Open Access Short communication

Low Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Group of Patients with Chronic Psychotic Disorders Taking Antipsychotic Polypharmacy in Residential Treatment While Adhering to a Mediterranean Diet

Fernando Espi Forcen, Joaquin Nieto Munuera, Raimundo Munoz Perez, Juan R. Jaramillo, Tatiana Falcone

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1703-1709
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10190

The aim of this abbreviated report is to describe the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in a sample group of patients with psychosis in residential treatment in Spain, who have been treated with antipsychotic polypharmacy for 5 years or more. We designed a cross sectional study to describe the prevalence of MS in a population sample of 21 of such patients. Using the criteria recommended by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education program Expert panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCP-ATP III), In this group 19, 04% of these patients met such criteria. The prevalence is much smaller than those reported in other countries, especially the U.S. This is even more remarkable, given the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy in this sample group of patients, which is an additional risk factor for the development of M.S. Residential treatment (a controlled living environment), Mediterranean diet, tobacco restriction and continuous medical supervision may have contributed to these results. We further inquire whether these factors could protect patients against MS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Sharing: Assessment of Factors Affecting Employee' Motivation and Behavior in the Lebanese Organizations

Hussin J. Hejase, Ziad Haddad, Bassam Hamdar, Rola Al Ali, Ale J. Hejase, Nouri Beyrouti

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1549-1593
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8107

For many companies today, the environments in which they operate have changed dramatically over the last decades. The atmosphere of corporate environment relies heavily on aspects concerning its workers and in particular its knowledge workers. Companies worldwide, in order to stay competitive, have started shifting their approach and outlook on how business should be conducted and as to what knowledge aspects are important. Knowledge sharing behavior varies within and between organizations. There are a number of factors that either motivate or hinder such a behavior. However; how these factors influence employees' motivation for knowledge sharing has not been carefully tested within Lebanese organizations.
Objectives: Given the increasing importance of knowledge capital and deployment of information technology to facilitate knowledge transfer in organizations, this paper aims: 1) To examine knowledge sharing attitudes within Lebanese organizations so as to study the factors that influence motivation for knowledge sharing; 2) To analyze how organizational and human factors influence the knowledge sharing behavior within these organizations.
Method: Mixed method approach. A qualitative approach was adopted to review current secondary data and information to prepare a background for the research in question. A quantitative approach using a questionnaire survey was used to collect data from a sample of 148 Lebanese employees in order to assess and validate the research model in question.
Results: A relationship has been proved to exist between knowledge sharing and trust, management’s support, culture and psychological ownership of knowledge, indicating the importance of such factors as prerequisites of the success of knowledge sharing.
Conclusions: The results of this study have implications for staff and managers in organizations. Organizations have to create a culture that is pro-knowledge sharing, where knowledge sharing is valued by everyone, and strategies that are more knowledge friendly are implemented; this is done through the mentoring programs, creating communities, conferences and through generating a vision that emphasizes knowledge and its importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Historic Landfills for Continuing Environmental Impact

Adora Udechukwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1594-1611
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8843

Aims: To investigate any physical evidence of ongoing environmental impact of historic landfill sites by assessing the characteristics of vegetation on these sites.
Place and Duration of Study: Welwyn and St. Albans district in Hertfordshire were mapped for this environmental assessment between March 2011 and February 2012.
Methodology: Seventeen (17) landfill sampling points were mapped out on nine (9) sites based on availability of historical records and accessibility. A Phase 1 habitat survey was conducted on these sites. Plants species were identified and recorded on site.
Results: A total number of 42 woody, herbaceous and grass species were identified and recorded on all sites. Most of these species were perennial plants with a few biennial plants. Site surface appearance was generally uneven and elevated compared to adjacent undisturbed land. Two out of the 17 sites had sparsely vegetated areas. Rumex species were dominant on most of the sites. Soil conditions were neutral on all sample points with the maximum and minimum soil pH recorded being 7.0 and 6.4 while soil temperature recorded was 14.2ºC and 6.4ºC.
Conclusion: Field results show that there was no visible evidence of contamination arising from the degradation of waste materials based on the analyses of Phase 1 Habitat Survey and the environmental parameters that were measured. It is recommended that plants root analysis, surface water and groundwater quality studies should be embarked upon in future in order to be able to present a holistic environmental assessment status of the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Abattoir Waste Water on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Soil and Sediment in Southern Nigeria

D. N. Ogbonna, T. J. K. Ideriah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1612-1632
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7907

Aim: The study was carried out to evaluate the biophysical properties of samples contaminated by abattoir wastes. The study aims to determine the physico-chemical properties of samples contaminated by abattoir wastes in order to create public awareness about the state and health implications of abattoir activities on the environment.
Study Design: Abattoirs close to Rivers and creeks that discharge wastes into water bodies were selected in comparison with those not close to such water bodies.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in abattoirs Located at Ogbe in Ahiazu-Mbaise Local Government Area, Egbu in Owerri North Local Government Area both in Imo State, Nigeria; Trans-Amadi in Port Harcourt City Council and Ahoada in Ahoada East Local Government Area both in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study covered two seasons, rainy and dry seasons between 2010 and 2011.
Methodology: A total of thirty six sampling points were considered for the study. Soil and waste water samples were collected from four abattoirs located at Egbu and Ogbe in Imo state, Trans-Amadi and Ahoada in Rivers State. Sediment samples from Otamiri River and Oginigba Creek around Egbu and Trans-Amadi abattoirs respectively were collected using standard methods recommended by the American Public Health Association (APHA) and other international methods were adopted for the determination of physiochemical characteristics of the samples.
Results: The range of results obtained were 6.71 – 9.37 for pH, 20.0 – 30.4oC for temperature, 165 – 6,080 mg/l for total suspended solids (TSS), 155 – 1,560 mg/l for total dissolved solids (TDS), 75 – 12,000 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 100 – 22,500 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 150.2 – 9,265 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for SO42-, 0.45 – 90.75 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for PO43-, 0.35 - 308.89 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for NO¬3-, 4.12 – 45.7 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for Na, 0.26 – 106 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for K and 0.00 – 2.551 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH). The results generally showed significant differences, at 0.05 confidence limits, between test and control samples of soil and waste water, while the reverse was the case between rainy and dry seasons.
Conclusion: The study indicated negative impact of abattoir activities on the soil that receive wastes from abattoirs which is probably because effective waste disposal system is not practiced by abattoir operators. The study showed that abattoir wastes have high pollution strength and thus should be treated before being discharged into the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Optical Properties of E-beam Evaporated Indium Selenide (InSe) Thin Films

J. Hossain, M. Julkarnain, K. S. Sharif, K. A. Khan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1642-1655
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7658

Indium selenide (InSe) thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation technique onto glass substrate at a pressure of ~8×10-5 Pa. The deposition rate of the InSe thin films is ~8.30 nms-1. The XRD and SEM study reveal that InSe thin films are amorphous before phase-transition while they become polycrystalline after phase-transition. The Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDAX) analysis shows that InSe thin films are non-stoichiometric. The change in electrical conductivity of InSe thin films with temperature shows a semiconducting behavior. The optical properties of both the virgin and phase-transited InSe thin films have been studied in the wavelength range 360<λ<1100nm, respectively at room temperature. The study of absorption coefficient of virgin InSe thin films shows a direct type transition with a band gap of ≈1.65 eV which agrees well with the reported values. The variations of refractive index and dielectric constant of the films were also calculated and discussed in relation with film re-crystallization after heat treatment. The integrated values of luminous and solar transmittance as well as of reflectance suggest that InSe is a potential candidate for the application in selective surface devices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dairy Farm Breeding Practices and Milk Production in the Sudano Guinean and Sudano Sahelian Zones of Cameroon

H. C. Edima, T. Awono Enama, F. X. Etoa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1656-1664
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9800

Aim: In Cameroon, research in the development of the milk sector has focused its studies on the quality (chemical and microbiological) of milk without specifically presenting the breeding context. The present work therefore, aims at shading more light on the description of the milk sector in Cameroun.
Location and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in the Sudano-Sahelian and Sudano-Guinean zones of Cameroon from April 2012 to March 2013.
Methodology: The investigation was based on a pre-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled out based on observations and discussions with the farmers.
Results: The main results show that the size of the livestock farm is largest in the Sudano-Guinean zone. Cow feed was supplemented in the two zones, milking was done manually and milk production varied according to the season and zone. In the Sudano Sahelian zone, average milk production varied from 1/L/day/cow to approximately 1.5/L/day/cow alternately during the dry and the rainy season. While in the Sudano-Guinean zone average milk production was 3.5L/day/cow during the dry season and 4.2 L/day/cow during the rainy season. In general good hygienic and milking practices were poor.
Conclusion: Milking practices in the Sudano Sahelian and Sudano Guinean zones are rudimentary and are not proficient enough to ensure optimum production. These constraints are due to the lack of training of dairy farmers in good breeding and hygienic practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Road Accidents in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria Using Geographical Information System (GIS) Techniques

Ayo Emmanuel Olajuyigbe, Victoria Ogan, Suleiman Abdul-Azeez Adegboyega, Oluseyi Fabiyi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1665-1688
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/6325

Aims: Road accidents have impacted adversely on the socio-economic development of cities in developing countries. Abuja, the administrative headquarters of Nigeria is known for regular occurrences of such accidents. This study attempted to identify factors responsible for these accidents and assessed their pattern with a view to mapping the black spots in the city using GIS techniques.
Study Design: The study was an attempt to investigate the various accident spots in Abuja, Nigeria in a bid to present a platform for proffering plausible solutions to the rampant road accidents in the city.
Place and Duration of Study: Abuja, Nigeria, between January 2011 to July 2011.
Methodology: Road accidents data from road users, National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW) and Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) were acquired using structured questionnaire. Also, secondary data including topographical map, quick bird image, accident records between 2009 and 2011, and GPS points of areas prone to road accidents were plotted on the Abuja base map. These data were integrated and analyzed using spatial analysis tools of AcrGIS 9.3. Table data were also imported into ArcGIS database. Overlay function and query operation were performed to determine the accident hotspots based on the frequency of road accidents and their spatio-temporal trend.
Results: Findings showed that Wuse maintained the highest black spots while Asokoro experienced the least. It was observed that accidents are caused by road, vehicle, driver and environmental factors.
Conclusion: The study recommends provision of functional traffic lights and defining danger times of high risk locations in Abuja.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression among Rural Communities in Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia

Ng Ka Ting, Tan Kok Leong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1689-1702
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10369

Aims: To determine the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depression among rural communities in Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study with simple random sampling.
Place and Duration of Study: Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, between June 2013 and July 2013.
Methodology: A total of 223 respondents participated in this study. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used as a screening tool to detect the presence of depression.
Results: The prevalence of depression among the rural communities was 7.6%. Non-bumiputra (OR = 3.90; 95% CI: 1.25, 12.18), low education level (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.18, 5.94), smoking (OR = 4.69; 95% CI: 1.69, 13.05), no alcohol consumption (OR = 8.90; 95% CI: 1.71, 46.29), practice healthy diet (OR = 4.83; 95% CI: 1.07, 21.18) and did not exercise regularly (OR = 3.07; 95% CI: 1.40, 6.73) were factors associated with depression.
Conclusion: Early detection of individuals with depression is crucial to initiate treatment to reduce or minimize morbidity and mortality.