Open Access Case study

An Unusual Source of Knee Pain in a Competitive Breaststroke Swimmer

Douglas W. Kelly

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2916-2922
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12195

Aims: The purpose of this case report is to present an unusual source of knee pain in a competitive breaststroke swimmer and review the clinical, etiologic, and radiographic features of the disease process.
Presentation of Case: A 20-year-old collegiate swimmer presented with complaints of left knee pain and weakness. Physical findings of tenderness in a lateral condylar location, measurable thigh atrophy, and pain on a resisted knee extension test were present. Plain radiographs demonstrated osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral trochlear groove and evidence of moderate trochlear dysplasia. Surgical findings confirmed a 3 cm by 1 cm loose osteochondritis dissecans fragment.
Discussion: The knee is forcefully extended against the resistance of the water during the propulsive phase of the whip kick used by breaststroke swimmers. This movement results in high lateral patellofemoral contact loads and increased lateral patellar displacement forces. In a knee with trochlear dysplasia there are additional increases in patellar displacement and contact pressures. Osteochondritis dissecans involving the lateral trochlear groove has been associated with repetitive tangential type shear stresses.
Conclusion: The findings in the present case report would suggest a very unique situation in which high lateral trochlear shear stresses were created by the repetitive whip kick activity in the knee of a breaststroker swimmer and that these unusual stresses were further magnified by underlying trochlear dysplasia. With continued intense training efforts, the shear stresses eventually exceeded a critical threshold of the subchondral bone of this region and failure occurred, resulting in osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral trochlea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Risk Assessment in Exposure to Methacrylic Monomers in Dental Practice

Maya Lyapina, Maria Dencheva, Assya Krasteva, Mariana Tzekova, Mariela Deliverska, Angelina Kisselova, Jeny Staikova

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2848-2863
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12982

Aims: To evaluate the health status and to assess the risk of adverse health effects manifestation among occupationally exposed to methacrylic monomers dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants) and students of dental medicine and from the dental technician school, as well as to determine the incidence of sensitization to some methacrylic monomers in dental practice.
Place and Duration of Study: Department “Oral and Image Diagnostic”,
Medical University, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia, Bulgaria, between January 2014 and July 2014.
Methodology: A questionnaire survey, including a review of medical summary of history was performed among 262 participants – 213 exposed to methacrylic monomers in dental practice and education (dental professionals, students of dental medicine and from Dental technician school), mean age 30.9, and 49 non-exposed healthy referents – dental patients, mean age 45.1. Skin patch testing with methyl methacrylate (MMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA), ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacrylo-xypropoxy) phenyl] propane (BIS-GMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate and glutaraldehyde was performed.
Results: Significantly higher incidence and risk of manifestation of subjective symptoms from the skin (OR=2.20, CI=1.12 – 4.34, P = .020) and the upper respiratory tract (OR=2.26, CI=1.45 – 4.45, P = .017) were established among the referents group. Occupational and during education exposures to the tested methacrylic monomers and to glutaraldehyde didn’t result in increased incidence of sensitization (P> .050). An increased incidence and OR for manifestation of concomitant sensitization to methacrylic monomers and glutaraldehyde was revealed, with very high significance, (P < .001, OR=4.52, CI=2.33 – 8.74). Men could be outlined as a group at risk of sensitization. Our results confirm the cross-reactivity of acrylic compounds – 43.9% of all the participants were allergic to more than one of the tested monomers.
Conclusion: No role of exposure to methacrylic monomers in dental practice and education for increased incidence and risk of manifestation of irritant effects, subjective symptoms and sensitization were established. An increased incidence and risk of concomitant sensitization to methacrylic monomers and glutaraldehyde and of cross-reactivity of acrylic compounds were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monthly Frequency Occurrence, Sex-ratio, Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Native Fishes Caught in a Tropical Floodplain Rivers of Cameroon, Central Africa

Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué, Paul Zango, Thomas Ewouken Efolé, Madeleine Kenfack, Joseph Tekwombuo, Guegang Tekou, Mathieu Domwa, Minette Tabi Eyango Tomedi, Joseph Tchoumboué

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2864-2874
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12106

Aims: To evaluate the aquaculture potential of the native fishes from the Mbô Floodplain (MF) Rivers for their domestication and preservation the genetic diversity.
Study Design: Descriptive research.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Applied Ichthyology and Hydrobiology, Department of Animal Productions, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, the University of Dschang-Cameroon, between October 2008 and October 2009.
Methodology: A total of 449 fishes measured 11.50 to 50.50cm (mean: 24.60±5.70 SDcm) total length (TL) and 8 to 1300g (mean: 169.18±111.01 SDg) total weight (W), were used for the analysis. Taxonomic identification was performed. The TL and the W were measured using an ichtyometer and electronic balance respectively. The sex of the fish was determined by macroscopic examination of genital papilla or the gonads after dissection. Fishes were counted by species, sexes and months. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test, general linear model, and the statistical significance of r2 were performed using SPSS 20.0 software at 5% and 1% significance levels.
Results: Four families with four species were determined: Clariidae (Clarias jaensis), Cyprinidae (Labeo camerunensis and Labeobarbus batesii), Cichlidae (Tilapia camerunensis). All fish species were a higher size. The allometry coefficient b ranged from 2.01 (Labeo camerunensis) to 3.12 (C. jaensis) (mean=2.58±0.50 SD). All species sampled have more females than males indicate the number of both females and males for possible relative sex percentages. Fish species shows positive and negative allometric growth. The higher K factor was recorded in the Cichlidae family and the lower in Clariidae. However the majority of fish species showed a good well-being.
Conclusion: All fish species show a positive aquaculture potential. Then they could be domesticated and preserved genetic diversity. This study, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction of Some Selected Trace Elements with Thyroid Hormones in Patients with Goiter in Ibadan, Nigeria

Kayode Solomon Adedapo, Ayobola Abimbola Sonuga, Adefemi Oladiran Afolabi, Ademola Amosu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2875-2883
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11985

Trace elements influence hormones at different levels of action, including hormone secretion, activity and binding to target tissue. Thyroid hormones also influence the metabolism of some essential trace elements. There is paucity of knowledge on the interaction of some trace elements in goiter development in the study environment. This study was carried out to determine the levels of selenium, copper, and zinc and their correlation with free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in patients with goiter in Ibadan. Sixty randomly selected participants who agreed to participate by signing the consent form following due explanation of the purpose of the study, were recruited. They comprised of 30 female patients (19 hyperthyroid and 11 euthyroid) attending the Nuclear Medicine and Surgery clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, and 30 apparently healthy women as controls. Serum zinc, copper and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometery and fT3, fT4 and TSH by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) soft version 20.0 and data were expressed as mean and Standard Error of Mean (SEM). Results showed that hyperthyroid goiter patients had significantly lower levels of Selenium (0.9±0.027 vs. 4.00±0.02 µg/dl), Zinc (70.56±1.46 vs. 73.88±2.05 µg/dl) and Copper (85.23±5.09 vs. 123.11±1.80 µg/dl) compared with the controls (p<0.05). For euthyroid goiter, a significant positive correlation was found between FT3 with copper and selenium (p<0.05, r=0.46), (p<0.05, r=0.80) respectively; and positive correlation (p<0.05, r=0.46) between Zinc and TSH in the hyperthyroid group. Diets and/or supplementations rich in Selenium, Copper and Zinc may reduce the development of certain goiters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Dermal Permeability Coefficient (Kp) by Utilizing Multiple Descriptors in Artificial Neural Network Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis

Ronald Bartzatt

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2884-2899
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/13125

Aims: The permeability coefficient, or Kp, is an important descriptor for assessing dermal absorption of medicaments utilized for clinical treatment of various dermal accessible diseases. Determination of Kp by multiple descriptors by artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple regression is compared.
Study Design: The calculation of Kp utilizing multiple descriptors, and comparison of ANN and multiple regression is achieved.
Place and Duration of Study: Durham Science Center, Chemistry Department of the University of Nebraska, between April 2014 and July 2014.
Methodology: The calculation of Kp by previous methodologies is accomplished for a broad spectrum of medicinal and chemical compounds. The values Kp thus acquired are then compared to those obtained by ANN training and multiple regression analysis. Various other pharmaceutical based descriptors are then applied to ascertain the benefit of Kp determination by those properties.
Results: Training and determination of Kp by ANN showed that Log Ko/w and molecular weight (MW) utilized by conventional means is effective. However, ANN demonstrated the Kp determination by applying properties of Log Ko/w, MW, polar surface area, number of atoms, rotatable bonds, molecular volume, and atoms responsible for hydrogen bond donor and acceptors, are also effective and offer significant advantages. These advantages include the potential of encompassing many more molecular constitutional descriptors and molecular properties. Multiple regression showed clearly that the application of more descriptors for Kp determination increases the coefficient of determination (R2). Increased R2 shows an improved fit of the raw data to the model improved prediction.
Conclusion: Determination of Kp by applying various descriptors in addition to Log Ko/w and MW increases the model fit to the raw data. ANN prediction of Kp was more effective when using additional descriptors. Prediction of Kp by multiple regression was useful, and utilizing descriptors with Log Ko/w and MW improved the model fit to the raw data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Accessibility to Healthcare Facilities in Giwa and Tofa Local Government Areas of Nigeria: GIS Approach

Muhammad Isma’il, Ibrahim Jaro Musa, Abubakar Salisu, Idoma Kim, Akhadelor Muhammad Oyale, Amina Maiwada, Abdulkadir Muhammed Yahaya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2900-2915
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/8183

Aim: The objective of the National Health Policy (1988) in Nigeria is to provide the population with access to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare as needed through a functional referral system. In this paper, Geographic Information System (GIS) is employed to examine a very important aspect of the policy, that is, accessibility to healthcare facilities in the rural areas which constitute a very large population of the country.
Study Design: The situation in Giwa and Tofa Local Government Areas respectively in Kaduna and Kano States of North western Nigeria is examined, with a view to identify the patronage pattern and the level of accessibility to the healthcare facilities in the rural areas in order to guide healthcare policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria.
Methodology: Locational access to healthcare facilities was established for all the 26 electoral wards across Giwa and Tofa LGAs. Using network analyst tool in ArcGIS, cost OD (Origin Destination) matrix was created using the population weighted centroid of each electoral ward as origins and the healthcare facilities as destinations. The average nearest neighbourhood analysis was done to determine the spatial randomness of the healthcare facilities. From these data, indices of community healthcare accessibility for the LGAs neighbourhoods were constructed. In addition, structured questionnaires were administered through a systematic random sampling to patients at the General hospitals in the LGAs and oral interviews conducted with those who do not patronise the hospitals. The data from the questionnaire survey was analysed using both the descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: Findings showed that healthcare facilities in some of the wards are grossly inadequate, their distribution is random hence many of the electoral wards are poorly served or underserved. Findings revealed that some people travel a distance of up to 30km to access the nearest healthcare facility.
Conclusion: There is the need for provision of more healthcare centres in the areas which should be distributed fairly and logically.

Open Access Review Article

Economic Aspects and Applied Policies of Poverty Reductionin Malaysia

Elgilany A. Ahmed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2817-2833
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10734

Poverty is multidimensional, involving not only income deprivation, but also ill-health, illiteracy, lack of access to basic social services, and little opportunity to participate in the processes that influence people's lives. Malaysia, a multiracial country, managed to drastically reduce the incidence of poverty and lessen income inequality while achieving rapid economic growth and maintaining racial harmony. What transpired in Malaysia during the 1970.2000 period was complex and challenging, requiring masterful management by the government of the varied demands of a heterogeneous population [1]. The incidence of poverty and hardcore poor in Malaysia has dramatically declined from 1970 to 2002. Poverty incidence in the rural areas has also been on the down trend from 60 per cent in 1970 to 11.4 per cent in 2002. Urban poverty is relatively lower, falling from 22.3 per cent in 1970 to 2 per cent in 2002. The study assesses the policies, strtegies, programes and the tools that used to reduce incidence of poverty in Malaysia. The research also looks to represents some lessons from the Malaysian development experience specially in poverty reduction. The Poverty Line Index (PLI) for Malaysia was introduced in June 1977 using the 1973 Household Expenditure Survey (HES). It was based on the minimum requirements of a household for food, clothing and footwear, and other non-food items such as rent, fuel and power. Beside PLI the research used secondarry data from it’s relevant sources to achieve the aims of study. The paper concluded that the Malaysian growth regarded as challenges, policy development and progress were in many dimension unique. Nevertheless, there are successful lessons that can provided and adopted from the Malaysian model.

Open Access Review Article

Gut Uptake, Brain and Behaviour

Tveiten D. Bioeng, K. L. Reichelt

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 2834-2847
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10162

Aims: To document the evidence for a gut uptake to brain axis. The many hormones, many of them peptides and shared by the intestines and the brain, will not be included in this survey.
Methods: Systematic looking through journal publications by means of Pub med and collected information and authors research since 1978.
Results: Food-protein antibodies, food-protein derived peptides and direct physiological evidence point to considerable effect of the digestive system on behavior and mood. Removal of specific proteins from diet ameliorates the clinical condition.
Conclusion: Uptake from the gut of various substances has effect on behaviour.