Open Access Minireview Article

Role of Natural Essential Oils in Sustainable Agriculture and Food Preservation

M. Amparo Blázquez

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1843-1860
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11376

Research on humans, animals or plants about anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, repellent, antibacterial, antifungal or antioxidant activities of the essential oils corroborated the biological characteristics of aromatic plants and their use since ancient times for their preservative and medicinal properties. These mixtures of natural compounds are valuable ingredients in perfumery, food, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, consumer demand natural products, effective, safe and environmentally friendly. Among them, essential oils may be natural alternatives of synthetic herbicides for organic farming systems, solving serious environmental problems due to their low persistence in the field as well as the incidence of resistance in both weeds and some pathogens. Correlations between the principal compounds of essential oils with herbicidal effect than explain their use in a sustainable agriculture or their antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens, food spoiling bacteria and bacterial virulence factors as biofilm formation for the use as natural food preservative are the main focus of this review.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability of the Precipitation and Its Connections with Dry Years in the Central Anatolia, Turkey

Osman Yildiz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1828-1842
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10391

This study presents an evaluation of the variability of the precipitation and its connections with dry years in the Central Anatolia of Turkey, a semiarid region subjected to frequent and widespread drought events. The statistical parameters of major historical drought events in the region are determined. Annual and seasonal Box-plots of precipitations are used to determine the drought characteristics in the region. The spatial maps of precipitation deficits during the selected drought years are utilized for the assessment of areal impacts of droughts across the region. The hydrological response to droughts is investigated with the use of surface water data including streamflows and reservoir storages. The results of the study indicate that regional drought analysis can provide very useful information for drought mitigation and sustainable water resources management in the Central Anatolia Region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristic and Moment Generating Functions of Generalised Pareto (GP3) and Weibull Distributions

G. Muraleedharan, C. Guedes Soares

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1861-1874
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10087

The characteristic functions (CHFs) are derived for GP3 (generalized Pareto) distribution for shape parameters ξ ≠ 0 and ξ = 0 in explicit closed forms. The CHF of 3-parameter Weibull (type-3extreme value distribution (EVD)) is also derived in a closed form by a direct methodology. Moment-generating functions (MGFs) of the distributions are also derived and parametric relations of certain basic properties of the distributions are also obtained. Model estimation by the method of L-moments is also provided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exposure to Mild Hyperbaric Oxygen Increases Blood Flow and Resting Energy Expenditure but not Oxidative Stress

Akihiko Ishihara, Fumiko Nagatomo, Hidemi Fujino, Hiroyo Kondo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1886-1896
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10101

Aims: This study examined the effects of exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen on blood flow and resting energy expenditure.
Study Design: Clinical study.
Methods: Fourteen healthy women were exposed to mild hyperbaric conditions at 1.25 atmospheres absolute with 36.0% oxygen for 50 min. Their heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, blood flow, resting energy expenditure, derived-reactive oxygen metabolites, and biological antioxidant potential were monitored, and the values before and after exposure were compared.
Results: Heart rate decreased after exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen. In contrast, peripheral oxygen saturation, blood flow, and resting energy expenditure increased after exposure. There were no changes in the levels of derived-reactive oxygen metabolites or biological antioxidant potential after exposure.
Conclusions: Exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen increases blood flow and metabolism without increasing levels of oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Food Safety Due to Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat and Poultry Products in Khartoum State

Egbal H. Munir, Khalda A. Khalifa, Amal M. Mohammed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1897-1904
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9395

The bacterial contaminants of poultry (Meat, Egg and poultry products) were investigated in three towns in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman) to estimate the level of their safety for human consumption. The study was conducted within the period August 2011 – August 2013. A total 849 samples were collected from which 850 bacterial species were recovered. Of which 77.5% species were isolated from meat, 20.2% from eggs and 2.2% from processed products. From Khartoum town 293 bacterial species were recovered, Khartoum North 266 and from Omdurman 291 bacteria were isolated. E. coli represented the highest contaminants in Khartoum state with prevalence of 34.6% followed by Proteus spp. 32.2%, then Citrobacter spp. 13.5% and lastly Salmonella spp. 10.4%. Other bacteria of low incidence were also detected including Klebsiella spp. 5.9%, Shigella spp. 3.4% Serratia spp. 3.2% Pseudomonas spp. 2.2%, Enterobacteria spp. 1.3%, Yersinia spp. 0.7%, Vibrio spp. 0.7%, Streptococcus spp. 0.5%, Staphylococcus spp. 0.4% and Aeromonas spp. 0.1%. These findings highlighted and reflected the magnitude of bacterial contaminants of poultry meat, egg and products in Khartoum state specially most of them have public health impact. More epidemiological surveillance throughout the poultry productions chain allover Sudan with other related components is essentially needed. Well planned research and good hygienic practices will help in the control of zoonotic bacteria of poultry meat and products as well as in the implementation of eradication programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro–In vivo Correlation Studies of Modified Release Solifenacin Tablet Dosage Form

P. Srinivasa Babu, SK. Rihana Parveen, K. B. Chandrasekar, B. R. Challa, Bahlul Zayed Sh. Awen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1905-1915
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9951

A modified release formulation of Solifenacin tablet, was investigated in rabbit for pharmacokinetic and in vitro–in vivo correlation studies. In vivo study was conducted in New Zealand albino male rabbit plasma and In vitro release studies were conducted in simulated gastric fluid and analyzed by using validated HPLC method. The In vivo–In vitro correlation coefficients obtained from point-to-point analysis were greater than 99% between concentrations at certain time points obtained from release study in simulated gastric fluid at specific RPMs and HPLC analysis of rabbit’s plasma. From the in vitro–in vivo correlation prediction it was evident that the Solifenacin modified release tablet is a good for controlled delivery of Solifenacin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Oil Yield from Groundnut Kernel (Arachis hypogeae) in an Hydraulic Press Using Response Surface Methodology

J. O. Olajide, T. J. Afolabi, J. A. Adeniran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1916-1926
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11662

Aim: The present study investigated the effect of operating parameters on the mechanical extraction of oil from groundnut kernel using hydraulic press
Methodology: A five factor, five levels central composite design (CCD) was applied to determine the effects of five independent variables (moisture content, heating temperature, heating time, applied pressure and pressing time) on oil yield. Response surface analysis method was employed to optimize the parameters in the experiment.
Results: Data analysis shows that all the variables signiï¬cantly affected the oil yield at 95% confidence level. Optimum oil yield of 32.36 % was obtained when the moisture content, heating temperature, heating time, applied pressure and pressing time were 8.13%, 81.93ºC, 7.03 minutes, 15.77 Mpa and 6.69 minutes, respectively. The experimental values were very close to the predicted values and were not statistically different at p<0.05.
Conclusion: The regression model obtained has provided a basis for selecting optimum process parameters for the recovery of oil using mechanical press.

Open Access Original Research Article

2-Tuple Linguistic Power Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

Zhiming Zhang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1927-1972
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11083

Aims: The aim of this paper is to develop several 2-tuple linguistic power aggregation operators for aggregating 2-tuple linguistic information.
Study Design: We first introduce several power aggregation operators and then extend these operators to 2-tuple linguistic environments.
Place and Duration of Study: We investigate several useful properties of the developed operators and discuss the relationships between them.
Methodology: Furthermore, the new aggregation operators are utilized to develop two approaches to multiple attribute group decision making with 2-tuple linguistic information.

Results: We develop several 2-tuple linguistic power aggregation operators to aggregate input arguments taking the form of 2-tuples.
Conclusion: Finally, two practical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed approaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acid Profile of Heat-processed Canarium schweinfurthii Pulp

Ernest A. Anyalogbu, Eugene N. Onyeike, Michael O. Monanu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1973-1985
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10266

Amino acid composition of a plant food is an indicator of its protein quality. This could be altered by the processing method. Processed fruit of Canarium schweinfurthii, a Bursereceae, is common traditional snacking item in Nigeria. The pulp of raw and macerated samples of C. schweinfurthii were dried, ground into powders and analyzed for protein and amino acid contents using standard methods. The pulp of raw and macerated samples contain all the amino acids found naturally in plant protein. Glu (6.72-9.03g/100g protein), a non-essential amino acid was the most abundant amino acid followed by Leu (5.35-6.21g/100g protein) an essential amino acid. The concentrations of Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, and Tyr and those of all the essential amino acids were increased by macerating the sample for 15 to 45min while others decreased. Peak values (on g/100g protein basis) were obtained for Lys(3.10), Thr(3.00), Val(3.66), Met(0.89), Ile(3.08), Phe(3.30), Glu(9.03), Gly(3.14), Ala(2.86), Cys(0.79), and Tyr(2.74) at 30min maceration (CS30). The sample processed to accepted eaten tenderness (CS30) on g/100g protein basis also recorded the highest values for the protein quality parameters: total amino acid(56.05), total essential amino acid with His(28.5), total non-essential amino acid(27.8), total neutral amino acid(33.4), total acidic amino acid(14.4), total sulphur amino acid(1.68) and total aromatic amino acid(6.04). Based on whole hen’s egg and 1957 FAO provisional amino acid patterns, Met (0.57-0.89g/100g protein) scored lowest to become the first limiting amino acid in the sample. The plant food has potential as a source of high quality dietary protein.

Open Access Review Article

Investigation of the Efficiency of Selected Bacterial and Fungal Species in the Removal of Phosphate and Sulphate from Wastewater

S. O. Dahunsi, O. B. Akpor, R. Aransiola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1875-1885
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10897

The aim of this study was to ascertain the efficiency of selected bacteria (Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella and Lysinibacillus species) and fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium and Absidia species) in the removal of phosphate and sulphate compounds from wastewater. The study was carried out under shaking flasks conditions. The test wastewater was filtered, sterilised and inoculated with the respective test bacterial and fungal isolates. Just after inoculation with a test isolate and every 24 h for 96 h, aliquot wastewater sample was taken from each flask aseptically for the estimation of phosphate and sulphate concentration in the wastewater. The results revealed remarkable phosphate and sulphate removal within the first 24 h and 48 h, respectively of incubation in the presence of three of the bacterial (Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Klebsiella) isolates, after which increases were observed. In the presence of the fungal isolates, remarkable decreases in phosphate and sulphate levels in the wastewater were observed after the first 48 h of incubation in the presence of the Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. In the presence of the Fusarium spp., there were consistent decreases in phosphate and sulphate levels with time. No remarkable decreases in phosphate and sulphate levels were observed with time in the presence of the Lysinibacillus and Absidia species. The study was able to give an insight into the phosphate and sulphate removal ability of the test isolates under the experimental conditions.