Open Access Case study

Dysphagia and Beyond: A Case Report

F. Monacelli, M. Tardivelli, P. Odetti

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2161-2166
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11017

Aims: Swallowing is a complex mechanism subjected to functional changes with aging, which may result either in compensatory mechanisms associated to healthy aging (presbyphagia) or to pathogenetic trajectories leading to dysphagia. Little is known on the multifactorial origin of dysphagia in older adults, especially in patients affected by frailty or pre frail status as well as the lack of effective therapeutic options too frequently inform ageist approaches on this true geriatric syndrome.
Presentation of Case: We report a clinical case, dealing with a misdiagnosis of dysphagia, showing symptoms in an uncommon and striking clinical way, as a denture inadvertent swallowing during breakfast with mixed consistency food.
Discussion: The case highlighted the pivotal role of a comprehensive and timely assessment of dysphagia in geriatrics and the growing need of knowledge sharing and training for professionals involved in the care of elderly, especially in Nursing Home.
Conclusion: Adaptive techniques including dietary changes-avoiding, strengthening dysphagia and adequate dietary intake represent the basic principle of dysphagia rehabilitation and may be act efficiently by all the professionals in geriatrics, outweighing as well that imperfect swallowing may be hazardous due to the danger of acute complications such as aspiration and inhalation pneumonia and to the long-term consequences like malnutrition, sarcopenia, frailty, disability and enhanced mortality.

Open Access Case study

Sustainable Development of Tourism in Semnan City, Using the SWOT Analysis Model

Marzie Daraei, Masoumeh Hafez Rezazadeh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2180-2196
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11234

Tourism is a complex activity that is related to different sectors of society and economy. Nowadays, the role and importance of this industry is main factor of every developed country, so they are trying to maximize utilization of the industry. This means that one of the important indicators of the development and efficient use of this important industry in the country is determined. The land of Iran is rich in natural attractions, so that each of them alone can attract many tourists. Semnan as one of the important provinces of Iran is located on the ancient Silk Road. In addition of its historical rank, it includes a series of exquisite natural beauties, holding scenery of deserts and mountains with their own unique attractions. Despite of having very significant potential across the province of Semnan, unfortunately it has not been able to take advantage of this industry perfectly. To overcome problems, our practical-aimed research is done via descriptive-analytical approach. In this article, we have tried to examine the historical tourist attractions in Semnan with approach towards sustainable tourism development. To achieve the purpose, we tried through discussing strategic analysis of opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses of Semnan tourism provide appropriate strategies for developing tourism in the city by using SWOT technique.

Open Access Short Research Article

Clinician's Perspective on the Management of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Care at Primary Health Care Settings in Pakistan; Context Analysis

Shifa Saleem, Naila Khalid, Adeel Tahir, Hassan Mahmood, Sarah Saleem

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2237-2244
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11900

Aim of the Study: This study aimed to highlight the barriers in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) management in Pakistan.
Place and Duration of Study: Primary health care facilities (18 in total) of rural areas in Punjab province, conducted on January 2014.
Methodology: A cross sectional study is designed with a convenience sample of 18 primary health care facilities of rural areas in Pakistan. Structured interviews were conducted with health care providers and observational checklist of selected services was made for management of asthma and COPD care.
Results: It was observed that there were no proper standardized guidelines and protocols available for clinical assessment, diagnosis and treatment, life style counseling, follow up, recording and reporting system and referral for asthma and COPD management.
Conclusions: Provincial and district health departments should take initiatives to ensure the proper identification of asthma/COPD patients and uninterrupted drugs supply at public health facility. Life style counseling should be an integral part of Asthma/COPD management. There is a need for extensive research to develop the protocols for Asthma/COPD management in low resource health system like in Pakistan.

Open Access Minireview Article

Evidence from Eight Different Types of Studies Showing that Smaller Body Size is Related to Greater Longevity

Thomas T. Samaras

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2150-2160
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11268

Aim: To report findings from various sources indicating that smaller sized humans live longer.
Study Design: Collected mortality and longevity data from a variety of diverse studies involving animals and humans. Also collected longevity data from many nations and ethnic groups. Evaluated a broad range of biological parameters that may explain why smaller people live longer.
Methodology: Over 145 mortality, life expectancy, and longevity studies were evaluated based on over 5000 papers, reports, and books collected over the last 35 years. Thirty studies were selected for this mini review to provide a balanced variety of findings.
Results: Evidence was collected on eight different types of studies. For example, studies were found showing smaller body size is related to greater longevity within the same species. Other studies involved longevity in relation to caloric restriction, male-female height differences, and US ethnic group heights. Other data sources indicated that shorter developed populations have longer life expectancies compared to the tallest populations. Longevity studies showed that shorter people lived longer. Worldwide, centenarians were also found to be short and lean based on their military heights or when adult heights were adjusted for shrinkage. A list of 11 biological factors identified why shorter, lighter bodies survive longer.
Conclusions: The evidence indicates that shorter, smaller bodies are healthier and longer-lived when healthful nutrition and lifestyles are followed. Therefore, emphasizing physical growth is unwarranted when children are healthy. Reduced caloric and animal consumption can provide a path for better health and avoidance of chronic disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Irrigation Water Utilization for Agricultural Production

Elgilany A. Ahmed, Hamid H. M. Faki

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2118-2130
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9945

Optimization of scarce resources use is critical in agriculture production of Sudan. Since resources are economical inputs, the aim should be when optimizing resources use to obtain maximum production per unit. In Sudan, the tenants have compiled numerous crops in order to maximize production in an attempt to improve home food security and income. The field crops in North Sudan are commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. Production of these crops in the district faces numerous constraints, including inefficiency of water use, low level of productivity and high cost of production. This research aims to optimize the use of available irrigation water in food (i.e. wheat) and cash crops (i.e. faba bean). Primary data were collected by using structured questionnaires randomly. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) by applying linear programming technique was used to assess the optimal combination of irrigation waterand other essential agricultural resources in field crops under study. The model revealed that tenants would get higher yield and returns by optimizing irrigation water and other resources use in food and cash crops production.Governments can seek to develop and stretching the modern irrigation systems for better management of water supply. Dissemination of irrigation water knowledge among the State farmers is needed to ensure the technical and economic irrigation water productivity as a tangible contribution to farm investment, returns, and food production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Layered Cake Clientelism: Impact on Occupational Safety in Organizational Management

Masum A. Patwary, Kh Anisur Rahman, Mosharraf H. Sarker

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2131-2149
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11038

Background: The purpose of this study was to gather and consider the views of different employer and employees involved in medical waste handling and management in Dhaka, Bangladesh where the social stratifications and behavioural attitudes are likely to be compounded to influence their subservient behaviour and clientalism attitudes impacted onto organisational behaviour. The aim of this article is to provide a discussion of the most important discoveries in our understanding of this population on their organizational behaviour and their network.
Methods: Quantitative survey for waste measurement, structured questionnaire survey and a wide range of qualitative technique was adopted to identify in-depth knowledge on occupational safety through required different sampling strategies. Collected data were analyzed and pooled together for easy of interpretation and presented in table, graphical distribution and qualitative mode of approach.
Results: Qualitative study of the perceptions and motivations that contributed to these practices revealed misunderstanding of the occupational safety in the organizational management, pooled with a culture of senior officials and subordinate relationship, and lack of responsibility and accountability leading to negative impact on organisational policy implementation while PRISM Bangladesh Foundation an NGO has developed a model on medical waste management to reduce occupational safety.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that there may be a layered arrangement of networks that inform the actions of actors involved in organizational management. Different networks may operate at each level from national governance to unofficial workers. Interaction between the networks does not appear to be constructive, with evidence of corruption, subservience and clientalism whereas PRISM activities seem to be a model, to ensure occupational safety, reduce disease transmission and finally human right.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Aspects and Agricultural Resources Use in Perennial Food Crops in Northern Sudan

Elgilany A. Ahmed, Hamid H. M. Faki

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2167-2179
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9946

Northern Sudan is considered as one of the main suppliers of perennials in the country. The production of perennial crops in the region faces numerous shortcomings regarding crop productivity, high cost of agricultural inputs and inefficiency in agricultural resource use. This paper illustrates the economics and potent for investing in perennial food crops in the region. Beside secondary data, primary data were collected using structured questionnaires for fifty randomly selected respondents’ tenants. Partial budgets were constructed for perennial food crops. Linear Programming was used to model the optimal use of agricultural resources in perennial crops. The results showed that tenants would benefit and gain more profits from growing perennial crops among the predominant crop combination in the region. Therefore, they should be encouraged to invest in perennial food crops and to be guided on how to adopt the suitable crop combination that give more advantages, better returns and contribute significantly to farm sustainability in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

“Removal of Alizarin Red-S Dye from Aqueous Solution by Sorption on Coconut Shell Activated Carbon”

P. B. Wagh, V. S. Shrivastava

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2197-2215
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8005

The removal kinetics and mechanism of alizarin red-s dye, adsorptions on coconut shell activated carbon [CSAC] is studied. The use of low cost ecofriendly adsorbent has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing the dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption removal of Alizarin Red-S dye on CSAC was investigated using batch adsorption technique. The different variables such as initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and temperature were determined to optimize the method. The percentage removal of dye was observed to be most effective at pH8 and at contact time 120 min and at an adsorbent dose 4 g/L. The study shows that a CSAC can be an alternative to other expensive adsorbent used for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. The study indicates that the percentage removal of the dye increases with increase in initial dye concentration; adsorption dose and contact time and attain equilibrium at optimum conditions. The adsorbent was also characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDAX studies. This results shows that, the CSAC is suitable for the removal of alizarin red-s dye from aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Beneficial and Toxic Metals in Fresh Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) from South-Eastern Nigeria: Estimation of Dietary Intake Benefits and Risks

I. C. Nnorom, J. E. Alagbaoso, U. H. Amaechi, C. Kanu, U. Ewuzie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2216-2226
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11428

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of twelve elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni Pb and Zn) in samples of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) from eight (8) towns in Abia State, South-eastern Nigeria. Samples were collected from markets in 8 towns in January, 2013. A total of 32 samples (four samples from each town) were purchased and analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. Analysis of standard reference material as well as metal recovery study was used to validate the analytical method. Data obtained were used to estimate the daily intake of metals from the consumption of about 10 g of palm oil. The range of the results obtained for the beneficial elements (mg/kg) were: Mg (69–192), Ca (145–686), Mn (6.55-12.05), K (77–165), Na (115–533), Zn (3.6–14.6), Fe (65–232), Cu (0.56-2.09) and Cr (0.101-0.298), while values for toxic metals determined were Pb (0.024-0.067), Cd (0.024-0.089), and Ni (0.15-0.81). The results of this study have shown that palm oil will contribute to dietary intake of Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ca, Cr, K, and Na; and that the levels of toxic metals Pb and Cd were low. Comparison of results with literature, and levels set by regulatory authorities indicate that the consumption of palm oil does not pose toxicological risk (from Pb and Cd) to consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Cancer and the Patients' Religious Beliefs

Abdolreza Mahmoudi, Nasrin Shokrpour, Fatemeh Mahmoudi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2227-2236
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7477

Aims: Religious beliefs can help the patients with cancer to cope with the physical and mental sufferings following diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of cancer on the patients’ religious beliefs.
Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional.
Place and Duration: Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, November 2012- July 2013.
Methods: This study was conducted on 200 cancer patients referred to oncology, hematology, and chemotherapy of Namazi hospital in Shiraz. The age range of the patients was 30-45 years old and they took part in the study voluntarily. The instrument used in this study was Bastami questionnaire (2008). The questionnaires were filled out by the patients and analyzed in SPSS. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: There were significant differences between relationship with God, reliance on God, and obedience to God’s commands before and after the disease; the mean scores of the above-mentioned domains before the disease were lower than those after the disease. However, there was no significant difference in the patients’ belief in God’s presence before and after the disease.
Conclusion: Cancer, as a chronic and troublesome disease, can affect the patients’ religious beliefs and enhance their relationship with God.