In the U.S., Methamphetamine (Meth) manufacture seems to follow a cycle that is in sync with unemployment rates and recessions (or slides in the economy). Correspondingly, there are alarming increases in meth lab seizure sat the start of recessions in the U.S. The recent lingering recession in the U.S., which started in December 2007, has resulted in record numbers of older workers (45 years of age or older) being unemployed. These older workers, additionally, are remaining unemployed longer when compared to younger workers (less than 45 years of age). Similarly, we have seen the rate (per 100,000) of burns associated with meth manufacturing increased more in older aged individuals when compared to younger individuals since the start of the recession. As such, we hypothesize that the recent recession and the higher employment rate among older workers in the U.S. has resulted in a shift in who’s “cooking” meth in the U.S., older individuals. Since the evidence presented is circumstantial, further research is needed to substantiate the findings and better equip us to fight this plague of society. However, the current study aimed to develop a useful hypothesis that there has been a shift in which age groups are currently cooking meth in the U.S.
Every organization needs suppliers and no organization can exist without suppliers. Therefore, the organizations approach to suppliers and the selection of the appropriate supplier, its acquisition processes and policies, and its relationships with suppliers, is of vital importance, both to organizations and suppliers alike. No organization can be successful without the support of its supplier base, operationally and strategically, short or long-term.To select the best supplier, it is essential to make an analytical decision based upon tangible and intangible criteria. Chose and management of a supplier has to be congruent with organizational strategy. Therefore, the vision and strategy of the manufacturer are the key drivers for how the supply function will be managed and how supply decisions are made and exectuted. The proposed model in this study was applied in a steel manufacturing company in Malaysia with the goal of reducing time in choosing the correct supplier for the company. This study aims to provide a systematic model stimulating correct supplier selection using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method along with a series of sensitivity analyses which were conducted using the Expert Choice (EC) program to evaluate the impact of changes in the priority of criteria for the suppliers' performance and order quantities. Aims: The main goal of this research is to develop a systematic model towards the best supplier selection. To facilitate the aim of the research, we utilized the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, which was a combination of AHP and Fuzzy Theory in order to deal with the uncertainties and vagueness of decision makers’ judgement. Study Design: Mention the design of the study here. Place and Duration of Study: The data samples were taken in a steel manufacturing company in Malaysia. Methodology: A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy approach is used using a quantitative and qualitative criteria for selecting and evaluating a suitable supplier selection and a six step was conducted to ensure successful implementation. Results: The results indicate that the model is able to assist decision makers to examine the strengths and weaknesses of supplier selection by comparing them with appropriate criteria, sub-criteria and sub sub-criteria. Conclusion: We developed a Fuzzy AHP multi-criteria decision making model for supplier evaluation and selection in the ABC steel company in Malaysia. The advantage of the proposed model over other models like the AHP is that, by adoption of fuzzy numbers, it effectively improves the flexibility of the conventional AHP in dealing with the uncertainty and ambiguity associated with different decision makers’ judgments.
Aims: Investigations were conducted on the development of gypsum plaster used naturally by adding 1% of admixture (Superplasticizer) and reinforcing it with Barchip fibers. Methodology: Different percentages of Barchip as 0, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5% were used. The compressive and flexural strength of such gypsum plaster are discussed Results: The results show that the use of 1% superplasticizer with 1% of Barchip fiber increased the compressive and flexural strength by about 44 and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of superplasticizer with Barchip fibers would significantly enhance the mechanical properties of gypsum plaster.
Aims: To investigate the hydrochemical regime of Isebo River in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria with respect to its chemical quality status for drinking purposes due to its proximity to an industrial area and to also give recommendations based on the findings. Methodology: Ten water samples were collected from the river while five raw effluent samples were also collected from the discharge points of the polluting industries in order to assess their chemical composition and toxicity levels in the laboratory. Concentrations of heavy metals, such as, Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Optical Electro-Spectrometer (OES) analytical procedures respectively. Physico-chemical parameters such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Temperature (T), the acidity and basicity levels (pH) of both the effluent and water samples were determined in the field using a Symphony SP80PC portable instrument. Results: The output of the chemical analyses revealed mean concentrations in the order of abundance of toxic heavy metals in effluent samples as Fe>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd while that of water sample analysis data is given as Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. The coefficient of determination R2= 0.9784 and 0.9809 of EC and TDS obtained for effluent and water samples respectively, shows a good positive correlation coefficient between the two parameters while temperature and pH varied anomalously. Conclusion: The mean values of heavy metals in effluent and water samples are generally higher than the background values and the threshold of permissible contaminant levels established by the World Health Organization (WHO) respectively and this could lead to serious health hazards. Therefore, it is recommended that environmental monitoring and state-of-the-art effluent treatment facilities should be put in place by the polluting industries to prevent further pollution of the river and vulnerability of man to potential health hazards.
According to leverage and volatility feedback effects there are relationships between the return and the risk of stocks in the stock markets. Using daily and weekly data of Computer industry index in Tehran stock Exchange (TEX), this study investigates both leverage and volatility feedback effects applying GARCH family models and Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) estimation method, during 01/2007- 10/2013 period. According to GARCH-M model estimations the first hypothesis of the research (Return volatility of computer industry in TEX affects the return significantly) cannot be rejected for daily data during 02/2010 to 10/2013 (the 2nd period) which both return and return volatility were much more volatile rather than 01/2007 - 02/2010 (the 1st period), but this hypothesis can be rejected for daily data in the 1st period and weekly data in both periods. According to EGARCH and TGARCH estimations the second main hypothesis of the research (a negative return makes return volatility of computer industry in TEX more volatile) cannot be rejected for both daily and weekly data in the 1st period, but can be rejected for both data during the 2nd period.
Tannin content of roots, stems, stem barks, leaves and peels of six species of Citrus was investigated. They include Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Lime), C. grandis Osbeck (Shaddock/Pummelo), C. limon (L.) Burm. f.(Lemon), C. paradisii Macf. (Grapefruit), C. reticulata Blanco (Mandarin/Tangerine) and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sweet orange). The study showed that tannin was present in all parts of these Citrus species. The highest level of tannin was contained in the leaves of C. aurantifolia [1.44±0.02%] and C. limon [1.30±0.02%] respectively; whereas the least concentrations were found in the roots of C. reticulata [0.06±0.02%] and C. sinensis [0.08±0.04%] respectively. The roots, stems, stems barks, leaves and peels extracts of these Citrus species could be employed in ethnomedicine as drugs, due to the therapeutic values of tannin. In addition, they could be regarded as potential rich sources of natural tannin which could be isolated and utilized in cosmetic industry as antimicrobial agents, pharmaceutical industries for production of drugs, agriculture for reduction of emission of methane gas from ruminants, tannery industry for manufacture of leather, as additives in wine production to ameliorate the astringency and in manufacture of adhesives.
Aims: In this study we were interested in the effect of happy and sad mood on the memory of emotional (happy and sad) and non-emotional photographs. Study Design: A 3 (mood: happy, sad, or control) x 3 (photograph type: happy, sad, and neutral) mixed factorial design was used. Mood was the between-subjects factor and photograph type was the within-subject factor. Photograph memory was the dependent variable. Place and Duration of Study: College students enrolled at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, USA, between February 2013 and April 2013 served as research participants. Methodology: Participants (n = 111) were randomly asked to either write about the happiest, saddest, or an average day in their lives. Next, participants viewed 18 photographs (6 happy, 6 sad, and 6 neutral) for 10 seconds each in random order and reported the descriptions of as many photographs as they could remember. Results: Participants in the happy mood condition remembered the least overall (45.7%) and participants in the sad mood condition remembered the most overall (55.7%). Participants in the sad mood condition remembered significantly more photographs than participants in the happy mood condition (P = .02). Overall, participants remembered more sad photographs than happy photographs (P = .006) or neutral photographs (P = .004). Compared to the control condition, being in a sad mood slightly increased memory for sad photographs and increased memory for neutral photographs, but did not change memory for happy photographs. Compared to the control and sad mood conditions, being in a happy mood decreased memory for all types of photographs. Conclusion: This study shows that being in a sad mood may narrow attention to improve memory of photographs, while being in a happy mood may broaden attention and obstruct memory of photographs. Regardless of mood state, participants also remembered more sad photographs than happy and neutral photographs. In the future, more research is needed with different priming methods, stimuli, and group sizes.
Ethno-communal conflict is a major bane of the Nigerian local government system. This paper examined the social and political conditions that predispose communities and groups to conflict, the impact of conflict on the citizenry and how it vitiates development. A descriptive research design was used. The study was conducted in Nigeria between February 2012 and March 2013. Being an ex-post facto research, relevant documents on ethno-communal conflict, peace building and the Nigerian local government were consulted. The critical study, analysis and evaluation of opinions, data and other information formed the basis for explaining and understanding ethno-communal conflict, its persistence and the failure of the local government to build peace. Relevant statistics were presented to substantiate the position. Using qualitative and quantitative content analysis, the findings showed that Nigeria local government system failed to mobilize for citizenship training, reduce poverty, social discrimination and build peace and security. Statistics showed that poverty increased among the rural dwellers in Nigeria. Out of a rural population of 65 million, 17.1 million live below the poverty line with 27.2% poverty incidence in 1980. In 2010, out of the 163 million rural dwellers, 112.47 million live below the poverty line and 69% poverty incidence. Other poverty indices used showed that food poor =48.3%, absolute poor=66.1%, relative poor = 73.2% and dollar poor=66.3% for rural population, while urban population had food poor=26.7%, absolute poor=52%, relative poor=61.8% and dollar poor=52.4%.Causes of conflict included differences in access to resources, culture/identity and democracy participation. It was inferred that local governments are ineffective in ethno-communal conflict management because it lacked the resources and powers to do so. Conclusively, it was recommended that peace education should be introduced in formal and informal settings. Conflict resolution and peace building mechanisms should be established in the local government councils.
As the U.S. immigrant population increases, a thorough understanding of the socio-economic interactions, inter-ethnic relationships, and the impacts of the host country on immigrants, is worthy of examination. Our study reviewed the literature on factors, from both home and host countries, contributing to the health outcomes of immigrants. Using a conceptual model that builds on the growth of an individual from birth to childhood to adolescence and to adulthood, we highlight modifiers from home and host country that ultimately impact healthcare outcomes as an immigrant moves across this spectrum. Themes explored under home country factors include biological influences, culture and language, and environmental influences such as family, community, political and social factors. Themes identified within the United States factors include social network, environmental influences (lifestyle and behaviors), access to healthcare and socio-demographic influences. Using a life-course approach, we present a literature review of each of these modifiers as it relates to immigrants. Research of this nature facilitates the understanding of positive and negative changes in the immigrants’ health conditions and how these changes took place.