Wages translation, understood as a process of restating the remuneration of selected employee from a particular currency to another currency, is based on the market exchange rate. In the recent studies there are some statistically proven evidences that this procedures are inapplicable. Recently the theory of translation based on productivity differences, firstly introduced by Balassa and Samuelson, has been enriched by more precise determination of productivity: a labor productivity Q defined as quotient of real GDP to cost of labor W. The main aim of the paper is to present the equalizing mechanism, which is hereby proposed as the quotient of productivity factors in compared countries. The case study involves labor costs represented by wages of doctors from obstetrics and gynecology departments in Poland and the UK.
Aims: The aim of this study is modeled the ratios of export to imports data in Turkey by using nonparametric regression methods. Study Design: This was Spline, Bayesian Spline and Penalized Spline Regression modeling study. Place and Duration of Study: Turkish Statistical Institute. The ratios of export to import data consist of sixty-seven month periods (May 2007 to November 2012). Methodology: In this study, distribution graph of ratios of export to import between 2007 to 2012 years in Turkey is modeled using spline and Bayesian spline regression methods. The results of these regression models are compared. Then Penalized spline regression is examined with Bayesian approach and models are established for the different values of the smoothing parameter which obtained using prior distributions. We proposed a new smoothing parameter using the information content of normal distribution. Under the assumption of the coefficients of basis functions are normally distributed, the new smoothing parameter (λ*) is defined as the ratio of the information content of normal distribution. Results: When we compared the spline and Bayesian spline regression models, both models were shown similar characteristics. The coefficients of β and b parameter vectors were very similar and the coefficients of determination of two models were obtained same. But, the standard errors of parameter estimations of Bayesian spline regression were smaller than spline regression models. For this reason, we conclude that Bayesian spline regression model parameter estimation is more reliable then spline regression model. We also compared penalized Bayesian spline models using different penalty terms. The different models on the same data set have been set up using different value of λ. From the results, observe that the absolute value of the coefficients of basis functions decrease as the penalty term 1/λ increase. Also, the coefficient of determination of the model gradually diminishes. In addition, we proposed a new smoothing parameter using the information content of normal distribution. According to results, small changes in λ* have made drastic changes in smoothing of the model. So, we conclude that λ* is more sensitive than traditional smoothing parameter (λ). Conclusion: We investigated the three most common nonparametric regression models, which are called spline, Bayesian spline and penalized Bayesian spline, discussing advantages and disadvantages of them using real data. We conclude that Bayesian spline regression model parameter estimation is more reliable than other models. In addition, we conclude that λ* is more sensitive than traditional smoothing parameter (λ).
Aim: To develop method for rapid and simple laboratory evaluation of fungicides against Phytophthora infestans, the causal pathogen of late blight of potato. Study Design: Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Protection, Palli-Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, India in February, 2014. Methodology: Small portion of potato leaf tissue from advancing margin of late bight lesion is placed on water since Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary grow well in water producing hypha and sporangium. Using this property, performance of fungicides on mycelial growth and sporangia production/formation was assayed by placing a small bit of infected leaf tissue in different concentration of fungicides. Results: Among the seventeen fungicides tested, chlorothalonil, fenamidone + mancozeb and tricyclazole inhibited mycelial growth and sporangia production but dimethomorph, tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin inhibited sporangia production only. Metalaxyl + mancozeb totally inhibited mycelial growth at higher concentration. Conclusion: This method can be useful for evaluating and comparing performance of different fungicides and even same formulations of a fungicide, produced by different companies within a very short time period. The experimental work can be completed within 48 –72h if late blight infected leaves are available.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Education has a critical influence on the continuing development of clinical oncology nursing practice. Education is essential in oncology nursing, because there are new strategies in cancer care and as a result the role of nurses is expanding. In order to provide qualitative care and ensure patients’ effective response to this care, nurses need special qualifications. Continuing education is essential for nurses working in the clinical setting of oncology nursing. There are many factors which contribute to this need. All nurses must cooperate at state and international level in order to promote oncology education, and meet the growing needs of their patients.
Background: Condoms are an integral part of sexually transmissible infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS prevention, and their use has increased significantly over the past decade. Correct and consistent use of them reduces the risk of HIV transmission by almost 100%.The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence consistent condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS among secondary school male students in Limbe urban city of Cameroon using the main components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Methods: A cross-sectional correlational research design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from a representative sample of 225 male students selected through disproportional, stratified simple random sampling technique from three participating secondary schools. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Results: The majority of the respondents, 63.1% reported being sexually active, of whom only 31.9% reported using condoms consistently. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicate that perceived severity of HIV/AIDS (P=0.044), perceived benefit of condom use (P=0.026) and socio-demographic factors (P=0.024) were the main factors that had statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable of consistent condom use at the level 0.05. Conclusion: The present findings emphasise the need for interventions to increase the use of condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS and to emphasise the severity of HIV/AIDS among male adolescents in urban Cameroon, and the need to reach them with health education messages before they become sexually experienced.
Aims: To understand the changes in yield potential of traditional rice cultivars with different plant height, tillers per plant, fertility and days to maturity. Study Design: Completely randomized block design with four replicates. Twenty plants were evaluated in each replicate. Eighty plants were evaluated for each cultivar. Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka in 2011-2013. Methodology: Rice cultivars were grouped (trait groups) according to guidelines of standard evaluation system of the International Rice Research Institute. Rice cultivars were sub-divided as semi-dwarf (<110 cm), intermediate (110 – 130 cm) and tall (>130 cm) according to plant height and very low tillering (<5 tillers/plant), low tillering (5 – 9 tillers/plant), and medium tillering (10 – 19 tillers/plant) according to number of total tillers/plant. All the cultivars were grouped as completely sterile (0%), highly sterile (<50% to trace), partially sterile (50-74%), fertile (75-90%), and highly fertile (>90%) according to filled grain percentage. Two factor ANOVA without replications were performed to see the effect of the 3 each groups of (-plant height, -number of tillers/plant, -fertility percentage, and - days to maturity) rice cultivars on the yield. Results: Average grain yield of each group was calculated as g/plant basis. Average yield of rice cultivars linearly increased from 7.9 g/plant, 11.13 g/plant to 13.03 g/plant from the group of semi-dwarf, intermediate, to tall. Average yield recorded as 5.39 g/plant, 10.93 g/plant, and 31.28 g/plant in very low tillering, low tillering, and medium tillering groups respectively. In maturity groups, sterile category recorded the least average yield of 4.5 g/plant and partially sterile category recorded 8.0 g/plant, while fertile category recorded the highest yield, 14.9 g/plant. According to ANOVA all these trait-groups significantly (p=0.01) increased the yield of rice cultivars. Conclusion: Plant height, tillers per plant and days to maturity significantly increase the yield of traditional rice cultivars.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) caused by hemoglobin mutant called hemoglobin S or HbS, which originated from the replacement of a hydrophilic amino acid residue-glutamic acid by a hydrophobic moiety valine, at the sixth position of the β-chain of hemoglobin molecule. This loss of charge causes the erythrocytes to sickle under hypoxic conditions. The phytochemical, proximate and amino acid compositions of the leaves extracts of the plant Moringa oleifera were assayed to determine their antisickling effects on sickle cell hemoglobin. The proximate composition of the leaves showed the data:moisture (6.0±1.2mg/100g); crude protein (28.0±1.0mg/100g); carbohydrate (48.10±0.13mg/100g); crude fiber (10.05±0.01mg/100g); ash(9.30±0.01 mg/100g) ; pH 6.25 and crude fat (2.5±0.0 mg/100g). The different extracts including the crude aqueous extracts (CAE) revealed a preponderance of the following phytomedicines:-alkaloids (4.0±0,01mg/100g), flavonoids (0.4±0.0mg/100g), saponins (8.0mg/100g) and phenols (1.10±0.10mg/g. The antisickling effects of the different fractions of the leaves exhibited pronounced antisickling effectiveness by inhibiting sickle cell hemoglobin polymerization from 88.80% for the WAS(water-soluble) fraction to 98.35% for the FAS(fat-soluble) fraction. The BUS (butanol-soluble) fraction inhibited the process to 98.35%.The following antisickling amino acids were equally identified by TSM (technicon sequential multisample) amino acid analyzer at different concentrations: arginine (6g/100g); histidine(2.1g/100g);lysine (4.3/100g); tryptophan 1.9g/100g; phenylalanine 6.4g/100g. The total free amino acid concentration of the fractions (WAS, FAS, BUS) were high and expressed as follows: 13.57 mg/100g; 450.78 mg/100g and 49.76 mg/100g respectively. The total ascorbic (Vitamin C) acid concentration of the (crude aqueous extract) CAE was 4512 mg/100 g of sample. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio showed improvement from 5.48% for the WAS fraction to 18.89% for the FAS fraction. Based on the preponderance of phytonutients, the proximate composition of the leaves, the antisickling effectiveness of the fractions based on hemoglobin polymerization inhibition experiment, the presence of antisickling and essential amino acids; Moringa oleifera leaves extracts may present future therapeutic hope for the effective management of sickle cell disease and other related nutritional syndromes.
Aims: This study investigated the impact of teacher mentoring programme on the teaching effectiveness of preservice chemistry teachers with gender and age as moderating variables. Study Design: The study is a pretest, posttest quasi experimental type. Intact groups were therefore used. Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in Plateau State of Nigeria and lasted for 12 weeks (that is, between April and June 2012). Methodology: The instruments used were Teacher Mentoring Guide (TMG) and Teaching Practice Assessment Scale (TPAS). A purposive sample of 72 Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) final year chemistry teachers was used. The experimental group was mentored using TMG while the control group participated in the twelve-week teaching practice experience without an assigned mentor. Results: It was found that there was a significant difference between the mean teaching effectiveness score of preservice chemistry teachers exposed to mentoring and those that were not. However, there were no significant differences between the mean teaching effectiveness of males and females, nor were there distinctions between teaching effectiveness scores of preservice teachers by age group. Conclusion and Recommendations: Results allow speculations that mentoring of preservice chemistry teachers improved the participants’ teaching effectiveness. Thus, a teacher mentoring programme using a structured mentoring guide for preservice chemistry teachers (either in the school or while on teaching practice) is recommended. Future research could concentrate on the gender of the mentor with a view to determining if mentor gender impacts mentoring outcomes.
The processing of cassava tuber to gari and its handling involve different stages. At each stage, there is a level of contamination by solid and microbial pathogen. The solid, micro elements and microbiological quality of gari obtained from three factories, markets and streets within Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria was investigated. Evaluation of solid particle level was carried out by sedimentation method, while micro element and microbial pathogen were determined by using appropriate media. A high level of solid (sand) was observed to range from 0.56 to 1.59%; while micro element such as cadmium 0.01 to 0.14mg/l, lead 0.04 to 0.25mg/l and chromium 0.04 to 0.35mg/l and pathogen like Aspergillius, Fusarium, Staplylococcus and Basillus were present in a range 0.00–26.9 cfu x 10-3. These were found to be above WHO’s guidelines for drinking-water quality (2006). Suggestions were offered for effective processing and handling of gari in the area.
Cosmetology has made substantial progress in the last thirty years formulating advanced cosmetics: from cosmeceuticals, nutricosmetics and neurocosmetics to specialized medical devices able to generate a mind-body wellness. A comprehensive study for lab-designed innovative and green cosmetic product ready to be industrially processed will be reported and described. The adopted formulation is based on the use of block co-polymeric nanoparticles made by the use of Chitin Nanofibrils (CN) and hyaluronic acid as raw materials. At this purpose, physiochemical biodegradability and safeness data on CN will be reported together with the preparation, characterization, and control of the final nanoemulsions used as base for the final formulation. Some data of safety, tolerability and effectiveness for the lab-designed formulation will be also reported. CN, used as active ingredient binding natural polymers to form block polymeric nanoparticles has been also reported together with the methodologies to produce advanced medications by electrospinning, and innovative food packaging by casting. The obtained data showed the possibility we could have by using nanotechnologies, especially when the selected raw material are classified as natural and obtained from waste materials, as CN is. Finally it has been showed the possibility to use the same raw material for producing cosmetics, advanced medications, and food packaging thus opening new and unsuspected roads to increase the industrial turnover of any cosmetic company. In conclusion, to succeed into the market, it is necessary to carry on a formulation that, well studied and designed at lab level, produced at the right cost, controlled in vitro and in vivo to demonstrate its safety and effectiveness, should be distributed by an efficient marketing plan.