Open Access Case study

Rumenolith in a Greater Kudu Antelope (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) kept in Zoo

Danjuma Friday Audu, Abubakar Aishatu, Otolorin Gbeminiyi Richard, Mshelbwala Paul Philip

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 460-466
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13701

A dead, three-and-a-half year-old, female Greater Kudu antelope, weighing 194 kg was presented to the State House Veterinary Clinic Abuja, and was reported to have died the previous night. It had been showing frequent attempt to urinate, rolling on the ground, depression and off-feed for a few of days immediately prior to its death. It was said to have been in an enclosure, on zero grazing, but fed routinely on groundnut haulms and brewer’s bran. There was no cutaneous or muscular damage, except for signs of rigor mortis on physical examination of the carcass. Post mortem examination conducted revealed an irregular-shaped oblong mass in the rumen amidst the ingesta, which when exteriorized, felt hard and compact. The mass was discovered to be a rumenolith (mineral concretion in the rumen) weighing 2 kg. Other foreign materials found were a band of rubber tube and a broken piece of dry cell lead battery. Obstruction of the normal flow of rumen ingesta by the rumenolith was diagnosed to have resulted in the death of the Kudu. To the best of our knowledge, this present case is probably the first report of a rumenolith in Greater Kudu in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Description for the General Marketing Situation of the Honeybee Products in Khartoum State of Sudan

Elsamoal E. A. Elzaki, Seif Eldin A. Mohammed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 390-398
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12386

Aim: Local trade of the honeybee products (honey and beeswax) in Sudan goes back to many centuries and there is increasingly demand for honey and other honeybees-by-products in the markets, in most of the areas of Sudan. Yet, there is few scientific information and database on the marketing of beekeeping products. Moreover, the question of promotion and marketing is very essential and there are no positive actions were taken. The study was carried out in Khartoum state “a major marketing and consumption zone in Sudan” during the years 2012/2013 aiming to generate information about the honeybee products and their marketing, constraints and the local market systems and structure.
Study Design: A case study.
Materials and Methods: Data were collected through inter¬views with 97 consumers and nineteen shopping places and companies. A structured questionnaire was used and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19, 2012 Microsoft ware computer program.
Results: The results indicated that the demand rates of the honeybee products showed a steady tendency; however, only honey has an increasing trend. The annual average sales of honey and beeswax were respectively, 7165 and 451.83kg. The average price for both honey and beeswax were estimated at 58 SDG (Sudanese Pound) per kilogram (equivalent to11.6$/kg).
The major marketing constraints that hinder the marketing of honeybee products are: Lack of beekeeping legislations and standards. As well as procedures followed by the governmental offices regarding custom tariffs.
Conclusion: The study justified the need for: [i] quality assurance of the bee products, [ii] establishment and activation of beekeeping legislations, [iii] and upraising the public awareness on the honeybee products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Bond Dual Ultrasonic Frequencies and Megasonic Frequencies on Removal of Sub-micron and Nano-Dimensional Particles: An Experimental Study

R. Vetrimurugan, Terry Lim, M. J. Goodson

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 399-409
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/9997

Aims: The purpose of this experimental study was mainly to investigate the effect of various frequencies in the range from ultrasonic to Megasonic on cleanability and erodability parameters using multiple extraction method.
Study Design: Experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Advanced Ceramics Technology Lab, Dept of Ultrasonic Cleaning Research and Development, Malaysia between April 2013 and Jan 2014.
Methodology: The parts are cleaned with various ultrasonic and megasonic frequencies using DI water as a cleaning medium. Various direct bond dual frequencies such as 58/132 kHz and 58/192 kHz, single ultrasonic frequencies such as 58 kHz, 68 kHz, 132 kHz, 192 kHz and megasonic frequencies such as 360 kHz and 470 kHz on particle removal from disk drive component was studied. Multiple Extraction Method (MEM) was used as a tool to measure the cleanliness and Liquid Particle Counter (LPC) was used to measure the particle concentration in the extracted solution. The Maximum Cleaning Potential (MCP) and First Stage Cleaning (FSC) was also calculated for various ultrasonic and megasonic frequencies.
Results: The result indicates that the first stage cleaning is high for patented direct bond dual frequency i.e 58/132 kHz compared to other frequencies. A combination of high cavitation intensity at 58 kHz to maximize removal of contamination plus significant acoustic streaming at 132 kHz to minimize re-deposition is considered to be responsible for this result. The result also indicates that the maximum cleaning potential is high for 58/132 kHz followed by megasonic frequencies such as 360 kHz or 470 kHz. The maximum cleaning potential and first stage cleaning is almost same for 68 kHz, 132 kHz and 192 kHz. The asymptote value is low for 192 kHz, 360 kHz and 470 kHz compared to other frequencies tested. The asymptote value decreases with increase of frequency. The multiple frequencies such as 58/132 kHz followed by 360 kHz or 470 kHz bring down the particle counts further and lead to higher particle removal. This is due to lower thickness of boundary layer for higher frequencies. Emphasis will be placed upon cleaning of metal spacers, but the concepts can be applied to cleaning of other parts as well.
Conclusion: The use of multiple frequencies ranging from lower ultrasonic to higher megasonic frequency will help removing populations of particles that vary widely in sizes. Crest ultrasonic patented direct bond dual frequencies and state-of-the art megasonic sweep frequencies 360 kHz and 470 kHz can help to remove wide ranges of particle sizes (both sub-micron and nano-dimensional particles) from various disk drive components and other related components.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effectiveness of Special Education Centers in Jordan

Ani Derderian

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 410-420
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13626

This study aims to identify the effectiveness of special education centers in Jordan. The study sample consists of (13) special education centers serving intellectual, hearing, visual and motor impairments, comprised of (13) principals and (136) teachers. The level of effectiveness of the special education centers was measured with a scale of (92) items with (7) dimensions. The scale was validated by professionals who work in special education centers and universities in Jordan. Questions of research were adopted to suit cultural issues and then administered to all participants in the sample. Results of the scaled mean reveal that seven aspects of the special education centers are effective but their level of effectiveness differed from one center to another. Motor impairment centers for people with physical impairments were the most effective, followed by intellectual disability centers, hearing impairment centers and visual impairment centers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results indicated no significant differences in the effectiveness level that can be attributed to the variable of the disability type served by the center against the total degree and the furthest sub-scale. In addition, Schaffe test results revealed significant differences between visual impairment and motor impairment centers, with the motor impairment centers being more effective. The scaled mean of the motor impairment effectiveness level on this dimension was (3.94), while the mean of the same dimension for the visual disability center is (3.04). However, the results suggest that more research might be focused: (a) to assess the special education centers improving the educational system; (b) arrange workshops for administrations, teachers and parents to increase their teaching effectiveness level; (c) apply more tools such as case studies, interviews and self-assessment methods to assess the effectiveness level of the centers and schools; (d) engage students and consider their images on the centers for the internal effectiveness of the centers; and (e) increase the programs of each special education center.

Open Access Original Research Article

Art Therapy for Chinese Canadian Breast Cancer Survivors in Toronto

Tsorng-Yeh Lee, Gail Joyce Mitchell, Jen-Jiuan Liaw, Grace Ho, Terry Cheng, Patricia Ki, Winnie Wong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 421-429
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13946

Aims: The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an art therapy support group program for Chinese Canadian breast cancer survivors. The sub-purpose was to understand the experiences of Chinese breast cancer survivors during and after the arts-based intervention.
Study Design: A qualitative design was used in this study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at an urban community health centre in Toronto, Canada between February 2014 and June 2014.
Methodology: A convenience sample of 12 Chinese women were recruited to participate in six 3-hour monthly art therapy workshops at the urban community health centre. Focus group interview was used in this study. The interviews were audio tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Krueger’s framework of analysis guided the data analysis.
Results: Five themes were emerged from the data: a) an aesthetic means to explore personal inner world, b) a vehicle to share and communicate life experience with others, c) a reflection to make a constructive or positive change in one’s life, d) regaining a sense of empowerment and control, and e) looking forward to a much brighter future.
Conclusion: This study suggests that breast cancer survivors may benefit from participating in art therapy workshops. Chinese Canadians with breast cancer seem to find passion and pleasure in making art. The findings suggest that art therapy is a useful avenue to address psychosocial challenges posed by breast cancer and can enhance non-verbal expression of personal feeling. The finding also suggests that a culturally and linguistically friendly art therapy program is more appropriate for Chinese immigrants who suffered from emotional distress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accumulation of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) in the Niger River and Environs

A. C. C. Ezeabasili, O. L. Anike, B. U. Okoro, E. M. Obiefuna

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 430-440
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12709

The study investigates the levels, variability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in surface waters of Niger River and adjoining areas. Investigation of lead and cadmium concentration in surface water within Onitsha metropolis range from 0.204 mg/L- 2.316mg/L (River Niger upstream surface and Nwanaene lake) to 0.004 – 1.431 mg/L (River Niger upstream surface/ Creek surface and Nwanaene lake). All samples collected and tested by AAS were above the WHO standard of 0.01mg/ L for Lead and 0.003mg/L for Cadmium. Mean concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) shows that a significant difference exists in some of the sampled water sources. The concentrations of Cadmium in sampled sources varied from slight to very high (Cv = 18.52-148.57%) while in Lead, the concentration was slight to moderate (Cv =15.54-64.85%). Pollution of surface water in sampled locations was anthropogenic/ site specific (mainly from waste deposition as noticed in Nwangene Lake), urban treatment of effluent from industries and prohibition of dumping of any kinds of refuse and sewage into the rivers and lakes within Onitsha and environs need to be fully enforced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Phytochemical Properties of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants on Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi Isolated from Human Stool in Owo local Government, Ondo State , Nigeria

O. T. Osuntokun, F. A. Olajubu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 441-449
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12021

Medicinal plants are geared toward the development of the new antibiotics and the use of the medicinal plant in the treatment of typhoid fever. Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella species namely, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. The disease is an important menace to public health in Nigeria and other developing country. The main objective of the study was to test the potency of some Nigerian medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi and to determine the phytochemical constituents of the plants’ extracts on test organisms isolated from infected human stool in Owo Local Government. The plants were obtained from Oke-Ako in Ikole Local Government of Ekiti State, Nigeria and prepared for extraction with four extracting medium with a simple distillation procedure. Test organisms were isolated from infected patients in the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State and were identified using morphological and biochemical characteristics. Antibacterial assay (using the Agar diffusion method) and phytochemical assays were carried out on the plants extract. The test organisms were observed to be sensitive to all four plant extracts (Alchornea laxiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Spondia mombin and Cymbopogon citarus). Phytochemical screenings show that the plants contained some classical compounds namely tannin, phenol, alkaloid, flavonoids, oxalate, saponin and phytate. Minerals present in plant extracts (mg/100.0g) were sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, lead, copper, manganese and phosphorus. This research showed that Alchornea laxiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Spondia mombin and Cymbopogon citarus were effective against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi and treatment against typhoid fever infection using medicinal plants should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

EDTA-assisted Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals by Amaranthus hybridus Cultivated on Soil Collected from Selected Dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

E. E. Awokunmi, O. S. Adefemi, S. S. Asaolu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 450-459
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11124

Aim: This study was carried out to asses the effectiveness of EDTA phytoextraction of heavy metals by Amaranthus hybridus cultivated on selected dumpsites, with a view to applying the plant in environmental restoration.
Study Design: It is an analytical study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti, Nigeria between November 2010 and June 2012.
Methodology: Topsoil (0-15cm) samples were randomly collected on selected dumpsites. The pH and organic matter content of soil were determined prior to plant cultivation. Sequential extraction of heavy metal from soil samples were conducted using modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metals in soil samples. The heavy metals concentration inddiferent sections of plant with or without EDTA application was determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, leading to the calculation of phytoextraction efficiency.
Results: The results revealed the mean pH and organic matter content torange from 6.12±0.08-6.56±0.14 and 5.40±0.02-5.84±0.15% respectively; these values were observed to be higher on dumpsites when compared with control sites. Application of synthetic chelate effectively increased the mobility of heavy metals from root to shoot of the plants and as a result of this, concentrations of heavy metals in the shoots of plants were higher in the experiment than control with concentrations of Cd (139.3, 130.0, 126.0 and 123.8 mg/kg; experiment,46.9, 44.2, 37.9 and 23.5 mg/kg; control), Cr (60.5, 59.2, 56.0 and 53.0; experiment, 24.4, 18.2, 16.6 and 16.6 mg/kg; control), Cu (189.3, 180.6,176.0 and 173.8; experiment, 69.0, 66.2, 59.9 and 44.5 mg/kg; control), Pb (227.2, 228.8, 296.3 and 278.7; experiment, 110.1, 104.8, 82.4 and 78.2 mg/kg; control) and Zn (148.0, 129.2, 121.0 and 116.4; experiment, 68.2, 63.0, 58.0 and 51.8 mg/kg; control) at Aba Egbira, Atikankan, Igbehin and Moshood street dumpsites respectively . Bioaccumulation factor (BF), translocation factor (TF) and remediation ratio (RR) were obtained to be greater than one for Cd, Cu and Pb, which showed that these metals were translocated in the plant’s shoot and as a result, Amaranthus hybridus is effective in chelant-assisted phytoextraction.
Conclusion: Therefore, the use of Amaranthus hybridus is advocated as a candidate plant for restoring dumpsites polluted with heavy metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study of Hypoglycemic Effect of Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) on Wistar Albino Rat

O. J. Sule, J. Godwin, A. R. Abdu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 467-472
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/8044

The hypoglycemic effect of locust bean (parkia biglobosa) in Wistar Albino rats was assessed. Blood glucose concentrations were determined for each group using glucose oxidase method. Group A (Control) received growers mash, while groups B,C and D received 20%, 40% and 50% of locust bean respectively for 21 days. There was significant decrease in the blood glucose concentrations of rats in groups C (5.5±0.03) and D (5.1±0.03) when compared with control (5.8±0.07mM/L), p≤0.05 on the 7th day of the treatments. However rats in group B only showed significant decrease in blood glucose concentrations on the 14th and 21st days (5.4±0.03mM/L and 5.3±0.03mM/L) respectively, when compared with the control (5.8±0.04mM/L and 5.8±0.06mM/L) respectively, p≤0.05. The validation of the hypoglycemic activity of locust bean suggest that it may be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Plyometric Training on Biomechanical Parameters of Junior Male Volleyball Players

Ali Fattahi, Hojat Kazemini, Mahdi Rezaei, Mazaher Rahimpour, Mehrnoosh Bahmani, Saeid Saleh Nia, Mitra Ameli, Mohsen Einanloo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 473-479
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13596

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of eight weeks of aquatic and land plyometric training on some biomechanical variables including agility, leg muscle strength, and vertical jump test in young male volleyball players. Forty five young male volleyball players (Age=19.46±2.39 years, Standing height=190.76±3.78 cm, Body Mass=77.27±2.65 kg, Sport background=3.93±0.72 years) volunteered in this study and divided to three groups; aquatic plyometric group (APG), land plyometric group (LPG) and control group (CG). APG trained spike approach, one leg bounding, squat jump, depth jump and LPG trained ankle jumps, squat jumps, and depth jump 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Both groups trained pre season volleyball training as well as control group. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and paired t-test. The results showed significant differences between the APG and LPG groups in all variables (P<0.05). Significant increases were observed in post training of APG in all variables and for LPG group in leg press and vertical jump records compare to pre training (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in relative improvement between the APG and CG in leg press, agility and vertical jump as well as significant differences between LPG and CG in leg press and vertical jump (P<0.05). It seems that plyometric training in water can be an effective technique to improve biomechanical variables in young athletes.