Open Access Case study

Perceived Importance of Recreational Park within Residential Neighbourhood in Nigeria Cities

Daniel Oluwasola Olaleye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2404-2414
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/3112

Aims: The study focused on the importance of locating recreational park within residential area. It aims at assessing the social, environmental and physical planning implications of recreational park development on the residents.
Methodology: The research purposively selected Victoria Garden City (VGC) where two recreational parks are located as the study area. From the 1431 household heads, 143 (10%) were randomly selected for questionnaire administration, while only 139 questionnaire was retrieved from the sampled household in the study area. The questionnaire inquired the socio-economic characteristics of the residents and their perceived importance of the identified parks in the study area. Data were analysed using Perception Index (PI).
Result: Using PI, there were 6 basic factors that are perceived to be the important benefits or advantages of having recreational park in the residential area. These were; creation of place for recreation (4.906), serve as a social point of meeting (4.791), and prevention of wind force (wind breaker) (4.784). Others were promoting friendliness among residents (4.727), reduce/control soil erosion (4.727) as well as prevent idleness and social vices in the neighbourhood (4.604).
Conclusion: The study concluded that action is urgently needed to ensure that recreational parks serve more residential neighbourhoods in the cities across Nigeria.

Open Access Short Research Article

Simultaneous Measurement of Groundwater Radon in a Large Area: First Results

F. Kulali, T. Tsvetkova, I. Akkurt, B. Suiatin, I. Nevinsky

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2415-2421
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12366

Aims: Simultaneous measurement of groundwater 222Rn concentrations in Krasnodar territory (South Russia) and in southwest Turkey for seismological application (earthquake predict) was began.
Study Design: Simultaneous measurement of 222Rn concentration in groundwater samples on the large area can be taken for the study of earthquake precursors.
Place and Duration of Study: Research Centre of Natural Radioactivity (South Russia, Krasnodar region, well in the set. of Kholmsky and well in the set. of Spokoinaya), Suleyman Demirel University (Southwest Turkey, two springs in Pamukkale geothermal region), between 2012 and 2013.
Methodology: Sampling was carried out at 9-00 GMT daily. The usual method of definition of alpha - activity in the scintillation chamber for fast measurement of 222Rn in water with minimally registered concentration 0.1 Bq L-1 was applied. Atmospheric air, taking 222Rn, is passing through the glass with volume of 0.5 L with a researched sample. The obtained 222Rn data was compared with seismic data.
Results: Simultaneous increase of 222Rn concentration in all sources was observed before regional earthquakes. The results show changes of 222Rn in water of different wells and springs depending on different removal of an epicenter of the earthquake in researched area.
Conclusion: Results of simultaneous measurement of 222Rn concentration in groundwater on a large area can be used to determine of the epicenter of future earthquakes.

Open Access Short Research Article

Corrosion Inhibition of Copper Using African Black Velvet Tamarind (Dialium indium) Extract in Sulphuric Acid Environment

Eziaku Osarolube, A. O. James

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2450-2458
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9434

Inhibition of corrosion of copper in aerated 0.5M sulphuric acid solutions containing various concentrations of Dialium indium extract was studied at a temperature range of 30 - 50ºC using weight loss and gasometric techniques. Results showed that Velvet Tamarind concentration range of 0.05 - 0.25g/500ml exhibited a good corrosion inhibition of 71.76%. Generally, it was observed that the rate of inhibition increased with temperature of the corrosive media and concentration of the inhibitor. This shows that Velvet Tamarind is a good, efficient and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for copper in 0.5M H2SO4 solution at room temperature and better at higher temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hazard Control Technology for Situation Monitoring at Potentially Hazardous Facilities

O. M. Serebrovsky

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2382-2394
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10601

This article focuses on the actual problem of preventing accidents at potentially hazardous facilities. The technology for risk control at potentially hazardous facilities by the criterion of possible accident probability is proposed. Monitoring of situations is a necessary component of the technology. The technology is founded on the knowledge base created beforehand. Knowledge Base includes a prior formalized knowledge about situations that are possible on potentially hazardous facilities and the impact of these situations on the occurrence of undesirable elementary (basic) events. Each step of monitoring includes calculating the probability of an accident and hazard assessment. The new hazard estimation is calculated at each change of situation at potentially hazardous facilities. The probabilities of basic events are the necessary input data for predicting accidents. The focus of the paper is concentrated on the calculation of the probabilities of basic events. This calculation takes into account: the new situation, the actual time and wear made at the time of changing the situation, and content knowledge base. The contribution of the study: Special procedures are developed within the monitoring technology that form new predictable trajectories and the adjustment of the predictive interval boundaries for each situational change at potentially hazardous object according to the cumulative effect of hazard causal factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Yield and Yield Related Traits of Some Traditional Rice Cultivars in Sri Lanka as Described by Correlation Analysis

A. L. Ranawake, U. G. S. Amarasinghe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2395-2403
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12050

Aims: To understand the relationship between individual trait and yield of one hundred rice cultivars according to Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Study Design: Completely randomized block design with four replicates. Twenty plants were evaluated in each replicate and eighty plants were evaluated in each cultivar in four replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka in 2011-2013.
Methodology: Data were collected in 80 plants of four replicates on: plant height (cm), number of tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant panicle length (cm), panicle weight (g), number of spikelets per panicle, number of fertile spikelets per panicle, 100 grain weight (g), days to maturity and yield per plant (g). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated using SPSS.
Results: According to statistical analysis grain yield was significantly and highly correlated with number of fertile spikelets/panicle (r = 0.765), panicle weight (r = 0.727), number of spikelets/panicle (r = 0.638), filled grain percentage (r = 0.620), number of fertile tillers/plant (r = 0.611), number of tillers/plant (r = 0.575). Hundred grain weight (r = 0.336) and plant height (r = 0.278) were also correlated with at 1% significant level. None of the studied trait was negatively correlated with the yield.
Conclusion: Fertile spikelets per panicle, panicle weight, number of spikelet per panicle and filled grain percentage can be considered as good criteria for selection of rice cultivars suitable for breeding programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of an Awareness Toolfor Safe and Responsible Driving (OSCAR)

O. T. Mélanie Levasseur, Thérèse Audet, O. T. Isabelle Gélinas, Michel Bédard, O. T. Marie-Ève Langlais, O. T. France-Hélène Therrien, O. D. Judith Renaud, Monia D’Amours

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2422-2433
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12261

Declines in driving ability may jeopardize the safety of older drivers and other road users.

Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate an awareness tool to foster and maintain the mobility of older drivers through safe driving.
Methods: A scoping study was conducted to select the best questions and tips to increase older drivers’ awareness, followed by a validation with 12 older drivers.
Results: The awareness tool informs older drivers about competency as well as compensatory strategies for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR). It includes 15 questions and 15 tips on aging and driving. Participants were very interested in the tool, and confirmed its relevance and usefulness. Finally, the majority of older drivers said they would recommend OSCAR to other people and use it to discuss their concerns regarding driving with their family or health care professional.
Conclusions: Concise, complete, clear, accurate and written in accessible language, OSCAR fosters awareness and enables seniors to identify changes in themselves and learn about compensatory strategies and resources. While promoting safe driving and the prevention of collisions and injuries on the roads, OSCAR could ultimately allow seniors to maintain or increase their mobility in the community and their social participation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Homeostatic ‘Process S’ to Assess Sleep Misalignment and Excessive Sleepiness in Shift-Workers

Sergio Garbarino, Paola Lanteri, Lino Nobili, Barbara Mascialino, Fabio Spigno, Walter G. Sannita

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2434-2449
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11420

Aims: To quantify and model mathematically the effects on the subjects’ sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and performance of the sleep phase shift due to working at times of the day when sleep propensity is high.
Methodologies: Thirty-seven police officers working on a fast counterclockwise schedule, filled for 25 consecutive days a self-administered questionnaire about the previous night sleep, subjective fatigue, sleep attacks, errors. For each subject, the homeostatic process was computed according to the Borbély-Achermann model. Night sleep decreased progressively during the shift schedule, with effects on sleep pressure accumulation and the subjective feeling of fatigue increasing exponentially in the first four shifts to decrease during the 60-hrs off-duty.
Results: Sleep proved delayed starting from the schedule beginning, with marked differences between the morning and night shifts in the subgroups of subjects who voluntarily did/did not compensate for the sleep deprivation by morning or afternoon naps. Sleep attacks occurred mainly during the night-shift, while errors were more frequent in the morning- and night- shifts.
Conclusion: The temporal misalignment with the circadian drive of the working schedule is a primary cause of sleep disruption, with excessive sleepiness and predictable negative effects on alertness, attention and performance. The available model may help define schedules compatible with the physiological sleep-wake cycle in various workplaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Myers’ Blended Method: An Alternative Approach

Jadab Kumar Pal, Barun Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Suchintya Kumar Gupta

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2459-2465
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10673

Myers’ index is widely used in censuses, large scale sample surveys and in many other secondary data to study the digit preference error on single year raw age distribution particularly in developing countries where huge peaks and troughs are observed at the ten digits of age. Historically many modifications are known and theories have been developed on this method by actuaries, demographers and other social scientists (Bachi, [3]; Carrier, [4]; Ramachandran, [5]; Mukhopadhyay, [6] and others). Usually the well known Myers’ Blended Method (1940) is done where the figures for ages within a broad band on ten digits from zero to nine are much significant and high. The same method has been tried in the paper to find the quality of age reporting in a small area sample in the district of Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. The index value seems to overestimate may be because of too small values for some of figures corresponding to the ten digits of the entire distribution even within a broad age range of population. An alternative approach replacing the original population by person years is made in the paper to calculate the same index. The modified index value seems to be appropriate keeping in view of the type of high and low values only for a few digits out of the ten digital values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grass-Roots Perception of Decentralisation in Relation to Community Development in Ghana

Mohammed Sulemana

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2466-2476
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9749

Decentralisation is presumed to have a number of democratic as well as developmental benefits. It is assumed that democracy will be deepened by facilitating democratic participation at the grassroots thereby empowering grassroots and channelling their input constructively into community development. However, some authors argue that the purported benefits of decentralisation leading to community development are not as obvious as proponents of decentralisation suggest. This paper explores the relationship between decentralisation and community development in six regions in Ghana using questionnaire surveys at the district level. In all the relationship between decentralisation and community development for the six regions was 57.8 per cent. This implies that 57.8 per cent of the respondent’s agree that there was a relationship between decentralisation and community development. The regression analysis between decentralisation and community development showed a significant relationship of 0.000 between decentralisation and community development.