Open Access Case study

Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Cognitive Impairment: A Complex Issue with a Dark Prognosis

Montserrat González Delgado, Elena Santamarta, Antonio Sáiz, Sergio Rodríguez, Juan Carriles, Luis Caminal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 386-389
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13043

Aims: Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), may present as a wide range of symptomatology where cognitive impairment could play a key role in the prognosis of SLE patients.
Presentation of Case: A 24 year-old female was admitted in 1999 in unconsciousness. Cranial MRI showed two thalamo-mesencephalic lesions and the patient was discharged home with a diagnosis of metabolic and/or toxic encephalopathy. One year later systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed. Following up showed memory disturbance with several strokes and atrophy in neuroimaging, and positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies. Anticoagulation was indicated with an irregular compliance. In March 2010 the patient was admitted due to generalized articular pain and hemoptoic sputum due to bad control of the anticoagulation. One month later she was admitted to Intensive Care Unit due to acute pulmonary edema and acute renal failure. In June 2010, the patient was discharged home where she died some months later.
Discussion: This case reflects the complexity of NPSLE: an acute encephalopathy as an early sign of the disease, the antiphospholipid syndrome, development of progressive cerebral global atrophy and cognitive impairment, and the coexistence of another autoimmune neurological disease such as myasthenia gravis.
Conclusion: The authors consider that the presence of cognitive impairment, intervening in the compliance of the treatment, could be one of the main risk factors in the prognosis of SLE patient.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Preliminary Qualitative Study towards the Development of an Adoption Model

Maziar Shajari, Shadi Ebrahimi Mehrabani

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 375-381
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11073

Background: Almost all people in the societies are facing new e-Services everyday and it is essential for the implementers to have enough users for the new implemented service. An e-Service without users would be a failure. Therefore, before implementing the e-Services the adoption factors of the users must be considered. The problem is lack of an adoption model with the proper factors for all environments. Moreover, behaviour of the users changes over time and sometime even the impacting factors on the adoption will change too.
Aims: This study is developing and proposing an adoption model for the e-Services in an academic environment.
Study Design: Interviews with the Information Technology managers were done to find the important factors influencing the adoption of users.
Place and Duration of Study: Islamic Azad University - Dehaghan Branch. Between December 2013 and January 2014.
Methodology: Three Information Technology managers involving Information Services development were interviewed. First, factors influencing the adoption of users were introduced to them. They were free to add additional factors. The results were used to propose the final adoption model of the study.
Results: After gathering data from the interviewees, an adoption model is proposed with one dependent and four independent variables. This model will later be developed based on a quantitative method of factor analysis. "Perceived Ease of Use", "Perceived Usefulness", "Observability", and "Compatibility" were the four independent factors. The dependent factor is 'Intention to Use".
Conclusion: While this study is the pilot of a larger scale study, the model must be tested and the relation between the variables must be measured by a quantitative method.

Open Access Short communication

Influence of Wrinkle-resistant Treatment on UV Protection Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabrics

C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 382-385
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13885

This paper investigated the influence of wrinkle-resistant treatment on the UV protection properties of 100% cotton knitted fabric with different structures. UV measurement was carried out using a spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the wrinkle-resistant treatment has less an effect in UV protection properties but the fabric structure did.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lack of Awareness among Renal Transplant Recipients Regarding Consumption of Phosphate-containing Processed Food and Drinks

Yoshiko Shutto, Michiko Shimada, Maiko Kitajima, Reiichi Murakami, Takeshi Fujita, Ikuyo Narita, Norio Nakamura, Hideaki Yamabe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 274-280
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13153

In the chronic kidney disease (CKD), adequate phosphate control is critical to reduce mortality rate and cardiovascular risks, besides, it may improve renal prognosis. We surveyed the awareness of the high phosphate content in the commercially processed food and drinks among renal transplant recipients, since they usually have reduced kidney function. Thirty seven subjects were provided with a questionnaire to evaluate their awareness of food and drinks containing phosphate. Most of the subjects (91.9%) were aware of the presence of sugar in soda drinks, but only 13.5% were aware of the presence of phosphate. Only 29.7% understood that phosphate is present in processed food, such as hamburgers and pizza, and 64.9% were unaware of the harmful effects of unrestricted consumption of phosphate-containing food and drinks. In this survey, 24.3% consumed “fast food” once a week and 16.2% took 1 to 5 cans of soda drinks each week. After completing the questionnaire, 32.4% of the subjects considered reducing their phosphate intake and 54.1% showed interest in obtaining more information on phosphate in food and drinks. This survey emphasizes the need of further education in renal transplant recipients to minimize the possible health risks posed by excessive consumption of phosphate additives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endophytic Actinomycetes from Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana (Melastomataceae) and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

Ana Candida Martins Toledo Piza, Carlos Osamu Hokka, Cristina Paiva de Sousa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 281-291
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13237

The need for new and useful compounds to provide assistance and relief in all aspects of human condition is over-growing. Seeking to improve the quality of life, the natural products isolated from endophytic microorganisms are important to obtain new compounds that can be used in different industrial segments. The substances formation is coupled with the onset of development of the microorganisms and the use of parvome to find novel compounds from unique habitats is a new goal. In this scope, this study aimed to isolate potentially bioactive substances produced by endophytic microorganisms collected from endemic medicinal plants. Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana (Melastomataceae) were collected in Brazilian Tropical Savannah and disinfected. Gram-positive, catalase-positive, not alcohol-acid-resistant and spore-forming microorganisms were isolated and characterized by phenotypic analyzes. From such characteristics the isolates were characterized as actinomycetes belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Two of the isolates were identified as Nocardiopsis dassonvillei and Amycolatopsis orientalis based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reporting, for the first time, the association of endophyticactinomycetes with aerial parts of Miconia albicans. The bioactivity was determined by testing for antibiosis using Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Serratiamarcensis (ITB 1475), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Shigella sonnei (ATCC 1578) as indicator organisms. Amycolatopsis orientalis showed the best antimicrobial potential, verified by antagonist halos against S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and S. sonnei measuring 3.50 cm, 3.15 cm, 3.35 cm and 3.20 cm in diameter, respectively. These findings can contribute to the discovery and characterization of new and useful antimicrobial substances with possible medical and/or industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Formulation and Preparation Methods on Naproxen Liposome Performance

Karina C. Lugo, Evone S. Ghaly

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 292-305
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12944

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of formulation composition and methods of preparation on the physico-chemical properties and drug release of naproxen liposome.
Methods: The ratio of lipid to drug, lipid to lipid, organic to aqueous phase and methods of preparation were varied.
Results: Formulation composed of 0.9 g lecithin:3.6 g cholesterol: 0.9 g cholesteryl hemisuccinate and drug : lipid ratio of 1:3 gave the highest entrapment efficiency (83.6%). Formulations prepared by using different ratios of organic to aqueous phase showed different drug entrapment efficiency depending on the ratio of the volume of the two phases. Also, the method used for preparation of the liposome had an effect on drug entrapment efficiency. The drug release data indicated that liposome prepared by the heating method and composed of 9 g lecithin:3.6 g cholesterol:0.9 g cholesteryl hemisuccinate using a ratio of 3 lipid:1 drug showed the best control release profile. The percent drug released was 14.9% and 71.5% at 15 minutes and 360 minutes of testing dissolution.
Conclusion: The physico-chemical properties, drug entrapment and drug release from naproxen liposome were influenced by formulation composition, ratio of aqueous to organic phase and methods of preparation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dependency of Dielectric Strength of Kaolin on Processing Method

Stella Nasejje, Obwoya Kinyera Sam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 306-312
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13335

This paper presents experimental results of a study to determine the dependency of dielectric strength of kaolin on processing methods. Two sets of electric insulators were made of porcelain; one set was made by wet pressing, while the second set was made by dry pressing. The porcelain were made from mixtures of kaolin, ball clay, flint, and feldspar compacted into discs of diameter 2.5 mm at pressures of 100 MPa before being fired to a temperature of 1250°C. The results show that the dielectric strength of electric insulators made by dry pressing exhibited generally higher dielectric strengths than those made by wet pressing. In addition, the study shows that dielectric strength of the insulators were much higher when tested while immersed in high grade transformer oil, than when they are tested while in air. The highest values when tested in oil and air were 22.5 kV, and 10.7 kV respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Changes in the Lebanese Litani River: Hydrological Assessment and Recommended Actions to Handle with the Human and Global Change Impacts

Nadine Nassif, Hiba Kchour, Amin Shaban

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 313-327
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13038

Litani River is described as the most important river in Lebanon. Even though, high rainfall is often recorded in the Litani River basin, but several physical and anthropogenic changes in this area are affecting the hydrologic regime. This issue has been exacerbated in the last decade. This study provides the majority of the legislation which manage the water sector in Lebanon, especially in the Litani River Basin, and it presents illustrations on climatic and hydrologic trends overall Litani River Basin. It highlights the key issues of water shortage in Litani River including the existing changes and their impacts. It was established a complete figure on rainfall trend from 1994 till 2012 and hydrologic components trends from 1952 till 2011, which are recorded and monitored in three stations located at three parts of Litani River Basin (upper Litani Basin, middle Litani Basin and lower Litani Basin). The average annual rainfall in these three stations is shown to be increasing about to 9% along a period of 18 years. However, there is an obvious decline in the average of the river's discharge which reaches about 45% in the last four decades. This in turn reveals the negative influence of anthropogenic actions on Litani River rather than considering the climatic changes impacts. In addition, the gaps and overlaps in the existing legal framework lead to insufficient control on the major natural water sources, especially the application of the Environmental Protection Framework Law No. 444 dated 29/07/2002. However, we need urgently to start the application of the precautionary principle, principle of prevention, polluted-pays principle and environmental impact assessment in order to prevent and to be adapted to the impacts of climate change at national and international level.

Open Access Original Research Article

TL-Moments and LQ-Moments of the Exponentiated Pareto Distribution

Samir K. Ashour, Ahmed A. El-sheik, Noura A. T. Abu El-Magd

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 328-347
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12047

The main concern of this paper is to derive the TL-moments (Trimmed Linear moments) of the exponentiated Pareto distribution (EPD) and use the TL-moments to estimate the unknown parameters of the EPD. Many special cases may be obtained such as L-moments (Linear moments), LH-moments (Linear Higher moments) and LL-moments (Linear Lower moments). Also, the LQ-moments (Linear Quantile moments) with the three cases (trimean, median and Gastwirth) will be obtained and used to estimate the unknown parameters of the EPD. The estimation of the EPD parameters is studied in numerical simulations where the method for obtaining TL-moment estimators is compared with other estimation methods (L-moment estimators, LQ-moment [trimean, median and Gastwirth] estimators, maximum likelihood estimators and the method of moment estimators). According to these comparisons, it is suggested that the method of L-moments is preferable for small sample size.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Magnetite-apatite Ore Deposit of Pınarbaşı (Bulam), Adıyaman Province, South-eastern Turkey

Hüseyin Çelebi, Cahit Helvacı, Ali Uçurum

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 348-374
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/9793

The Precambrian (Pütürge Metamorphites), the Eocene (Maden Complex), the Permo-Carboniferous (Malatya Metamorphites), the tertiary conglomerates and the alluvial formation all crop out in the vicinity of the magnetite-apatite ore deposits of Pınarbaşı.
The Malatya Metamorphites, which are products of regional metamorphism in ore deposits, are in an area thrust over the Maden Complex. From bottom to top, the area includes chlorite schists, calc schists and recrystallized limestone. Abundant rock-forming minerals in the area include chlorite, mica, quartz and calcite. The existing mineral facies indicate that ore deposits in the area metamorphosed as at least one regional barrow type in the greenschist facies at 400°C temperature and 0.4 MPa pressure, and they depend on contact and retrograde metamorphism. As a result of this process, the area’s ore deposits are highly folded and faulted. The ores consist of magnetite, hematite (specularite) and goethite. The important gangue minerals are fluorapatite, quartz, chlorite and micas. Geologic and geochemistry data indicate that the original rocks of the recent chlorite schist were pelitic sediments.
Levels of the 18O isotope showed that the formation temperature varied between 282-372°C. This temperature corresponds to the beginning of the greenschist facies temperature of the regional metamorphism. Hydrogen isotope analysis reflects the sedimentary rock’s value and supports the geochemistry diagnosis. The radiometric age determination indicated two different age values, 66 and 48 Ma. The older age of 66 Ma explains the metamorphosis that evolved during the ophiolite development. The younger age of 48 Ma is interpreted as a second metamorphism, retrograde metamorphism or tectonic movement age.
The Pınarbaşı ore deposit is described as a metamorphosed metasedimentary magnetite-apatite ore deposit. Similar magnetite-apatite ore deposits is the Avnik deposits in Turkey. Determined proved and inferred reserves amount to 78 Mt with 35.07wt % Fe and 1.57wt % P2O5 content. The operation of the ore is currently planed for 2016.