Open Access Short communication

Combining Atomoxetine with Alpha, 2 Receptor Agonists Treating ADHD

H. Niederhofer

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2345-2347
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8494

Aims: Atomoxetine (ATX) and Methylphenidate (MPH) are first line agents in treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ATX focuses on the frontal lobe, where disattention is situated, MPH on the amygdala, where also hyperacticity is situated. Sometimes, especially for ADHD combined type, both drugs are used contemporarily. Since there are some non responders, adjunctive strategies are required. Alpha agonists have a lower effect size than MPH or ATX. There are only scarse data about the effect of a combination of alpha agonists and MPH [1] or ATX [2]. This trial investigates, if a combination of ATX and Clonidine may also provoke related treatment-emergent adverse events, like MPH and Clonidine do.
Study Design: We observed the effect of a combination of ATX and Clonidine in a 12 year old male patient, suffering from ADHD.
Place and Duration: We observed an outpatient for 4 weeks.
Methodology: Clonidine was added to ATX, because of modest tachycardia.
Results: This case report shows that Alpha agonists do not seem to improve ATX/MPH effect, on the contrary, they seem to diminish ATX/MPH efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-Temporal Variation in Certain Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water from Imphal River, Manipur

Devajit Athokpam, D. M. Kumawat, Asha Gupta

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2245-2261
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7374

The influences of seasonal changes of water properties from Imphal River were investigated in four locations. A range of water quality variables were measured in the river over a period of 12 months. Four selected sites viz, Khonghampat, Heingang, Mahaballi and Kiyamgei were subjected to various anthropogenic activities, as they passed through the heart of the city. Water samples collected from four sites were analysed for pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Free CO2, total chlorides, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, NO3–N, PO4–P and K. The present results revealed that the investigated parameters were within the WHO permissible levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender, Core Self-Evaluations and Fear of Fatness among University Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

Gboyega E. Abikoye, James A. Adekoya, Minerani M. Apiri

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2262-2271
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10286

Aim: Empirical evidence suggests the existence of individual differences in people’s susceptibility to fear of fatness, usually occasioned by the increasingly pervasive norms in many parts of the world in which slimness is associated with health, beauty, intelligence and self-discipline; while fatness is associated with ugliness, lack of self-control, social irresponsibility, and laziness. This line of research, however, has not received adequate attention in Nigeria, thus limiting the prospects for better understanding of the problem as well as prevention and amelioration. This study investigated fear of fatness among randomly selected undergraduate students of a Nigerian university and the influence of personality (core self-evaluations), gender, age, and level of study on fear of fatness.
Methods: A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 790 undergraduate students of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. Participants were personally interviewed, using a standardized and psychometrically-robust questionnaire. Participants’ mean age was 22.10 (SD = 5.19). Out of the 790 participants, 490 (62.02%) were females and 300 (37.97%) were males.
Results: The mean score for males on the fear of fatness was 19.10 (SD = 7.22) while the mean score for females was 35.17 (SD = 8.32). Results of the 2x2 ANOVA indicated that persons with high CSEs had significantly lower fear of fatness scores than low CSEs persons {F (1,785) = 15.55; p. <.001}. Females scored significantly higher on fear of fatness than males {F (1,785) = 20.77; p. <.001}.
Conclusions/Recommendation: Fear of fatness is very high among university students in Nigeria, with CSEs, gender, age and level of study playing important roles. It is recommended that CSEs should be factored into relevant intervention programmes, such as counselling and psycho-education, for university students with a view to educating students on self-acceptance and CSEs to help them develop more realistic perceptions of themselves and their social worlds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Regional Social and Material Characteristics Influence Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Decision-Making? The Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study

Olivia Remes, Leah M. Smith, Beatriz Alvarado-Llano, Lindsey Colley, Linda E. Lévesque

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2272-2285
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10201

Aims: Although social and material characteristics are known determinants of health behaviours, there is no information on whether these factors influence human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making. Moreover, few studies consider the potentially important influence of regional-level factors on HPV vaccine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate regional social and material characteristics as potential determinants of HPV vaccine refusal.
Study Design: Population-based retrospective cohort.
Methodology: Population-based administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for Ontario’s Grade 8 HPV vaccination program during the 2007/08-2010/11 program years. A cohort member was classified as a ‘refuser’ if she received no doses of the vaccine. Regional-level (i.e., health unit-level) social and material characteristics potentially associated with HPV vaccine decision-making were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. The association between a girl’s environment and vaccine refusal was assessed using generalized estimating equations with a binomial distribution and a log link to estimate a population-average effect.
Results: We identified a cohort of 144,047 girls, almost half (49.3%) of whom refused HPV vaccination. Overall refusal ranged from 42-60% across health units. For the majority of health units, refusal was highest in the first program year. While most regional-level factors were not strongly associated with HPV vaccine use, high regional deprivation was associated with low vaccine refusal (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.89).
Conclusions: Our findings of an association between high regional deprivation and low HPV vaccine refusal may be promising in terms of the health and economic benefits of this program. Future studies incorporating both individual- and regional-level determinants are needed to further elucidate the determinants of HPV vaccine refusal in the context of publicly funded, school-based programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Models for Injury Count Data in the U.S. National Health Interview Survey

Jin Peng, Tianmeng Lyu, Junxin Shi, Haikady N. Nagaraja, Huiyun Xiang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2286-2302
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9490

Aims: To examine the best count data model for injury data in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). To compare the best count data model with traditional logistic regression model in analyzing injury data in NHIS.
Data Source: 2006-2010 medically consulted non-occupational injury data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
Methodology: Six count data models (Poisson, negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated NB (ZINB), hurdle Poisson (HP), and hurdle NB (HNB)) were compared using Likelihood Ratio (LR) test and Vuong test. Injury count was used as the dependent variable in count data models. Independent variables included age, gender, marital status, race, education, poverty status, disability status and medical insurance coverage status. Dichotomized injury count was used as the dependent variable in logistic regression model. The same independent variables used in count data models were included in logistic regression model. The model fit of logistic regression was examined by Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test.
Results: Among 248,850 participants aged 18-64, 98.37% have no medically consulted non-occupational injuries, 1.55% have 1 medically consulted non-occupational injury, 0.07% have 2 or more medically consulted non-occupational injuries. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model offered the best fit. Logistic regression model provided a good fit but resulted in different estimates from ZINB model.
Conclusion: Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model demonstrated the potential to be the best model for injury count data with excess zeros. Given the infrequent occurrence of multiple injuries in our data, the logistic regression model is appropriate for assessing injury burden and identifying injury risks. However, for more frequently-occurring injuries (e.g. sports injuries), logistic regression may undercount the total number of injuries and result in biased estimates. The evaluation procedure and model selection criteria presented in this paper provide a useful approach to modeling injury count data with excess zeros.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrodynamic Characterization of Fractured Aquifers in Precambrian Basement of Côte d’Ivoire: Geostatistical and Statistical Approaches

T. Lasm, D. Baka, O. Z. De Lasme, M. Youan Ta, F. K. Kouamé, T. K. Yao, E. K. Kouadio, A. V. Ake, K. A. F. Yao, O. S. Akossi, A. Coulibaly, E. A. Assoumou

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2303-2322
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11509

This study concerns 10 communities of Côte d'Ivoire sampled in six regions. The study aims to provide better knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of fissured aquifers from Precambrian basement of Côte d'Ivoire. Geostatistical and statistical methods are used to analyze transmissivities and specific capacities. Transmissivity and specific capacity were determined after drawdowns corrections from pumping data and using traditional and numeric methods. Indeed, the pumping test carried out in isolate drilling and drawdowns are measured in the same drilling. The results showed that these two parameters are distributed at least on 3 orders of magnitude which revealed evidence the heterogeneity of studied areas. Specific capacity mainly is low and seldom exceeds 10 m2/h in water supply project of rural regions. The lowest values recorded in Bondoukou area with specific capacities values lower than 0.5m2/h. There is a large dispersion of data in many areas (Oume, San Pedro, Agnibilekro, Abengourou, etc.). Indeed, transmissivity and specific capacity data are scattered (Cv> 100%). These two parameters are distributed following lognormal law. In each area, an empirical relationship was established. This relationship can be used to assess the transmissivity in the areas where this parameter is difficult to determinate. Variograms of transmissivity in these areas are structured with significantly nugget effect. Variogram of San Pedro area is the most structured with a range equals to 60 km. The weakest one is obtained at Oume (with a range equal to 7 km). Assessment of the transmissivity by krigeage of 4 studied areas (Man-Danane, Bondoukou, San Pedro and Oume) is good and significant. However, estimated values of the transmissivity present a short order of magnitude compared to experimental values. The results achieved through this study contribute to better knowledge of fissured aquifers from Precambrian basement of Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Mediating Role of Trust in E-Banking: The Interplay between the Web Site’s Perceived Quality and Commitment towards the Bank

Wissem Hakiri, Sylvain Senecal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2323-2344
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7900

Trust is one of the key elements needed to create and maintain relationships with customers in any kind of exchange. Although studying trust is generally well established, and despite disagreements on its conceptualisation, few researchers have studied trust in an online environment, in particular banking web sites. This study addresses the following issue: can the quality of a web site in itself guarantee customers’ commitment to a long-term relationship with their banks? What is the role of online trust? The aim of this study is to propose and then to test an explanatory model targeted to apprehend the existing relationships between these three variables in an e-banking context. What relationships will prevail? Direct and/or indirect ones? Our study examines the banking sector in Tunisia. Data collection has been collected through a face-to-face survey of customers of Tunisian banks. A questionnaire has been designed by selecting items from scales validated by previous research. Our objective is to know about customers’ perception of electronic service quality, online trust and commitment towards their banks. The obtained results highlight the important role of the quality of the bank’s online service in the long-term relationship with its customers by establishing trust which, in turn, induces their commitment to the bank. The findings of this study revealed that there is no direct relationship between the website’s perceived quality and commitment. Moreover, the study revealed that customers’ reluctance to commit to their banks relates to lack of their on-line trust despite a good perception of the web site’s quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Moisture Influence on Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of African Mesquite (Prosopis africana)

Sadiku Olajide, Fadele Oluwaseyi, Makinde Dolapo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2348-2361
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8116

The physical and some mechanical properties of Prosopis africana seeds (African mesquite) as affected by seed moisture content in the range 10–22% wet basis (w.b.) were investigated. Mohsenin, Stepanoff and ASABE standard methods were used in determining the properties. Results showed that there was increase in seed length (11.40–12.90 mm), width (8.10– 9.60 mm) and thickness (4.8–5.9 mm) while arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased in the range; 8.1–9.4 mm and 7.5–8.9 mm respectively. Increases in bulk density (508 – 856 kgm-3), surface area (176 – 249 mm2) and sphericity (0.66–0.70) were recorded while a decrease was observed in true density (1205.9–1090 kgm-3) with increasing seed moisture content. Increase was also observed in static angle of repose (30.8 - 36.2o). Static coefficient of friction increased on plywood (26.7 - 32.2), glass (25.7 - 33.8), mild-steel (26.2 - 31.0), galvanized iron (27.5 - 32.7), rubber (27.5 - 31.5), aluminium (26.0 - 28.5) and stainless steel (24.0 - 31.8). Shear stress was highest at 22% moisture wet basis (w.b.) under 500 g load (6.3 gcm-2) and lowest at 10% moisture w.b., under 200g load (2.0 gcm-2). Effect of seed moisture content on all the properties was statistically significant (P=.05) except static coefficient of friction on aluminium and mild steel surfaces. All the properties are pre-requisite for the engineering design and development of equipment for the handling and processing of African mesquite; the purpose for which baseline data was developed in this work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Source Identification and Fingerprinting of Tar Balls Appeared at Goa Beach

Krishna D. Ladwani, Kiran D. Ladwani, C. A. Moghe, D. S. Ramteke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2362-2372
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10149

Tar balls are frequently reported as indicators of extent of marine pollution owing to spill incidents. It has now been fairly established that the potential threat from operational or accidental oil spills from tankers and other oil related activities could lead to environmental pollution. The study represents the chemical analysis and source identification of tar balls appeared at Goa beach. Four tar balls samples were collected from several locations along the coast of the Goa and were analyzed for their acyclic and Poly Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Analysis of crude oil, burnt oil and weathered oils were also included as possible sources of tar balls. Comparison was carried out between the compounds found in tar balls with that of crude oil, burnt oil and weathered oil. This study indicates that, the major source of tar balls was likely to be crude oil as evident from the fingerprints obtained from the study performed on GC-MS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Household Consumption, Domestic Investment, Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Malaysia

Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Mohamad Idham Md Razak, Zakimi Ibrahim, Abdul Halim Mohd Noor, Elsadig Musa Ahmed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2373-2381
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11335

This paper examines the dynamic linkages between economic growth, household consumption, domestic investment and public expenditure in Malaysia by adopting ARDL approach for the period of 1960-2010 based on Keynesian and Wagner’s law hypothesis. We have also created two dummies variables in the model to capture two major economic crises: Asian Financial Crisis 1997-1998 and Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009. The empirical result showed that there is a long run relationship exists in the model proposed. Mixed evidence is found for the short run and the variables are mostly significant for the long run elasticity. The contribution of consumption is said to be the largest followed by gross domestic investment and public expenditure. The empirical findings showed that the policies employed by the government are currently effective and help to promote growth in the long run. Moreover, the policies are also capable in sustaining the economy during recession period. The findings help to give clear pictures for the policymaker to construct suitable policies that can accelerate higher economic growth for Malaysia and achieving the target of high income country in the year 2020.