 2011 on the Organic Chemistry Department and Biodiversity and Experimental Biology Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires.
Methodology: All of the 133 isolated strains were tested for antifungal activity. The most bioactive strains, Myrothecium verrucaria, Nigrospora sphaerica and a levuliform mycelia, were selected for the isolation and identification of compounds responsible for the antifungal activity.
Results: Seven mycotoxins, roridin A, verrucarrin A, α-β-dehydrocurvularin, phomalactones A, B, C and D, were identified spectroscopically and were the responsible the antifungal activity.
Conclusion: Mycotoxins were isolated from beehive pollen mycoflora. This is the first report of the production of these mycotoxins, which are not currently targets for the analysis of pollen or honey products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges Facing the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) in the Water Sector: The Niger State Example, Central Nigeria

A. Idris–Nda, U. Dodo, A. M. Jimada

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 973-984
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/5413

In an effort to realize tangible sustained improvements in the quality of life and living conditions of the Nigerian Populace, the Federal Government delegated responsibility for the implementation of various projects in the health, education and water sectors to the office of the Senior Special Assistant to the President on Millennium Development Goals (OSSAP – MDG’S). Main objectives of the water projects is the provision of water through motorized/solar powered boreholes complete with generator and operating rooms as well as hand pump boreholes. Mode of operations of the MDG’s involves the appointment of consultants to oversee the entire projects in the various states of the federation. Contracts are then awarded to contractors, based on open bids, in lots and each contractor given a specified period to complete the project. A careful study of the programme showed that at best 50 – 60% success rate was achieved in some areas and less than 30% in some others. The main challenges mitigating against the attainment of higher success rates lies on the failure of contractors to provide adequate drilling machines and accessories to suit the local geology of the area, improper geophysical surveys and lack of experienced hydrogeologists/geologists to supervise operations. It is recommended that prospective contractors must be licensed, and water well drilling consultants must also have met the stipulated requirements. Borehole designs must also meet the approved standard, parameters for chemical and biological analysis must also be clearly stated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of the Parasitoid Fly Drino inconspicuoides (Diptera: Tachinidae) in the Host Mythimna separata: Effect of Temperature and Clutch Size

Andrew Kalyebi, S. Nakamura

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 985-994
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8522

The development of the tachinid fly, Drino inconspicuoides, a polyphagous and gregarious ovolarviparous parasitoid of lepidopteran larvae was investigated in the laboratory, under different regimes of temperature and varying clutch sizes, using the host, Mythimna separata. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of clutch size (number of maggots per host) and varying constant temperatures on development and survival of D. inconpicuoides in order to optimize rearing for this species. Development was studied at seven temperature regimes 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30ºC at 60-70% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D. Larval developmental time decreased from 18 days for males, 16 days for females at 15ºC to about 6 days for both male and female at 30ºC. Regardless of the number of maggots laid per host, not more than 8 puparia egressed and pupariated per host. Increasing clutch size resulted in decreased developmental time, reduced puparial weight and reduced emergence/survival of parasitoids. The study provides key information relevant in optimizing rearing procedures for a tachinid parasitoid.