Open Access Original Research Article

Psychosocial Support and Girls Infected or Affected by HIV and AIDS Education in Maseno Division, Western Kenya

Mbutitia Francisca Ngithi, Mulambula Shikuku, Kafu Patrick

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2732-2744
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9241

There wide gender disparities in education in places with high HIV and AIDS prevalence despite the support of many stakeholders. The study was to identify the psychosocial support in the area under study and establish areas of inadequacies’. The objective of the study was to establish the influence psychosocial support on education of girls’ infected or affected by HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted between June 2011 and February 2013. The response rate was 98% among the girls while among the teachers it was 99%. The mixed approach was used in this study. Schools in the study were categorized into 21 primary schools, eight secondary schools and a special institution. Girls infected or affected by HIV and AIDS were purposively sampled while snowballing was used to trace girls infected or affected school drop-outs. The study sampled 148 teachers, 294 infected or affected girls in 30 schools sampled and traced 15 girls who had dropped out of the same schools. Data was collected using questionnaire, interviews and documents. The Chi-Square (X2 statistic) was used to analyze data at the confidence of 0.05. The study found out that girls in this area are receiving instrumental and informational psychosocial support while emotional psychosocial support is lacking. The lack of emotional support is making girls to engage in relationships that are compromising their education. In the face of HIV and AIDS psychosocial stressors girls need emotional support to build resilience and be able to cope with their school work hence enhance academic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geotechnical Characterisation of High Plasticity Offshore Clay

S. Y. Thian, C. Y. Lee

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2745-2756
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12134

This paper gives a review on some basic geotechnical properties and compressibility behaviour of offshore clay in Malaysia. The Atterberg Limits of the normally-consolidated and reconstituted offshore clay, such as liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity limit, are discussed. Specific gravity and particle size distribution of the offshore clay are also presented, along with the comparison of geotechnical properties with available published data of other offshore clays. The consolidation and hydraulic conductivity characteristics of high plasticity offshore clay are derived from one-dimensional oedometer test. It is found that the geotechnical properties of high plasticity offshore clay are in agreement with those of other offshore clays, especially Norwegian Drammen clay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitric Oxide Signaling in Developing Trigeminal Neurons

Gayle H. Doherty

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2757-2773
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12413

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the roles of neuronal (nNOS) and endothelial (eNOS) nitric oxide synthase in the nerve growth factor (NGF) response during the development of the trigeminal ganglion (TG). In addition the roles of these nitric oxide synthases following NGF withdrawal were ascertained. Finally the effects of administration of high doses of exogenous reactive nitrogen species were considered.
Study Design and Methodology: Primary cultures of trigeminal sensory neurons were pharmacologically treated with reagents known to specifically modify the activity of NOS isoforms or were treated with reagents that release exogenous reactive nitrogen species In vitro. Cultures were maintained for 24 hours after treatment and the number of surviving neurons determined. In vivo determination of NOS isoform expression was carried out using immunohistochemistry.
Results: eNOS and nNOS are widely expressed during TG neurodevelopment as ascertained immunohistochemically. Pharmacological inhibition of these enzymes reduces the In vitro NGF survival response of E16 neurons, but only eNOS inhibition reduces E19 TG neuron survival. Both developmental stages are vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of high levels of exogenous nitric oxide when grown with NGF but susceptibility is higher at E19.
Conclusion: During the period of naturally occurring neuronal death in the trigeminal ganglion, eNOS and nNOS are required for the survival of a proportion of trigeminal sensory neurons but when this period of cell death has ended there is a switch, and only eNOS is required for the NGF survival response. Furthermore, as these neurons mature beyond the period of naturally occurring cell death, their susceptibility to damage by elevated concentrations of reactive nitrogen species increases. This implies that there may be important mechanisms found within developing neurons that confer protection from nitrosative stress that warrant further investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Preservative Effects of Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineensis Extracts on Microbial Load of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Sorghum bicolour Liquors

I. B. Oluwalana, T. O. Adedeji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2774-2783
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9935

Aims: The preservative effects of hot sterile water extracts of Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineensis on the shelf life of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) and Sorghum bicolor (S. bicolor) liquors were investigated.

Study Design: Factorial design was used for this study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Chemistry, Food Processing, Sensory and Microbiology Laboratories of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between September, 2012 and December, 2013.
Methodology: Dried H. sabdariffa calyx and S. bicolor stem sheath were cleaned by removing extraneous materials, milled and sieved separately. Extracts of the two spices, namely A. melegueta and P. guineensis were prepared in 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% concentrations respectively making a total of 5 samples with the control for each liquor. H. sabdariffa calyx and S. bicolor stem liquors were treated respectively with the different concentrations (0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2.0%) of spice extracts in 1000 mls (1 litre) of each liquor respectively and stored at ambient temperature (28±2ºC) for 4 days. The microbial loads were determined daily until the samples were adjudged spoilt through offensive smell and characteristic odour with observable changes in colour from bright red to black.
Results: On the first day, there was no observable bacteria growth and no Coliform count throughout the period of storage. This is an indication that the liquors were prepared under hygienic condition. Microbes were however observed for samples treated with A. melegueta and P. guineensis extracts on the second day. At 0.5% inclusion, A. melegueta extract in H. sabdariffa calyx and Sorghum bicolor liquors had microbial loads of 3.70 x102 and 4.42 x102 cfu/mL respectively while 0.5% P. guineensis extract in H. sabdariffa calyx and Sorghum bicolor liquors recorded 3.20 and 3.54 x102 cfu/mL. At 1.5%, A. melegueta extract in H. sabdariffa calyx and S. bicolor liquors had microbial loads of 3.20 and 4.00x102 cfu/mL respectively. At 1.5%, P. guineensis extract in H. sabdariffa calyx and S. bicolor liquors had microbial loads of 1.70 and 3.18 x102 cfu/mL respectively. On the fourth day, the microbial load for 1.5% A. melegueta extract in H. sabdariffa calyx and S. bicolor liquors were 3.50 and 3.80x102 cfu/mL respectively. The 1.5% P. guineensis extract in H. sabdariffa calyx and S. bicolor liquors recorded 2.82 and 3.20 x102 cfu/mL respectively. Results showed that the Control samples had higher microbial loads than the spiced (treated) samples indicating some preservative effects of the spices on both liquors. Furthermore, the result showed that P. guineensis had a better preservative action than A. melegueta. Likewise, the preservatives were found to have better control on microbial growth in H. sabdariffa than in S. bicolor.
Conclusion: The preservative effects of Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineensis extracts on microbial load of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Sorghum bicolor liquors showed that A. melegueta had lower antimicrobial activity than P. guineensis, thus P. guineensis may be preferred as a natural antimicrobial (preservative) to extend the shelf life of foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Riverbank Hydraulic Conductivity: Implications for Groundwater Recharge

Omotayo Ayeni

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2784-2791
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11196

This study highlights the relationship between the hydraulic conductivity (K) of riverbank deposits and groundwater recharge in an area adjacent to a Chalk river in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Three locations were mapped out for In situ permeability measurements based on geological map data indicating changes in superficial deposits along the river Mimram. The study area is predominated by Cretaceous Chalk and overlain by drift deposit such as glacial till and buried channel deposits which include glaciofluvial gravels, sands and silty-clay. Permeability measurements of the riverbank deposits’ field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) using a constant head permeameter was carried out to determine the coefficient of permeability of the superficial soils along a small stretch of the river Mimram in Hatfield. Preliminary results show a variation in the permeability of the superficial deposits which could have a significant impact on groundwater recharge. It is hoped that this study will provide a better understanding of the role of near surface geological investigation of riverbank hydraulic properties in groundwater recharge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Solution of Initial Value Problems of Fourth Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using Modified Implicit Hybrid Block Method

S. J. Kayode, M. K. Duromola, Bolarinwa Bolaji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2792-2800
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11953

Our focus in this article is the derivation; analysis and implementation of a new modified implicit hybrid block method for the direct solution of initial value problems of fourth order ordinary differential equations. In the derivation of the method, we adopted the approach of collocation approximation to obtain the main scheme with continuous coefficients. From the main scheme, additional schemes were developed. The implementation strategy of the new method is by combining the main scheme and the additional schemes as simultaneous integrator to initial value problem of fourth order ordinary differential equations. As required of any numerical method, the properties analysis of the block was done and the result showed that it is consistent, convergent, zero stable and absolutely stable. We then test our method with numerical examples solved using existing method and were found to give better results.

Open Access Original Research Article

PIC 18F4550 Controlled Solar Panel Cooling System Using DC Hybrid

W. Z. Leow, Y. M. Irwan, M. Irwanto, N. Gomesh, I. Safwati

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2801-2816
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11615

Aims: The purpose of this paper is to design a solar cooling system to decrease operating temperature of PV module in order to improve the efficiency of PV output power. The usage of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a very attractive method for renewable energy. This study effort with going towards renewable energy can solve non-renewable energy issues. The efficiency of PV module is influenced by solar irradiance and ambient temperature. When temperature is increasing, output current will increase but output voltage and power will decrease and vice versa. When the solar irradiance increase, output current and power will increase with linear and output voltage will increase with marginal and vice versa. DC brushless fan and water pump (DC Hybrid cooling system) with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the backside and front surface of PV module. The DC hybrid cooling system with PIC controller is a solution to solve the problem of low efficiency of PV module in order to generate more electrical energy compared to PV module without cooling system.
Study Design: A solar cooling system is designed, developed and experimentally investigated.
Place and Duration of Study: Centre of Excellence for Renewable Energy, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), between November 2013 and April 2014.
Methodology: To make an effort to cool the PV module, DC brushless fan and water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the backside and front surface of PV module. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to sense temperature of PV module. A microcontroller system as PIC 18F4550 was utilized to manipulate the DC hybrid (DC fans and DC water pump) for switch ON and OFF based on temperature PV module automatically. The overall performances of PV module with and without cooling system are presented during this experiment respectively.
Results: The PV module with DC hybrid cooling system increase 4.99%, 39.90%, 42.65% in term of output voltage, output current, output power and decrease 6.79 ËšC compared to PV module without DC hybrid cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was improved as compared to PV module without cooling system, the reason being that the ambient temperature decreased considerably. This Hybrid solar cooling system by using PIC controller is an intelligent system due to fact that the PIC controller will switched ON solar cooling system when the system is necessary.
Conclusion: An increase in efficiency of PV module, investment payback period of the solar system is able to minimize along with the lifespan of PV module are also able to be prolonged. By adding PIC controller, it is able to control the power switch of cooling system automatically. Thus, the system is lead to energy saving.

Open Access Review Article

Geology and Mineral Resources of Oyo State, South Western Nigeria

Ayinla Folorunsho Musbau

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2718-2731
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11569

Oyo State lies in the south-western part of Nigeria. Underlain by three lithological units of the crystalline basement complex, comprising: (i) Migmatite-Gneiss Complex (quartzite, gneissic rocks); (ii) Low to medium grade metasediments (Green schists facies, namely quartz schist and mica schist). (iii) The Pan African Granitoids (older granites) which are syn to late tectonic intrusions. With these composite of rocks, Oyo State has various minerals ranging from metallic, non-metallic, to industrial minerals to various grades of gemstones. Prior discoveries make the northern portion of Oyo State to be predominantly underlain by complex pegmatite, which harbour a lot of gemstones ranging from Aquamarine, Tourmaline, Agate and industrial minerals like Tantalite, Marble, Talc and Granites of various forms. Later discoveries point to Ibadan axis where metallic minerals, e.g. gold, and gemstones like Aquamarine, Amethyst, Tourmaline, and industrial minerals like Tantalite and Sillimante, have been discovered in economic form. Geochemical explorations are being carried out as a follow up to the airborne geophysical survey that has been conducted by the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency, to actualize the mineralization of different minerals.