Open Access Short Research Article

A New Method for Decision Making Based on Soft Matrix Theory

Zhiming Zhang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2110-2117
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10507

Aims: The aim of this paper is to provide a note on “Soft matrix theory and its decision making”.
Study Design: In a recent paper [N. Cagman, S. Enginoglu, Soft matrix theory and its decision making, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 59 (10) (2010) 3308-3314], Çaðman and Enginoðlu constructed a soft max-min decision making method which selected optimum alternatives from the set of the alternatives.
Place and Duration of Study: In this paper, we show by an example that Çagman and Enginoglu’s method is very likely to get an empty optimum set.
Methodology: Furthermore, we present a new approach to soft set based decision making.
Results: We give an illustrative example to show the advantage of the developed method.
Conclusion: The developed method in this paper can effectively improve the method proposed in Cagman and Enginoglu’ paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Exercise among Women Attending Antenatal Care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia

Loveness A. Nkhata`, Esther Munalula-Nkandu, Hastings Shula

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1986-1992
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10693

Introduction: There is persuasive evidence on the benefits of exercise during pregnancy such as; reduced time spent in labour, prevention of caesarean sections, quick recovery after childbirth and getting back to the pre-pregnancy figure. The aim of the study was to obtain information on the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards exercise among women attending antenatal care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire and summarized using descriptive statistics. The chi-square test was used to test associations and the significance level was set at 5%.
Results: Three hundred pregnant women participated in the study and the majority (n=222) 74% showed inadequate knowledge on the type of exercises done in pregnancy. Knowledge and attitude was positively associated with the educational level (p<0.03) though exercise practice in relation to the educational level was insignificant. The number of pregnancies were also positively associated with the pregnant women’s knowledge (p=0.001), attitude (p<0.01) and practice (p=0.01) towards exercise in pregnancy.
Conclusions: The flow of information on the types of exercises done in pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal care is inadequate. This underlines the need for physiotherapy personnel involvement in antenatal care to provide information and advice on exercises to pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Synthesis and Properties of an OFF-type Zeolite

K. K. Gorshunova, O. S. Travkina, M. L. Pavlov, B. I. Kutepov, L. M. Kustov

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1993-2001
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11500

The technique for synthesizing powdered OFF-type zeolite of high phase purity and crystallinity has been developed. The effect of crystallization conditions on the characteristics of powdered OFF-type zeolite samples, namely, crystallinity, particle-size distribution, and adsorption of molecules has been studied. An increase in the crystallization temperature has been found to reduce the synthesis duration time; however it resulted in the formation of larger OFF-type zeolite crystals and aggregates thereof. It has been discovered than the particle size of the obtained OFF-type zeolite samples does not affect the adsorption of H2O molecules. On the coarse-crystalline samples the slower diffusion rate of n-С6Ð14 molecules into the zeolite channels is observed; it is associated with the larger size of the adsorbed substance molecules. And for yet larger С6Ð12 molecules the equilibrium adsorption capacity values are decreased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Equipment Considerations for Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Civil Engineering in Urban Areas

Linh Truong-Hong, Hamid Gharibi, Himanshu Garg, Donal Lennon

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2002-2014
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7482

When renting or purchasing a terrestrial laser scanner, consideration must be given to a variety of factors including ease of use, accuracy, speed and cost. The following paper considers these aspects with respect to civil engineering applications in urban areas. One particular concern relates to the logistics of being in the field in terms of the equipment quality, the required space, power supply needs, and time needed for operation. Other factors relate to data acquisition, quality, and processing. To illustrate these issues, two terrestrial laser scanners (one from 2003 and one from 2013) were used to acquire a point cloud of three, masonry building facades in a dense urban setting. Also, sample solid models as required for computational modelling in civil engineering, were generated from these scan data sets. The resulting investigation showed that despite a 10-year age difference in the units, there was no appreciable improvement in the scan angle accuracy, and data from both units was successfully employed to reconstruct building models for computation. However, the newer scanner was significantly faster in data acquisition and possessed other features that made it easier and more effective to deploy in urban areas, where space is limited and vehicular and pedestrian traffic can be problematic. The paper also provides a cost comparison of the two units showing that financial competitiveness depends upon the workload. This paper provides information for firms considering purchasing, renting, or subcontracting laser scanners for civil engineering projects in urban areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Anti-nutritional Constituents of Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Fadaman Kubanni, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Ekwumemgbo Patricia Adamma, Sallau Mohammed Sani, Omoniyi Kehinde Israel, Zubairu Safiya Yusuf

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2015-2027
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9031

Aims: This work seeks to provide information on the proximate and anti-nutritional constituents of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) grown in Fadaman Kubanni farms where effluents from Zaria Industrial Estate are discharged, and compare it with that grown in Rafin Yashi (control) in order to ascertain the effects of the effluent on the plant.
Study Design: Proximate and anti-nutritional constituent determination of Abelmoschus esculentusvegetative part and fruit samples.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between June, 2011 and May, 2013 in the Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Methodology: Standard AOAC method was employed in the determination of moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre and oxalate constituents of the samples; carbohydrate content was obtained by the standard anthrone method; protein content was obtained by standard Biuret protein assay; phytate content was evaluated as specified by Reddy and Love while saponin content was obtained by Rathod and Valvi method. Results were expressed as the mean±SD of five replicate determinations, compared using Student t-test and the level of significance determined at P = 0.05.
Results: The mean obtained for moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate of okra vegetative part from Fadaman Kubanni (FP) were 14.36±0.20%, 11.62±0.23%, 22.87±0.13%, 13.70±0.21%, 14.46±0.32% and 37.56±0.18% respectively, while the values for fruits (FF) samples were 18.63±0.12%, 7.35±0.10%, 13.15±0.04%, 9.73±0.12%, 29.76±0.23% and 51.13±0.20% respectively. The phytate, oxalate and saponin composition of (FP) were 0.66±0.01 mg/g, 0.83 mg/g ± 0.01 mg/g and 0.23 mg/g ± 0.03 mg/g respectively, while (FF) values were 0.66±0.03 mg/g, 0.859±0.02 mg/g and 0.28±0.01 mg/g respectively. Comparison of the values obtained with the control and the standards for consumable fruits indicate that the analyzed samples have good nutritional values.
Conclusions: The effluents discharged did not adversely affect the fruit quality. However, there must be strict adherence to effluent quality by industries before discharging into the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of the Records Method to Identify the Sporadicity of Percnon gibbesi Distribution in Greece

Zaher Khraibani, Zainab Assaghir, Hussein Khraibani, Dimitris Poursanidis, Anis Hoayek, Ghazi Bitar, Hassan Zeineddine, Argyro Zenetos, Hussein Badran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2028-2036
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8718

Aims/Objectives: Mediterranean Sea is one of the most severely affected by alien marine invasions regions worldwide. The reported alien species in the Mediterranean Sea represent approximately 6% of the known biodiversity which is estimated to approximately 17000 species. The number of species increases with a rate of one new record every 1.5 weeks. The Sally Light-foot crab, Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) is a primarily algivorous crab of the shallow infra-littoral rocky shores. Percnon gibbesi increased rapidly its distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, we will use a mathematical framework based on the theory of records to identify if Percnon gibbesi is sporadic. A record is a result or some measurement in a given chain of events that exceeds everything that has been encountered previously. Then, we first describe the distribution of Percnon gibbesi on site in the Mediterranean Sea, Greece, and after we perform a test to identify if the specie is rare
Study Design: Number of records.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Mathematics and Department of Biology, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, between February 2013 and November 2013.
Methodology: We apply a new statistical method in marine ecology to study the evolution of some new marine species for which few information are available. We would determine if some species are isolated (sporadic) based on record method. A specie is recorded or have a record if the number of occurrence of this specie exceeds the last registered number. The observations can be presented with a high variability that may come from some random phenomena such as the transfer, the environment or others.
Results: We consider the inverse of the waiting time between two observed successive species, Percnon gibbesi in the Mediterranean Sea Greece. The first case is founded in Greece in 2001 and the last in 2012. Based on the record method we can easily check the evolution of Percnon gibbesi in Greece is a species that spreads with the time.
Conclusion: We presented a new method of detection of the beginning of a species marine based on the number of observed records from the first observations. The properties of this method consist first on its convenience for any number n of observations since the distribution of the number of records is exactly calculated for each n, and its robustness since this distribution is independent of the cumulative distribution function involved in the distribution of {∆Sn}.

Open Access Original Research Article

Future Climate Conditions and Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature in Bar Watershed, Iran

Siavash Taei Semiromi, Hamid Reza Moradi, Davoud Davoudi Moghaddam, Morteza Khodagholi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2037-2054
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9436

Aims: Climate change is one of the most important challenges for human society, which will affect ecological, social and economical systems. Because of water scarcity issues, studying the potential climate change and its impacts on climate variables and water resources is necessary. The study of climate variables and predict their changes in policy and planning is so vital. Between climatic variables, changes in precipitation and temperature patterns have important influences on the quantity and quality of water resources, especially in arid regions. Therefore, evaluating the trend of their values is one of the most important issues in the hydro climate studies.
Place and Duration of Study: Trend of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation for observation period (1971-2010) and future periods (2010-2039, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099) has been studied by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test in Nayshabour Bar watershed, Iran.
Methodology: In this investigation the output of Hadcm3 and CGCM1 models under A1, A2 and B2 scenarios were downscaled by using Statistical downscaling model (SDSM). Then trend of these climate variables by using nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was analyzed.
Results: The results of the statistical parameters evaluating showed that the outputs of Hadcm3 model under A2 scenario are more compatible with the study area. The results of Mann-Kendall test showed that during the observation period, the trend of precipitation and minimum temperature was decreasing. On the other hand, the trend of average and maximum temperature was increasing, but the trend of these variables at 95% conï¬dence level was not significant. During the future periods, the trend of precipitation was decreasing, and the trend of average, maximum and minimum temperature was increasing that was not significant at 95% conï¬dence level too.
Conclusion: Statistical downscale model is powerful tools for downscale climate variables. Also trend analyses of climate variable can help to mitigation and adaptation global warming issue.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Epidemiology of Hospital-referred Head Injury in Northern Nigeria

U. S. Jasper, M. C. Opara, E. B. Pyiki, O. Akinrolie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2055-2064
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9645

Aims: This study was aimed at defining the peculiar demographic and associated risk factors of head injury.
Study Design: This was a retrospective study
Place and Duration of Study: We conducted this study at an Accident and Emergency unit of a tertiary hospital between February 2012 and January 2013.
Methodology: All head injury patients who were admitted in the Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary health institution were studied. Data were collected from the emergency records and case notes, collated and analyzed using the descriptive statistics and chi square test to test for significance of associations between the predictor and outcome variables in the categorical variables.
Results: Out of 3282 patients attended to during the study period, 428 (13.0%) of them had head injury. Majority were males (342, 79.9%). The peak age prevalence was in the 21- 30 years age group (n=145, 33.8%). Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of injury (307, 71.7%), with a majority being vehicular accident (n=215, 70.0%). The mortality rate was 1.6% (7). Many (57.0%) had associated injuries, of which fractures were the majority (n=93, 21.7%) and with skull fracture being the most common (n=27, 26.5%). Pedestrians knocked down by motor vehicles was the most common mechanism of injury (n=77, 23.3%). A few (22, 11.6%) had taken alcohol prior to the accident. Most of patients (64.7%) sustained mild head injury.
Conclusions: The incidence rate was much higher than in the developed countries. In our environment, male gender, driving a motor vehicle, being in the 1-10 years and 21- 30 years age group respectively, pedestrian and ethnic/communal clashes and violence were the major risk factors of head injury. Road safety officials should be more conscientious in tackling avoidable traffic accidents by increasing awareness and emphasizing the importance of avoidance of alcohol, speed limits, seatbelts and crash helmets.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Approach to Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making under Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Environments with Incomplete Weight Information

Zhiming Zhang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2065-2097
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11116

As a combination of the fuzzy linguistic approach and the hesitant fuzzy set (HFS), hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set (HFLTS) is an efficient tool to deal with situations in which experts hesitate between several possible linguistic terms to assess the membership of an element in qualitative settings. In this paper, we develop a novel method for solving multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems with hesitant fuzzy linguistic information, in which the attribute values provided by the decision makers take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs), the information about the weights of decision makers is unknown, and the information about attribute weights is incompletely known or completely unknown. The developed method consists of three parts. The first one establishes a quadratic programming model based on the maximizing group consensus method, which can be used to determine the weights of decision makers. The second one uses the maximizing deviation method to establish an optimization model, from which the optimal weights of attributes can be derived. The third one extends the TOPSIS method to hesitant fuzzy linguistic environments and develops a hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method, which determines a solution with the shortest distance to the hesitant fuzzy linguistic positive ideal solution (PIS) and the greatest distance from the hesitant fuzzy linguistic negative ideal solution (NIS). Moreover, a practical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method. Finally, the comparison analysis with the other methods shows that the developed method is very effective and appropriate for solving hesitant fuzzy linguistic MAGDM with incomplete weight information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Optimum Operating Parameters for Bioelectricity Generation from Sugar Wastewater Using Response Surface Methodology

M. O. Aremu, E. O. Oke, A. O. Arinkoola, K. K. Salam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2098-2109
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10402

Two response surface methodologies involving historical data designs have been successfully developed with the aim of predicting optimum operating parameters for bioelectricity generation from sugar wastewater. The regression models evaluated the effect of waste water concentration, experimental process time and agitation speed on bioelectric current generation from microbial fuel cell. In the first historical data design, regression model was developed for the investigation of the effect of waste water concentration and experimental process time on the response (bioelectric current). Second historical data design was performed to determine the extent to which agitation speed and process time influence the response. The polynomial regression models were validated with statistical tool whose values of R2 for first and second model were0.95 and 0.98 respectively. The optimum combination of wastewater concentration and process time for the maximum generation of bioelectric current from second model in numerical optimization of response surface methodology are 246.7 and 6 minutes with 1.94 mA electric current. Optimum conditions generated were process time of 40.14 minutes and agitation speed of 39.7 rpm which generated bioelectric current of 1.633 mA. The optimum operating conditions developed could be used to enhance commercialization of bioelectricity generation from sugar wastewater.