Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Information Dissemination Behavior in Online Social Network with Propagation Delay

Zhang Wei, Wang Lin, Dai Jing, Liu Yicheng

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2486-2500
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/7627

In this paper, the information dissemination model involving propagation delay was studied. The effect of delay in the Social Network Service (SNS) was found by considering the theory of complex network and infectious disease dynamics. Also, the authors simulate the online social network information dissemination process and classify the different types of nodes. The simulation results show that: as the high connectivity of online social network, there is less threshold of information transmission in network; the propagation delay makes the threshold lower and the information is easier to be spread, but the propagation delay speeds down the information dissemination meanwhile it decreases the possibility of the information out breaking. This study posts a well understanding of the dissemination behavior with propagation delay in the SNS network, which is fundamental research on consensus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Epidemiology of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Vaccination and Its Impact on Cervical Cancer in Ghana

William Obeng-Denteh, Robert Twumasi Afrifa, Benedict Barnes, Kwaku Mari Addo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2501-2518
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11019

This paper is purported to assess the impact of the modeling of bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and Pap test on prevalence of carcinogenic HPV 16/18 types in Ghanaian females. For this purpose, a non-linear dynamic SIR model of homogeneous transmission for HPV 16/18 type’s infection is developed, which accounts for immunity due to vaccination in particular. The recovery class R was partitioned into two compartments, temporary recovery RT and permanent recovery RP. We propose ODE equations to study HPV infection in the general female population. The vaccinated reproduction number R0 for general female population was derived using the approach described by Diekmann (2010) called the Next Generation Operator approach. The proposed models were analyzed using quantitative method, with regard to steady-state stability and sensitivity analysis. Precisely, the stability of the models is investigated depending on the value for R0 for the disease free steady-state and Routh-Hurwitz criterion employed to study the stability of the endemic steady-state. Prevalence data are used to ï¬t a numerical HPV model, so as to assess infection rates. We also support our theoretical analysis with numerical simulations. This provides a framework for future research and public-health policy to determine the dependence of HPV vaccination programs on age, as well as how the vaccine and Pap test can reduce the number of infections and deaths due to cervical cancer. We estimated the basic reproductive number for the general female population based on current vaccination statistics using the systems of ODE’s to be R0>1, which indicates that the pathogen is able to invade the general female population and cervical cancer cases will increase in the future. The derivation and analysis of the modified SIR mathematical model SIRTRT enabled a better understanding of the dynamics of the spread of Human Papilloma Virus infection and reduction of cervical cancer cases in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Encryption Algorithm Using Graph Theory

Wael Mahmoud Al Etaiwi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2519-2527
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11804

In the recent years, with the increase of using Internet and other new telecommunication technologies, cryptography has become a key area to research and improve in order to transfer data securely between two or more entities, especially when the data transferred classified as a critical or important data. Even there are many encryption algorithms exist, the need of new non-standard encryption algorithms raise to prevent any traditional opportunity to sniff data. The proposed algorithm represents a new encryption algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data securely with the benefits of graph theory properties, the new symmetric encryption algorithm use the concepts of cycle graph, complete graph and minimum spanning tree to generate a complex cipher text using a shared key.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Hyperelastic Behavior of Natural Rubber/Organomodified Kaolin Composites Oleochemically Derived from Tea Seed Oils (Camellia sinensis) for Automobile Tire Side Walls Application

Chukwutoo Christopher Ihueze, Chinedum Ogonna Mgbemena

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2528-2542
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11587

This paper is on the modeling and prediction of limit stresses of Natural Rubber/Organomodified kaolin composites oleochemically derived from Tea Seed Oils (Camellia sinensis).The stress-strain data reports of Natural Rubber/Tea Seed Oil modified (NR/TSO) kaolin were used to develop hyperelastic models using ANSYS 14.0 work bench. Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin 9 Parameter, Polynomial 3rd Order and Yeoh 3rdOrder models were found to give perfect fit for NR/TSO modified kaolin composites. The energy absorption capabilities were measured on the functions derived from stress-strain data to establish the toughness of Natural Rubber/Unmodified Kaolin (NR/UMK) and NR/TSO modified Kaolin. The NR/UMK has its approximate strain energy as 29.12MJ/mat 2 parts per hundred rubber (phr) while the NR/TSO kaolin composite has its approximate strain energy as 31.12MJ/m3. The orthogonal stresses, the principal stresses and yield stresses are found to be lower than the ultimate tensile strength of 0.7875MPa hence the material is safe within load range of its ultimate strength. Plane stress analysis with ANSYS APDL 14.0 gave limit stresses distribution in terms of von-Mises stresses in the range 0.781869MPa-0.792847MPa. The maximum principal stress is found to be higher than the ultimate tensile strength of 0.7875MPa hence the material is safely specified with load range of von Mises, 0.781869MPa-0.7875MPa. Finally it was observed that organomodification of kaolin with tea seed oil (TSO) increases the strength of Natural Rubber composites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intra-Urban Variation in Residents' Responses to Crime in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Adewumi Israel Badiora

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2543-2561
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/3825

Aim: This study examined spatial pattern of crime and residents’ response to criminal activities in different residential areas of Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Methodology: Data were obtained through the stratification of the study area into the traditional town centre, middle income, high income and post crisis residential areas. One out of every five street (20%) was randomly selected. Every tenth building (10%) was selected using systematic sampling.
Results: Crime Rate of Occurrence Index (CROI) in the identified residential areas showed that store breaking with index of 3.44 was the most prevalent crime in the traditional town centre. House breaking was the most prevalent crime in the middle income (CROI=4.24) as well as the high income (CROI=3.96) residential areas while attempted rape (CROI= 3.34) was the major challenge in post crisis residential area. Residents’ responses to criminal activities through various means showed that burglary proofing accounted for 11.3% and 12.8% of all the residents’ responses to crime in the middle and high income residential areas of the town. Fencing accounted for 7.5% of residents’ responses to crime in the traditional town centre and 8.9%, 11.7% and 8.2% of residents’ crime coping mechanism respectively in middle income, high income and post crisis residential areas. Alarm system and surveillance respectively accounted for 0.4% and 3.0% of neighborhoods security measures in the high income residential area.
Conclusion: The study concluded residents’ responses to criminal activities varied along the different residential areas as the prevalent crime differ significantly in their rate of occurrence in the different residential zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Morphology of Biological Active Compounds

Melita Poljakovic, Majda Srabovic, Ekrem Pehlic

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2562-2573
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12033

Aim: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of crystallization 5-H-dibenz(b,f)azepin-5-carboxamide and fexofenadine hydrochloride from different solvents commonly used for purification of drugs during their final stages of synthesis.
The synthetic pathway has presented the number of reactions in which the starting material is converted to the desired molecule structure. 5-H-dibenz(b,f)azepin-5-carboxamide is pharmaceutically active compound which is used in the treatment of epilepsy and trigeminal neuralgia. The synthesis 5-H-dibenz(b,f)azepin-5-carboxamide is performed in accordance with the mechanism of the nucleophylic substitution. When substances crystallize in a different but chemically identical crystal forms, then we talk about polymorphism. 5-H-dibenz(b,f)azepin-5-carboxamide is a very important pharmaceutically active compound which is present in at least four anhydrous polymorphic modifications, two of which are monoclinic, one is trigonal and the final one is triclinic. Fexofenadine hydrochloride, a piperidine derivative is H1 antihistaminic active compound. A number of polymorph modifications is present in the structure of molecule. Reaction of esterification, Friedel-Craft’s alkylation, condensation, oxidation and reduction are included in the Fexofenadine hydrochloride synthesis pathway.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hippocratea africana Root Bark Extract on Lipid Profile of Female and Male Albino Wistar Rats

J. I. Ndem, M. U. Eteng, A. F. Uwah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2574-2583
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12491

There is significant global application of plant(s) extract for curative purposes. One of such focus is herbal remedies for malaria and their safety in biological system need to be ascertained. The antiplasmodial activity of Hippocratea africana root bark has been studied. Its effect on the lipid parameters at graded doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight administered to both female and male rats of groups II, III, and IV respectively for 14 days was studied. Group I served as the control and was administered distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in high concentrations, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides in moderately concentrations while saponins was trace. There were significant (p≤0.05) decrease in total cholesterol and increase in TG and HDL-CH for the female test rats at 200mg/kg body weight of the extract compared with the control. There was decrease in VLDL-CH and LDL-CH concentrations that was not significant (p ≥ 0.05) compared with the control. 200 and 300mg/kg body weight extract treatment groups for the male rats recorded significant (p≤0.05) increase in total cholesterol and TG concentrations, non significant (p≥0.05) increase in HDL-CH, significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in VLDL-CH and significant (p≤0.05) increase in LDL-CH compared with the control. The significant decrease concentration of total cholesterol with increase in TG and HDL-CH concentrations for the female rats suggest that the herb maybe safe for use its antiplasmodial property. This effect may be due to the phytochemicals present in herb. Its hypercholesterolemia for the male rats however suggests that long term administration of the herb may predispose atherosclerosis/coronary heart disease.

Open Access Review Article

Diabetes Mellitus in Morocco: Situation and Challenges of Diabetes Care

Youssef Dinar, Rekia Belahsen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2477-2485
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10287

Diabetes is a pandemic that continues to worry about Governments and health policy makers. It is ranked at the top of chronic diseases that threaten global health with 371 million cases reported by the International Federation of diabetes in 2012. A big percentage of diabetics (80%) exist in developing countries and Morocco is one among them. Diabetes care and medical treatment arrangement are among the several constraints to fight this pandemic in the world in general and the Morocco specifically. This paper is a review on the situation of diabetes in Morocco, its extent, evolution and its complications as well as the disease care and management.