We attempted to clarify whether the suitability of three-dimensional porous barium-ion-crosslinked alginate (Ba-alginate) gels as a scaffold for cells, in comparison with calcium-ion-crosslinked alginate (Ca-alginate) gels, differed according the type of method used to induce cross-linkage. We fabricated two types of three-dimensional porous Ba- and Ca-alginate gels in which the alginates were cross-linked under freeze-dried conditions or in aqueous solution, and evaluated their affinity for cells. Only Ba-alginate, cross-linked by freeze-drying, exhibited a rough surface and high protein adsorption ability, in comparison with Ba-alginate that had been cross-linked in aqueous solution, and any type of Ca-alginate gel. Cells formed multicellular spheroids whenever alginate was used as a scaffold, but only on Ba-alginate porous gels cross-linked by freeze-drying did the number of cells increase with culture time. These findings indicate that the properties of Ba-alginate influencing its suitability as a scaffold for cells change according to the method used to induce cross-linkage. Our findings may be useful for extending the application of Ba-alginate, and may have significance in diverse biomedical fields.
The estuary of Comoe River in Grand-Bassam is facing to a hydrosedimentary dynamics spectacular than the others estuaries of Côte d’Ivoire. The sediments deposits produce a sandbank which breaks the natural contact between Comoe River and Atlantic Ocean. This increases the concentration of solid matters in suspension, the confinement and the invasion of the estuarian environment by aquatic vegetables. This study aims to know the spatio-temporal dynamics of physicochemical parameters, from the suspended solid loads of Comoe River estuary. The water samplings have been made over two seasonal cycles between 2005 and 2007 to quantify suspended solid transport. The solid discharges in suspension in the estuary are estimated about 72000 tons of sediments per year. The estuary waters are moderately mineralised and present some pH values near the neutrality. Mineralization is influenced by seasons. The estuary is turbid and slightly oxygenated over every season. The dissolved oxygen averages are 0.5 and 1.6 mg.L-1 respectively during the rainy and the dry seasons Comoe River estuary has relatively low salinities (with an average of 1 mg.L-1).
Aims: This paper analyzes the changing agricultural landscape in Northern Louisiana using GIS. Study Design: Adopted a mix scale approach Place and Duration of Study: The inland parishes of Northern Louisiana from May 2011 to December of 2012 Methodology: The study uses a mixed-scale approach of GIS and descriptive statistics in analyzing the changing agricultural landscape of the Northern Louisiana region from temporal-spatial perspective at the parish level. Results: The results point to the incidence of change in the form of declines in agricultural land areas in selected parishes and spatial diffusion of the trends. Aside from a widespread use of pesticides and agrochemicals at the expense of the surrounding ecology, change is attributed to a whole set of socio-economic elements. The use of GIS and descriptive statistics point to a mix of gains and declines in some of the environmental indicators. Conclusions: The use of GIS and descriptive statistics pinpointed the extent of change and ecosystem declines. This trend raises the spectra of responsibilities for planners and those charged with landscape management. With the emergence of GIS and its ability to locate environmental hotspots, analyzing the spatial patterns of landscape change serves a useful purpose. This is crucial in the design of data infrastructure best suited for agricultural landscape analysis and a decision support mechanism for managers. To deal with the problems, the paper offered many suggestions ranging from landscape monitoring to the continual use of GIS.
This paper attempts to make fundamental connections between the usage of intervention strategies and the instructional practice used to improve students’ performance in mathematics. The public policy demands that educational offerings be made accessible to students with disabilities. Making mathematics accessible is a public policy issue rather than a technological issue. Therefore, it is essential that educators push for better public policy to support the availability of accessible mathematics in the classroom. This paper describes how Response to Intervention (RTI) strategies improve mathematics performance of students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) at the elementary and secondary school levels. Therefore, the proposed study will promote positive attitudes toward the use of RTI in mathematics classroom and will encourage teachers to use educational programs for students with MLD in their general classroom.
Mineral and vitamin concentrations of heat processed Plukenetia conophora seed kernel consumed as snacks in Nigeria were investigated. The seeds which were obtained from Ojoto in Anambra State, Nigeria were washed in several changes of distilled water, divided into four lots - PCraw (raw sample), PC45, PC90 and PC135 (samples cooked for 45, 90 and 135min respectively), oven-dried and milled into flours. Concentrations of the minerals (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Cu, Fe, I and Mn) in PCraw decreased as the time of cooking increased from 45min (PC45) to 135min (PC135), while for P, Zn and Se the concentrations increased over time of heat processing. The most abundant mineral was sodium (27.41mg/100g) followed by calcium (21.04mg/100g) and lowest in iodine (3.0µg/100g). Iodine was the most heat-labile mineral followed by iron and then lead. Plukenetia conophora seed kernel flours were found to be excellent sources of vitamins E, K, B1, B6 and B9 and good sources of vitamins D, B2, B3, B5 and thus the plant food is recommended for consumption sinceit could provide significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of these micronutrients for adults.
Mass intoxication due to methanol is often heard from all parts of the world. Methanol is highly toxic substance that associated with over 25% fatality rate, irrespective of the treatment. The present article reviews clinical and pathological findings observed during clinical forensic examinations of twelve victims and five fatalities due to mass methanol intoxications. Blurred vision was observed in 11 patients including five cases with permanent loss of vision. Eight patients showed hypoxic changes. Nausea and vomiting were observed in seven cases. Urine samples obtained from all our victims during 12 -24 hours of the incident showed traces of Methanol, Formic acid and Formaldehyde. The presence of above substances in association with characteristic clinico-pathological findings including permanent visual defects are confirmatory of methanol intoxication. However, authors were unable to correlate plasma formic acid and formaldehyde levels to pathological findings as no blood samples were obtained during early stages of management in medical wards.
The health enhancing properties of physical activity are evidence-based and widely accepted for children and adolescents. Today many children and adolescents are engaged in specific sports and that causes great attention of coaches to use safe and appropriate methods. Volleyball is of the most popular sports among this group. Because of powerful and explosive movements as well as high-repeated jumps and landings suitable training program should be considered to improve performance and prevent injuries in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to review studies about resistance training, plyometric training and combined training and effects of these training methods on physical fitness in children and adolescents. Our investigation begun with search engine and scientific databases with keywords in three section; title and abstracts, articles and finally references. Primary research articles were selected if they (a) included outcomes of a resistance, plyometric and combined training intervention, (b) included volleyball training protocols, (c) included children and adolescents 8–18 years of age. Review show that resistance training would enhance physical performance as well as plyometrics training. Improvements in motor performance skills, such as jumping, are widely stated as indicators of improvements in sporting performance. Although combination of resistance and plyometrics is a useful methods for jumping improvement little is available about the effects on children and adolescents.