Oyo State, south western Nigeria, is enriched with mineral resources distributed throughout the State. These are metallic and industrial minerals. However, most of these minerals remain untapped due to inadequate information in terms of location, quantities and qualities that foster development and marketability. With the use of GIS, a database of Oyo State Solid Mineral Inventory has been created. This work has targeted creation of road networks through towns and villages and showing approximate location of mineral sites. All these criteria having been determined by GIS, are now sponsored in a website. This entails wide coverage and enables potential investors to have information about the minerals in Oyo State.
Aims: The use of Orlistat as an aid for weight loss has increased among obese individuals over recent years. Although the most frequently administered dosage is 120 mg three times daily, data on the metabolic effects of this drug are inconclusive. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of chronic, low-dose Orlistat administration on weight reduction and metabolic profile among individuals who present for weight loss. Methods: We report here results from a three month study at a low-dose (60 mg twice daily) in 15 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome characteristics (hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension) with no change of diet and physical habits and no other drugs. Results and Conclusion: We observed a significant decrease of weight, BMI, glucose and glycated haemoglobin, diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, with a mild significant rise of HDL cholesterol. Of relevance, the decrease of non-HDL fraction was double of that of LDL (13 vs 7%), possibly suggesting effectiveness not only on LDL cholesterol, but also on cholesterol carried by VLDL, which transport triglycerides that are the chief target of lipase inhibition by orlistat. We suggest that Orlistat, even at low-doses, allows weight reduction as well as significant metabolic improvements.
Background: Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) has been presented as a new test for estimating the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) by measuring the permittivity change associated with blood coagulation. Yet no earlier studies have investigated the clinical utility of DBCM. Objective: We aimed to estimate the clinical utilities of DBCM. Methods: Our group prospectively measured DCT, the clotting time estimated by DBCM, in 192 inpatients at the Department of Respiratory Medicine of Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital between May 2011 and January 2013. We also measured in 28 healthy volunteers as control group. Additionally, other laboratory findings were evaluated for both patients and controls. Results: The normal range of DCT was estimated at between 21.0 and 54.8 minutes based on measurements of healthy volunteer controls. Coagulation was significantly accelerated in patients with interstitial pneumonitis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and sleep apnea syndrome, when measured by DBCM. There was little correlation between DCT and conventional coagulation test results. Conclusion: DBCM is a novel tool for estimating blood coagulation and may be useful for identifying patients at high risk of thrombosis. However a single DCT measurement would be insufficient for a definite diagnosis of thrombosis. Further long-term observation is needed to evaluate the usefulness of DBCM.
Background: Injury among high school students has received disproportionately little attention as a public health concern in Kenya. Objective: To establish the prevalence of injuries occurring among high school students in Kieni West District, Nyeri County, Central Kenya. Methods: A Cross sectional study design was adopted where stratified random samples were recruited disproportionately to ensure adequate representation of most of segments of student population. Data was collected from 498 students (n = 294) girls and (n = 204) boys who were systematically randomly sampled from 83 classes from all ten schools in Kieni West district. Participants were asked about injuries they had sustained in the preceding 6 months. The injuries were coded using classification methods derived from International Classification of External Causes of Injuries (ICECI). The existing healthcare facilities and health records in the schools were examined and the principals of the schools were interviewed. Results: A total of 1490 injuries had occurred among the 498 respondents. Boys had higher mean number of injuries per student (3.39±0.65 n = 204) than the girls’ (2.72±0.46, n =294), a difference that was statistically significant (t=12.7, P<0.05, df= 496). The leading causes of injury were falls (31%) and sporting activities (29%). Falls were more common among girls (32%) than among boys and were mainly attributed to slipping and tripping. Boys sustained most of their injuries from sporting activities (32%) particularly from the more impulsive contact sporting activities. However the cause of injury was independent of the gender of the respondents (χ2 = 0.05; P>0.05; df = 4) Conclusion: Injury is a major but largely neglected contributor of disease burden among high school students in Kenya. The leading causes of these injuries- falls and sporting activities- are all preventable. It is important that effective interventions are developed, implemented and sustained to minimize the impact of injury among students. It is further suggested that safety management in schools should be re-evaluated in a bid to improve safety management status in schools.
Aims: This study aimed at determining the effects of enriching “gari”, a fermented, dewatered and toasted granules from cassava with soy-melon, a legume protein supplement on its chemical composition. Study Design: The study was carried out under a Randomized Complete Bloch design using ANOVA to analyze the replicate data obtained while Duncan New Multiple Range (DNMR) test was used to separate the means. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between January, 2008 and June 2010 Methodology: “Gari”, a fermented, dewatered and toasted granule from cassava was enriched with full-fat soy-melon supplement at three stages of processing namely: (i) before fermentation (wet-mix method), (ii) during toasting (soak-mix method) and (iii) after toasting (dry-mix method) were subjected to chemical analysis. Results: Enrichment increased the protein content from 2.81% to a range of 15.13% - 19.92%. The fat increased from 3.20% to 10.43% - 16.07%; while the ash content increased from 1.18% to 2.04% - 2.62%. Hydrocyanic acid was reduced from 13.40mg/kg to 6.72 – 12.40mg/kg in the enriched products. The pH increased from 3.62 to 3.68 - 4.94 with the sample from the soak-mix method having the highest pH. The sample toasted together with the supplement was found to be comparable to the control sample more than the sample enriched before fermentation and after toasting. Conclusion: The ‘soak-mix’ method (enrichment during toasting) produced “gari” of better nutritional qualities than “gari” from the ‘wet-mix’ and the ‘dry-mix’ methods.
Tourism supply chain (TSC) is a relatively new concept. In order to realize the effectiveness of TSC collaboration, how to share the risks of TSC fairly is a key issue. This paper analyzes the main risk factors in TSC, and proposes a composite risk sharing model. Incorporating the contribution of the individual enterprise to the profit making of the whole TSC profit, this paper presents an amended investment based risk sharing model for more fair and reasonable risk sharing.
Aims: Considering the effect of relay occupancy at relay selection schemes and also proposing a new approach which helps the selection schemes to find the best free relay. Study Design: Comparative study by simulation in MATLAB software. Place and Duration of Study: Digital Communications Signal Processing (DCSP) Lab. of Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Since 1st June 2012 up to 1st August 2014. Methodology: In the existing research works, relay-based system is modeled by a pair of transmitter-receiver nodes and a number of relays. Also, it is assumed that the selected relays are always free. In this investigation, the effect of relay occupancy due to other pairs is considered. For this purpose, a uniform distribution is applied for all relays to show the effect of free or busy relay nodes. Then, the performance of the relay selection methods is obtained by using two well-known performance metrics, bit error rate (BER) and outage probability. As the main goal of this research, a new approach is proposed which first finds the free relays and then applies one of the selection methods, Max-Min SNR Selection (MMS), Max-Sum rate Selection (MSS) and Hybrid Selection (HS), to find the best relay which satisfies the optimization problem. Results: For both Amplify and Forward (AF) and Decode and Forward (DF) relays, the new approach will reduce outage probability of HS scheme. For AF relays, BER of MMS and HS schemes will be decreased but it has neglected effect on the outage probability of MSS scheme. For DF relays, BER of MMS, MSS and HS schemes will be decreased. Conclusion: According to optimization problem for each relay selection scheme, the proposed approach can significantly reduce the outage probability and BER in realistic conditions which the effect of other nodes is considered.
Aim: Gully erosion is the most obvious form of soil erosion in southeastern Nigeria mainly because of the remarkable impressions the gullies make which are also visible manifestation of the physical loss of land due to erosion. In the literature, there are various accounts of the number of gully sites in Imo State as well as the likely causes of the gullies. The very great depths of some of these gullies and the failure of some control measures strongly suggest that they may actually result from interplay of exogenic (such as weathering) and endogenic (tectonic) forces. The aim of this study therefore was to integrate satellite remote sensing data of the study area with GIS to highlight gully erosion hotspots as well as create a database of erosion sites and attributes. Development of 3D – Digital Terrain Models (DTM) of the area for the purpose of studying topography, characteristics and patterns of gully sites. Integration of the DTMs with processed satellite images to generate data for slope analysis and other spatial attributes of gullying. Study Population: Gully Erosion profiles in Imo State, Nigeria. Duration of Study: 24 months. Methodology: SRTM data and SPOT 5 satellite imageries of Imo State were studied and utilizing the opportunities offered by Remote Sensing and GIS. Google earth images and ground truth were used to confirm gully spots and maps were then generated with vital spatial datasets on the spatial distribution and development of gully erosion in Imo State. Results: The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data revealed a correlation of low values with areas of high gully erosion susceptibility. There is also a relationship between the drainage, lineament density and gully erosion in the study area. Gullies are concentrated in the northern western section of Imo State and area underlain by the transition zone between Benin Formation and Bende-Ameki Formation while the Northeast flank though on the same relief height is not that affected because of the shale component of the soil, however, this areas is heavily dissected by streams in dendritic pattern. Finally, a correlation was found to exist between the lineament trend and the strike directions of most gully erosions in the area indicating structural control of gully initiation in the area.
Aims: Iron deficiency (ID) especially among adolescents still considered a major challenge for health and nutrition sectors of governmental and non-governmental institutes in the Gaza strip. The present study aimed to assess iron nutritional status and its relation to adolescents’ dietary habits and life style in the Gaza Strip. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Gaza Strip, Palestine, between March 2009 and May 2009. Methodology: A total of 276 adolescents aged 12-15 years of 7th, 8th and 9th grades were selected randomly. Besides the recording of anthropometric measurements, a questionnaire for collecting information on dietary habits and physical activities was used. Hemoglobin was measured as a general biomarker of general-micronutrient status. Serum iron was also assessed Results: The frequency of iron deficiency (ID) was 23.6%. ID was more prevalent among females (31.4%) than males (15.9%). The overall anemia between both genders was 34.5%. The frequency of high body mass index was 29%. About 49% of females live in sedentary life style. A statistically significant difference was found between serum iron vs. animal foods consumption and low active adolescents. Conclusion: Adolescents were suffered from overweight, obesity and stunting. ID is prevalent among adolescents in Gaza Strip. Serum iron was affected by consumption of animal foods and associated with the lifestyle of adolescents.
Purpose: This paper reviews the growing literature on Smartphone addiction among university undergraduates to identify trends. Design/Methodological Approach: It is based on literature published during the period 1996-2013. Only original research papers have been included in this literature review. The thematic structure has been adopted. In the beginning, such concepts as the symptoms and levels of this addiction will be clarified. Afterwards, the underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature will be touched upon. The paper also reviews the relationship between Smartphone addiction among undergraduates and their academic achievement. Finally, significant differences in addiction among undergraduates according to their gender, field of study, parents educational level and family income level will be examined. Findings: While some studies have shown gender differences in Smartphone addictive use, others have proved that gender and Smartphone use are not significantly related. A few studies have examined the relationship between addiction and students' field of study. Some of these have found that humanities students have a higher addiction level than physical science students. So far, little is known about the extent of the relationship between socio-economic factors (such as parental education and family income), mobile phone use behavior and addiction among university students. The results regarding Smartphone usage and family income had showed contrary indications. Nor is there agreement about the results regarding Smartphone use and parental education. Practical Implications: This state-of-art is useful for researchers and practitioners for understanding current trends and problems and methodological issues. Originality/Value: This paper identifies trends and problems and methodological issues. Conclusion: A mixed-approach investigation consisting of both quantitative and qualitative method is recommended to provide a comprehensive understanding of addiction and its impact on students' academic achievement.