This paper examines the socio-economic and environmental impacts of stone mining in Shivpuri district. A large number of people are dependent on stone mining activities for carrying their livelihoods as stone mining is one of the most economic activities after agricultural practices in Shivpuri district. A high quality stone belt is spread around 100 km area from west to east. Meanwhile, about 60% stone mines are located in the Madhav National Park and other forest areas of the district. Due to large-scale extraction of stones from the forest area, depletion of biodiversity resources was enormous. And as a result, the mining practices were banned and this led to worst socio-economic conditions of the poor rural people. This study also attempts to penetrate the exclusive solutions that support both mining activities for carrying livelihoods and environmental restoration through large-scale plantation campaign. It reveals that if appropriate measures are taken place, mining practices and environmental restoration can go parallel. This study was conducted through collection of data from the primary sources. A case study of the five villages through household level survey was conducted during the years 2009-2011.
Aims: The aim of this paper was to describe and identify key indicators of St. John’s Innovation Centre located in Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK). Methodology: The methodology was mainly qualitative based on a literature review and one semi-structured interview in the UK, along with a review of organizational documents. Sixteen key indicators, arranged into four categories, were used to assess the work of the innovation centre. Each indicator and each category were given ratings of Low, Medium, or High to signify their importance in describing the centre. Results: The research revealed ratings in the High range for all four categories. The Culture and Economy categories received ratings of 95%, while the Policy and Industry categories received ratings of 80%. None of the sixteen key indicators received low ratings. This study supports the importance of indicators in all four areas as measures to accurately describe the innovation centre studied. Conclusion: The research adds value to academicians and practitioners in government, funded organizations, institutions, and policy makers.
We studied the relationship between the output characteristics of the meta-antenna and the structure of its surface to search for a correlation between the structure and antenna's outputs in different frequency regions. We showed that the resonance characteristics varied on the size of the unit cells but depended almost linearly on the distance between them.
The applications of hypnosis are gradually receiving highlighted attention and credibility among physicians and young healthcare workers nowadays. The objective of this review is to provide a short summary on hypnosis and its’ supporting evidences on the applications of hypnosis based on recent researches. The major finding of this review demonstrates that hypnosis has a huge potential to become a side-effect free and effective therapy for medical or mental disorders by targeting on the specific brain regions. Heightened focus with positive suggestions during trance-like state could cause positive changes on biopsychosocial aspect to patients. In conclusion, hypnosis appears to be utmost research in medical field and more warranted researches’ result could further support the importance of hypnosis.
In the recent decades, flax fibres can be used as laminate reinforcements with polymer matrix materials to form natural composites, providing outstanding environmental benefits and other characteristics such as reduced cost and light weight. The composite properties are limited by the poor natural fibre/polymer matrix adhesion, which could be improved by chemical modifications. The fibre properties, such as thermal and mechanical properties, after the treatments have a direct effect on the composite behaviors. In order to investigate the effect of treatments on fibre properties, non-woven flax fibre mats were subjected to alkali, esterification and silane treatment. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests were conducted on the virgin and treated flax fibres. It was found that all the treatments resulted in the removal of pectin and lignin component within the primary cell wall as evidenced by the characteristic IR peak change. The results showed that the thermal stability of non-cellulose part of flax fibres was highly improved by esterification modifications. However, the decrease (20-30%) in fibre tensile properties after the treatments was possibly offset by the improvement in fibre/matrix adhesion.
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs/UMKM) are the backbones of national economy. Batik Pekalongan, Solo and Lasem are examples of successful SMEs to stimulate local economy while creating products that are competitive in the national and international level. The purpose of this article is to identify the leading factors, as well as the barriers to doing batik business. In addition, this study also wanted to know the anticipation of future events done by batik entrepreneurs in creating customer value. The method used is a quantitative approach to structural equation modeling methods in order to understand the antecedents of market performance in SMEs Batik Pekalongan, Solo and Lasem. The results showed that anticipation and future customer value are antecedents to market performance batik entrepreneurs in those three areas.
The aim of the study was to assess occupational noise levels in a plastic manufacturing industry in Zimbabwe between April 2014 and July 2014. The research followed an experimental design set up. Three sites were selected (1, 2 and 3) and each site had three sampling points randomly selected where the measurements were done. One out of two workers per site (three sites in total) was chosen and occupational noise levels were measured using a sound level meter which was calibrated. Measurements were done at hourly intervals for 8 hours. These were done for five days a week during the three weeks per month for a total period of three months. In order to determine the Time Weighted Average (TWA), a formula was used for the calculations. Results showed that the average noise levels ranged from 89–96 dBA among the study sites. Results from ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference in the TWAs among the sites (F=1.67; df=2 and 126; P=.19), among the workers (F=.17; df=2 and 126; P=.54) and the interaction of site and worker (F=1.67; df=4 and 126; P=.16). The one sample t-test for comparison of the 8hr TWA noise levels with the national and International standards showed that the mean TWA was significantly higher than the Zimbabwean standard by a mean difference of 3 dBA (t=15,79; df= 134; P<.0001). The mean TWA was also significantly higher than the International standard by 8 dBA (t=41.53; df= 134; P<.0001). The present findings suggest that the noise levels in the plastic manufacturing industry under study were high in all the three sites. Workers are exposed to noise levels which are above the international legislated occupational level.
Aims: To study the different levels of inorganic fertilizer on filled grain percentage of fifty Sri Lankan traditional rice cultivars. Study Design: RCBD with four replicates. Twenty plants of each replicate were evaluated. Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was carried out during 2011/2012 Maha season and 2012 Yala season at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka Methodology: Four levels of inorganic fertilizers were used: No fertilizer, half of the recommended dose, recommended dose and twice the recommended dose. Ten day old seedlings were transplanted in rows with 15 cm X 20 cm spacing according to the randomized complete block design. Data were collected from 80 plants of the middle row. Filled grain percentage/panicle and total biomass (g/plant) were measured after harvesting. ANOVA was performed to see the significant effect of fertilizer on filled grain percentage. Results: The highest filled grain percentage (89.94%) was observed at twice the recommended dose in cultivar Palasithari 601 while the lowest filled grain percentage was 13.737% in rice cultivar Murunga wee at x ½ recommended dose. Hondarawala recorded the highest filled grain percentage at no fertilizer condition (86.3%). Under half recommended dose Kotathavalu, Herath Banda, Kottakaram, Karayal, Kirinaran recorded the highest filled grain percentages. Dewaredderi performed well under the recommended dose of fertilizer Conclusion: Traditional rice cultivars respond differently to fertilizer in grain filling.
Data compression is a special kind of technique for representing various types of data such as text, audio, video, images etc. Data compression is used to reduce the number of bits and to store data. Different types of data compression mechanism are widely being used for compressing several types of data. In the field of data compression Arithmetic Coding is one of the most important technique which plays a vital role in lossless data compression. The main objective of this paper is to develop an efficient encoding algorithm using Arithmetic Coding. This paper has some test cases and found that the proposed technique is more efficient and effective than binary Huffman coding in terms of both speed and memory usage.
Aim: To determine the level and distribution of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Hg and V from soils in the vicinities of Kakuri industrial area of Kaduna state, Nigeria. Study Design: To compare the soil heavy metal concentrations with regulatory standard values permitted by the Nigerian environmental guideline as well as international standards and also subject the data to descriptive analysis to determine the Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (Cf). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria between February 2012 and July 2013. Methodology: Twenty six soil samples at 0 to 10cm and 10 to 20cm depths from twelve (12) sample locations and two control samples was collected on the same day at Kakuri industrial area of Kaduna, Nigeria. The total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd Ni, Hg and V was determined using XRF spectrophotometer. Organic matter content (OM), pH, calcium carbonate and particle size distribution of the soil samples were also determined. Results: The mean concentrations (in mgkg-1) of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Hg and V are 100.5±19.82, 60.02±3 .60, 26.25±6.44, 42.42±5.21, 32.00±1.68, 28.80±9.35 and 73.08±3.52 respectively. The metal concentrations (in mgkg-1) ranged: Zn, 20-420; Cu, 26-110; Ni, 9-72; Cr, 22-157; Pb, 27-34; Hg, 10-60 and V, 47-120. Zn and Cu correlated positively with pH with values +0.41643 and +0.64447 respectively. Zn and Cu (+0.6142) and also Zn and Hg (+0.6377) had strong correlation which signifies the same source(s) in the soil. The contamination factor Cf values 1.31, 1.40 and 1.70 for Zn, Cu and Pb respectively falls under the classification 1 ≤ Cf Ë‚ 3 indicates the soil is considerably contaminated but the Igeo ≤ 1 for all sample locations with the exception of KGW with 1Ë‚ Igeo ≤ 2. Conclusion: Significant spatial variation in concentrations was observed for all metals across the locations and the degree of pollution varies with the level of industrial activities but were all within tolerable limit. The contamination factor C and Igeo index confirms the soil is uncontaminated.