Open Access Case study

Dystocia Due to Fetal Malposition with Abrachia in Yankasa Ewe

Danjuma Friday Audu, Abubakar Aishatu, Adamu Helen, Otolorin Gbeminiyi Richard, Mshelbwala Paul Philip

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 546-550
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13661

This report describes a case of fetal malposition with abrachia in a Yankasa ewe (Ovis aries), presented on the 24th March 2011 to the State House Veterinary Clinic in Abuja, Nigeria. A two-and-a-half year old Yankasa ewe, weighing approximately 35 kg was presented to the clinic and reported to have been in labour for 18 hours prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed the following vital parameters: temperature 37.8°C, pulse rate 122 beats/min, and respiratory rate 29 cycles /min. Surgical intervention was identified as the treatment after careful evaluation. Caesarean section was performed to relieve the dystocia. The lamb was stillborn when removed of the ewe. Gross examination of the dead lamb revealed bilateral absence of the forelimbs, a condition called abrachia. This, in addition to the posterior presentation of the lamb, may have contributed to the dystocia. In conclusion, fetal malpresentation complicated with abrachia might have predisposed the ewe to the dystocia. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of abrachia in sheep in Nigeria.

Open Access Short Research Article

Home Stress and Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Integrated Science

Bernedette U. Cornelius-Ukpepi, Rita A. Ndifon

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 533-542
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/10302

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between home stress and academic performance of junior secondary school students in Integrated Science in Calabar Municipality. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated and tested. Expost-facto research design was adopted for the study because the researcher cannot manipulate the independent variable. A sample of one hundred and twenty (120) students was randomly selected from a population of 2,730 in Calabar Municipality in Cross River State, Nigeria for the study through the simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire, Home Stress Questionnaire (HSQ) and Achievement test on Integrated Science were the main source of instruments for data collection. Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The result of the analysis revealed that home stress significantly relate to students’ performance in Integrated Science in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. Based on the finding of the study, it was recommended that; government should create employment opportunities to raise the socio-economic status of parents so that they will stop involving their children or wards in hawking. Parents on the other should reduce the rate of sending children on errands throughout the day.

Open Access Short Research Article

Construction of Five-step Continuous Block General Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

D. Raymond, J. Z. Donald, J. A. Oladunjoye, A. Lydia

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 574-584
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13009

In this paper, a self starting five step Continuous Block Hybrid Adams Moulton Method (CBHAM) with three off-grid points is developed using collocation and interpolation procedures. The predictor schemes are then expanded using Taylor’s series expansion. Multiple numerical integrators were produced and arrived at some discrete schemes. The discrete schemes are of uniform order and are assembled into a single block matrix equation. These equations are simultaneously applied to provide the approximate solution for stiff initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The order of accuracy and stability of the block method is discussed and its accuracy is established numerically.

Open Access Short communication

Influence of Water Repellent Treatment on the UV Protection Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabrics

C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 543-545
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14302

This paper investigated the influence of water repellent treatment on the UV protection properties of 100% cotton knitted fabrics. In vitro UV measurement was conducted according to international standard with a spectrophotometer and the results revealed that water repellent treatment could improve the UV protection properties of cotton knitted fabric.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Nutrition Supplement Improved Nutritional Status in Malnourished Hip Fracture Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

Menghua Luo, Georgiy Golubev, Ivan Klyukvin, Leonid Reznik, Gennadiy Kuropatkin, Jeffery S. Oliver, Anne C. Voss

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 480-489
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13908

Background: Nutritional status has been shown to predict post-surgical recovery and clinical outcomes in orthopedic patients. This study evaluated the effects of an oral nutrition supplement (ONS) in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.
Materials and Methods: In a multicenter, prospective, randomized study (ClincialTrials.gov, registration number NCT01011608), malnourished patients (n=127) who had surgery within 14 days of hip fracture and had screening serum albumin levels ≤ 38 g/L were enrolled. Patients in the ONS group were fed a calorically dense, high protein ONS, providing 798 kcal, 34 g protein/day for 28 days following surgery. Control patients received standard hospital diet only. Weight, nutritional and clinical markers were measured at Baseline, days 14 and 28. Suture status and functional recovery were evaluated on days 14 and 28.Means ± SEM are reported.
Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. On day 28, albumin level was improved in the ONS group (4.9±1.4 g/L) compared to the control group (1.2±1.0 g/L, p=0.054). A significant increase in prealbumin was observed in the ONS group (5.0±1.0 mg/dL) vs. control (1.0±1.2 mg/dL, p=0.007). Body weight increased in the ONS group (2.1±0.6 kg) but decreased in the control group (-0.8±0.8 kg; p=0.01).
Conclusion: Supplementation of a nutritionally complete, calorically dense, high protein ONS for 28 days significantly improved nutritional status in mild to moderately malnourished patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nursing Students’ Satisfaction with Their Clinical Placement

Amel Abouelfettoh, Sukainah Al Mumtin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 490-500
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12046

Introduction: Exposure to positive clinical learning experience influences the nursing students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and interest in continuing the nursing profession. It is widely acknowledged that clinical placement evaluations while students are on placement is very useful for better understanding of what constitutes quality clinical education from the students’ perspective to provide better educational experiences.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the nursing students’ satisfaction with their clinical placement experiences and the degree to which their experiences are regarded as positive.
Methodology: A descriptive design was used for the purpose of the study at college of Nursing in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Students enrolled in clinical courses during 2010-2012 were included. Clinical placement evaluation form was used for data collection and students were asked to respond to three open ended questions asking them for the advantages and the disadvantages of each clinical placement and their suggestions for improvement.
Results: The majority of the students (75.6%) agreed or strongly agreed with statements rating their satisfaction with the clinical placement. However, students were dissatisfied with short clinical exposures, staff nurses role and evaluation process from the clinical instructors.
Conclusion: Nursing students were found to be satisfied with their clinical placement but they highlighted negative areas that could be taken into consideration by the faculty members, clinical instructor, clinical staff as well as students to enhance the learning that takes place in the clinical setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Maltreatment in Childhood and Intimate Partner Violence

K. Sesar, A. Dodaj, N. Šimić

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 501-513
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14286

Aims: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between different forms of maltreatment in childhood with the perpetration of violent behaviour and exposure to violence in partner relationships.
Methodology: The sample comprised 147 participants (100 women and 47 men) involved in intimate partner violence and 200 control subjects (100 women and 100 men). A child abuse questionnaire was used for the assessment of multiple types of abuse occurring during childhood. Partner violence was assessed using Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2).
Results: The findings indicated that exposure to maltreatment in childhood had a significant effect on intimate partner violence. Significant differences were observed between the participants exposed to physical and psychological abuse, neglect and those witnessing family violence through partner violence compared to the control group. Forms of violence committed by fathers and mothers had a more important effect on partner violence compared to the violence committed by other persons.
Conclusion: The results obtained from this study can potentially help in the development of various prevention programmes for partners’ exposure to intimate partner violence and other violence in childhood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Logistic Parameters Using a Fuzzy Least-squares Method and Different Types of Moments

Hegazy M. Zaher, Ahmed A. El-Sheik, Noura A. T. Abu El-Magd

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 514-532
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12483

The main attention of this paper is to deduce the estimators of the parameters of the Logistic distribution using five estimating methods, namely, the fuzzy least-squares method, the LQ-moments (linear quantile moments) with three cases (trimean, median and Gastwirth), TL-moments (trimmed linear moments) with different individual cases, L-moments (linear moments) and the maximum likelihood method. Also, a comparison between the performances of these estimators using simulations is given. According to these comparisons, it is shown that the proposed fuzzy least-squares algorithm is preferred for large sample size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics and Mechanism of the Periodate Oxidation of Malachite Green in Acidic Medium

S. O. Idris, H. Hassan, J. F. Iyun, Y. Mohammed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 551-560
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12423

The kinetics of the periodate (IO4–) oxidation of malachite green (MG+) have been studied in aqueous acidic medium. The observed results at [H+] = 1 x 10–4 mol dm–3 (HCl), ionic strength of reaction medium, I = 0.5 mol dm–3 and T = 25.5±0.3°C are consistent with the rate law:

−d[MG+]/dt = k2[MG+][IO4-]

where k2 = (k7 + k6K5[H+])

The reaction was catalysed by increase in [H+] and added anions but displayed a negative BrØnsted–Debye salt effect. Spectrophotometric test showed the absence of intermediate complex formation. Based on these findings, a plausible mechanism is proposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Barriers to the Use of Locally Produced Food Products in Ghanaian Restaurants: Opportunities for Investments

Rose Omari, George Essegbey, Guido Ruivenkamp

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 561-573
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14295

Aims: To examine the extent to which locally produced rice, chicken, cooking oils and tomato paste are used in Ghana’s restaurants, to identify barriers that inhibit their use and to possibly identify investment opportunities that may increase their production, utilization and consumption.
Methodology: Data was obtained from one representative each from 90 restaurants in Accra using semi-structured questionnaires. Basically the questions focused on the various dishes offered, source of raw materials and barriers to the use of locally produced food products in restaurants. The data was complemented by in-depth interviews with some restaurant representatives and secondary data sources.
Results: Rice dishes were the most popular in restaurants with fried rice alone being served in 92.2% of the restaurants. In most cases, rice dishes were accompanied by fried chicken and various sauces and side dishes prepared with oils and tomato paste. Findings showed that rice, chicken, cooking oils, and tomato pastes, which were used in the preparation of the dishes, are produced in Ghana. However, the restaurant operators preferably used imported versions of these products: imported rice (79 restaurants), imported chicken (80 restaurants), imported cooking oil (71 restaurants) and imported tomato pastes (53 restaurants). Barriers to the use of the locally produced products included poor cooking or functional characteristics, low quality in general, unavailability, high cost, low sensory appeal and ineffective marketing strategies.
Conclusion: Restaurants contribute a great deal to the urban food needs, employment creation, and economic development and are most importantly a good marketing avenue for locally produced food products. Therefore, interventions are required in the form of investments to boost local food production, improve product quality and increase product availability. Clearly, some investments are on-going but it is important to integrate the concerns of users of the products so as to provide the desired product quality.