Open Access Short Research Article

Overview of Neurogenesis Growth and Glia Cell to Cloudle Architecture in Cloud Manufacturing

N. Norazlin, A. Y. Bani Hashim, M. H. F. M. Fauadi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3126-3135
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/9828

By realizing on future view of manufacturing, demand intelligent became a challenge for any manufacturers. Many manufacturing concepts emphasize rapid responses to demand change or fluctuation demand in the current market. Cloud manufacturing offers better service between a supplier to manufacturer and user to a manufacturer. In cloud manufacturing, all manufacturing process is linked together in cloud pool and this lead to time reduction in data processing. However, this concept will be successful if cloudle as agent-based searching engine able to implement brain emulation in the cloud manufacturing system. Brain emulation is emphasizing the neurogenesis phenomenon in the system by supporting with glia cells concept to expedite the searching process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cobalt-doped Titanium Dioxide Photochemical Fuel Cell for Wastewater Purification

Ahmed M. Harara, Jialun Wang, Michael J. Nguyen, Kristian P. Morales, Yong X. Gan, Yan Liu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3068-3079
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/13408

In this work, a photovoltaic electrochemical fuel cell consisting of a cobalt-titanate (CoTiO3) anode and a platinum (Pt) cathode was utilized for the decomposition of environmentally hazardous materials in wastewater. The CoTiO3 nanotubes (NTs) were prepared through electrochemical oxidation of pure titanium (Ti) strips. The titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes were doped with a cobalt salt via electrospinning followed by annealing to form CoTiO3. The addition of cobalt to the TiO2 NTs was tested to observe if photochemical catalytic properties increased in the presence of ultraviolet and visible light. The increases in photochemical catalytic properties were validated by comparing the measured electric potential differences (∆E) between the CoTiO3 test samples, and the TiO2 control samples. It is concluded that the cobalt doped anode greatly increases the response of the fuel cell system to visible light stimulus. This allows for greater utility generation capacity and faster photochemical catalytic reaction at the anode surface. The application of cobalt doped titanium dioxide anodes in photovoltaic electrochemical fuel cells increases the photoelectric energy conversion efficiency and waste decomposition rate. There is potential to scale the system up for practical applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantity and Quality of Water in the Salfit District and the Role of the Salfit Primary Health Care Center in Monitoring and Supervising Drinking Water

Shadi Hilmi Abd Allah Adawi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3080-3095
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10626

Aims: To determine and give an overview about the bacteriological, physicochemical, quality, and quantity of public drinking water sources in Salfit District, and also to demonstrate the role of Salfit Primary Health Care Center (SPHCC) in monitoring and saving drinking water resources from pollution.
Study Design: Water samples were collected from the main sources (springs, Mekorot) and water networks in Salfit District. Additionally, Salfit Primary Health Care Center and Palestinian Water Authority reports were used in this study.
Methodology: During the year of 2013, 346 samples were taken randomly and tested (336 underwent microbial testing and ten samples underwent physiochemical testing). The sample was selected by dividing the Salfit District to four clusters, which are geographically similar. Then, the percentages of polluted water samples with microbial infections were calculated and the physiochemical parameters were assessed according to PSI and WHO standards. The quantity of water available for domestic use was assessed as well the role of the SPHCC in saving water from pollution and infection, different parameters were used.
Results: The percentages of infected drinking water samples in Salfit District were 9.2% with more prevalence in the water networks (8.9 %) and the most infection were with Total Coliform (9.2%). The results show that the physiochemical parameters met the standards of PSI and WHO, Also, the results show that the quantity of water available for domestic use in Salfit District was 2.8 million m3/year, which doesn’t meet the demand for water, which is 3.7 million m3/year. The average daily allocation of water in Salfit is 86 liters/capita/day. This average is much below that recommended by the WHO, which is 100 liters/capita/day and finally from the results tables we see that the SPHCC is making great efforts in saving water from pollution and infection.
Conclusion: This study shows that in spite of the small quantity of water available for the community of Salfit District, the quality of the main sources of water meets the standards of PSI and WHO, and is safe for use. The SPHCC has made great efforts to monitor and maintain water quality and quantity to avoid possible associated health risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Edible Seafood –Thais coronata (Rock Snail) Extract Boosts RBC, PCV, Hb, Platelets, WBC and Lymphocytes Counts in Rats

A. N. Archibong, A. A. Akwari, S. U. Ukweni, O. E. Ofem, V. O. Oka, A. E. Eno

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3096-3105
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12583

This study sought to elucidate the impact of consumption of crude extract of an edible seafood, Thais coronata (rock snail), on hematological parameters in male rats of albino Wistar strain. Crude extract of T. coronata was prepared from fresh edible samples, and its protein content was thereafter estimated following standard procedure. LD50 value of the extract was also determined using graded doses (2.82, 5.64, 11.28, 22.56, 45.12, 90.24 and 180.48mgProtein/Kg i.p.) of the extract in rats. Eighteen albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 6 rats each (n=6), the animals eat either normal rat chow, low (7.0mgProtein/ml), and/or high (52.0mgProtein/ml) doses of the extract for six weeks. Thereafter, blood samples were obtained from each rat via cardiac puncture to estimate the various blood parameters. The results revealed that the average protein content of the extract was 4.17±0.01mgProtein/ml, while the LD50 values was 88.98mg Protein/ml. RBC count, Hb, PCV, MCH, MCHC, platelet, total WBCs and lymphocyte counts increased significantly in rock snail fed groups (p<0.01); while mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio decreased significantly in rock snail fed groups (p<0.001). In conclusion, edible seafood–Thais coronata (rock snail) is very safe for consumption and contains vital nutrients that boosts production of blood cells, hence could serve as an essential food supplement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micellar Solubilization of Carbamazepine

Majda Srabovic, Melita Poljakovic, Ekrem Pehlic

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3106-3116
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12362

Aims: An important property of micelles with particular significance in pharmacy is their ability to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in water thus increasing their bioavailability. It was of interest to increase the solubility of carbamazepine (CBZ) in aqueous media. Therefore, solubilization of carbamazepine (CBZ) in variety of surfactants was investigated.
Study Design: In this work the solubilization of carbamazepine (CBZ) was studied in micellar solutions of different anionic and cationic surfactants.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University in Tuzla, between
January 2012 and June 2012.
Methodology: The solubilization data were analyzed on the basis of a pseudo-phase model. An ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry was used to analyze carbamazepine solubility and its molecular location in the micelles.
Results: It was found that carbamazepine solubility increases due to an increase in the carbon length of cationic surfactants. This indicates that carbamazepine is solubilized primarily in the hydrophobic micellar core. Of all surfactants used, the one that gives the highest solubilization of carbamazepine is SDS with value of molar solubilization capacity 0.163 and the lowest is DTAB and SDBS with value of molar solubilization capacity 0.090 nad 0.092.
Conclusion: The results confirm that SDS micelles can solubilize carbamazepine and significantly increase its total aqueous solubility. The solubility of carbamazepine is present only at a concentration of surfactants exceeding the critical micellar concentration (cmc).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Feeding Angle on the Performance of a Two-way Application of Cutting Fluids

S. O. Yakubu, S. Y. Aku, M. J. Apochi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3117-3125
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/12061

An investigation was carried out to see how a change in the angle of cutting fluid’s (CF) feeding affects the performance of a two-way cutting fluid application. The motivation for this research was based on the fact that little or no works have been done on a two-way CF application as well on the results of findings in our first work. The experiments were conducted on a centre lathe machine type XL400. The workpiece was a medium carbon steel and the cutting tool used was a rectangular cemented carbide tool insert. The investigated parameters were the surface quality of the machined workpiece, the rate of tool wear and temperature of the cutting zone under different angles of feeding. The experiments were executed under the following conditions of machining: Depth of cut (t) = 1.5 mm, Speed (V) = 180 rpm, Feed rate (f) = 0.75 mm/rev. The two-way cutting fluid application was most effective when the feeding angle was 150º in terms of the surface quality. i.e. the lowest surface roughness value was obtained at this angle and it was 5.77 µm as against 9.67 µm for one-way application of CF. In other words the surface roughness was reduced by 40.3%. The values of the tool wear and temperature at the cutting zone were 0.11 mm and 25.60ºc respectively compared to 0.15 mm and 30.48ºc for the one-way application. Whereas, the lowest tool wear (highest tool life) and temperature were achieved at feeding angle of 60º. The corresponding values for the tool wear and temperature were 0.11 mm and 24.54ºc respectively for the two-way application as against 0.15 mm and 30.48ºc for the one-way application. The value of the surface roughness was 6.79 µm at this angle which was the next lowest value obtained in the whole investigation. Thus, the most effective angles of feeding of CF to the cutting zone by the two-way application were 60º and 150º respectively. Consequently, one can conclude from the obtained results that the angle of feeding of CF to the cutting zone to a greater extent affects its effectiveness.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Glenohumeral Sensory and Motor Control during Overhead Arm Elevation

Bala S. Rajaratnam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3031-3044
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/13005

This review of the glenohumeral joint provides the reader with an understanding of the dynamic stability alliances that exist between the active, passive and neuromotor control systems at during overhead arm elevation. Electromyography studies of patients with anterior shoulder instability performing overhead arm elevation into the apprehension arm position identified substitution muscle actions that concurrently regulate dynamic glenohumeral stability and retain shoulder joint mobility. Yet the temporal component of these substitution muscle actions has not been quantified. Quantifying the temporal features of glenohumeral muscle activation is important for a better understanding of the neuromotor control and more accurate estimation of joint reaction forces that occurs at the unstable shoulder joint during overhead arm elevation.

Open Access Review Article

Religion and Human Rights Violation in History: The Women and Witch-hunts in Medieval Europe

N. Okoro Kingsley, I. Osunwokeh Clement

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 3045-3067
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/10352

What constitutes human rights and its protections or/and its violation have re-emerged in all socio-political, legal and religio-philosophic discussions of the contemporary period. The interest in human rights is an outgrowth of the atrocities committed against humanity during the 2nd world war. Thus humankind having awakened from the nightmare of the war realized that all lives are facing threats of obliteration, if nothing positive is done, therefore the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) of 1948 was born to check further violation of all lives. The UDHR became a benchmark for all discussions on either human rights protection or its violation in the modern era. However, it is revealing to note that from the ancient Religious traditions, what constitutes human right and its protections was provided for in moral philosophy. The instrument of its maintenance was religious organizations, which then controls the powers of the state. In spite of the natural law provisions for the protections of all lives, it is discovered that several heinous crimes were committed against human beings. It was in this period that the church introduced ‘Inquisition and Witch hunting” as a common practice to flushing the society of those considered social miscreant. The women, non-Christians and heretics became the victims of these instruments. This paper betook itself to do a critical study on the practice of witch hunting within this period, with the aim of discovering its nature, instruments and dynamics in the violation of human rights with major emphasis on the women. Historical survey and sociological interpretations are adopted as methodological paradigm.