Aim: The aim of this report is to raise the awareness of the existence of this rare ocular affliction in our locality and to highlight the importance of routine histopathological diagnosis of ocular mass lesions. Case Presentation: An 11 year old male school child presented to our centre with a 9 months history of a fleshy growth which bleeds spontaneously, on the inner aspect of the right upper eyelid. Other parts of both eyes including the left eye lid were normal A provisional diagnosis of squamous cell papilloma of the conjunctiva was made and the patient underwent an excisional biopsy of the lesion. Microscopic sections of the mass showed hyperplastic polypoid lesion with numerous globular cysts within the subepithelia conjunctiva with a surrounding of heavy inflammatory reaction composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils. A histopathological diagnosis of conjunctival rhinosporidiosis was made. Discussion: Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous infection caused by an aquatic protistan parasite called Rhinosporidum seeberi. Ocular rhinosporidiosis is worldwide in distribution but to our knowledge, no case has been reported from Nigeria. Ocular rhinosporidiosis is presumably acquired through contact of the causative organism to traumatized epithelium usually in an aquatic habitat. It is said to be more common in those who dive or swim in stagnant water and those engaged in riverside sand dredging may be the mode of infection in this case. It presents as a vascular friable polypoid growth as in this case. Although a few cases of nasal rhinosporidiosis have been reported from different parts of Nigeria, documented cases of ocular rhinosporidiosis from our centres are lacking. We herein report the first case of ocular rhinosporidiosis in Nigeria, from Bayelsa State, Niger Delta which presented as a fleshy mass in the palpebral conjunctiva in an 11year old boy. Conclusion: Most conjunctiva mass lesions may mimic rhinosporidosis. A histopathogical diagnosis is therefore imperative.
The inventory management of drugs and medical devices is a necessary precondition to ensure there is a consistent approach to drugs management in all wards to minimize the risk of missed doses and to reduce waste. In the majority of drug supply systems, the simple models work as well as the complex models. Aim: To test a simple experimental method for inventory management of drugs and medical devices ensuring there is a consistent approach to drugs management in all wards to minimize the risk of missed doses and to reduce waste. Results: The monthly number of urgent requests has been progressively reduced. The monthly number of expired drugs has been progressively reduced. We have used a simple mathematical model for a correct inventory management of the drugs supply system. Preliminary results have shown that the inclusion of the hospital pharmacist in the ward's therapeutic team, with the important collaboration of the nursing staff, can improve the safety of patients and prevent waste of financial resources, or shortages of essential drugs. Our experimental model for the inventory management of drugs was shown to be an important step forward in the drugs supply system.
Aims: The aims of this work were to quantify allicin - an abundant antioxidant in different aqueous garlic extract samples and to determine the stability of allicin in the extract under different thermal and solvation conditions. Study Design: Descriptive research. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Biological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, between May 2013 and September 2014. Methodology: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze allicin in garlic extracts. Quantification of allicin in garlic extracts was made by comparing its peak area with the standard calibration curve of allicin with known concentrations. The kinetic study of allicin degradation in garlic extracts was based on the Arrhenius theory. Results: The amount of allicin in aqueous garlic extracts varied from 35.6 to 44.5 mM. The thermal stability study shows that the degradation of allicin is a first-order reaction and the preliminary data shows that the degradation of allicin in different solvents has different kinetic parameters. Conclusion: The concentration of allicin in garlic extract samples was similar to each other, despite of different sampling dates. For medicinal purpose, garlic extracts should be used freshly to prevent any degradation of allicin.
This study examined some demographic and psychological predictors of teachers' commitment in Lagos State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to ascertain if teachers’ perceived organizational justice will significantly affect their levels of commitment to the schools; establish the nature of relationships that exists between gender, types of schools and teachers’ levels of commitment. In order to achieve these objectives, 200 participants from 16 secondary schools in Lagos State (M=103; F=97) were randomly selected to respond to the Organizational Justice Scale (OJS) and Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS). The data collected were analyzed using correlation, independent t-test and regression analysis and the results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between perceived organizational justice and teachers’ commitment; female teachers reported a significantly higher level of commitment than their male counterparts, public school teachers were more committed than private school teachers. It was also revealed that gender, types of schools and organizational justice jointly accounted for sixty-eight percent (68%) variance in teachers’ commitment. The implication of these findings substantiates the need to treat employees fairly in order to sustain their high level of commitment to the organizations.
This study examined challenges, hotspots and gaps in educational policy in Zimbabwe for a presentation for the Eidos Institute for Public Policy Conference 2013 in Cape Town; South Africa. This Zimbabwean case study was informed by a convenience sample of 107 heads of schools and 36 senior education officials from three educational regions attending Child Friendly Schools seminar. Data was collected from group discussions and group reports on the state of education in the country and the way forward. The researchers asked for and were granted permission to conduct this research. Key findings were that education is failing to teach ethics and responsibility, the proportion of national income spent on education is dwindling, popular participation is weak, there appear to be some social exclusion and the gap between policy formulation and policy implementation is widening. There are also gaps in proactive pedagogy for 21st-century learning. The research argues that education is about equipping students with a way of thinking and behaving that enables them to see opportunities and bring them to fruition, in the process bringing about change. It recommended a fundamental rethink about the purpose of education and a major shift in the process of learning, whereby the students become active rather than passive learners, the “teachers” become facilitators of the learning process and assessment tests for ability rather than knowledge.
In an attempt to determine the level of heavy metals contamination and factors affecting their adsorption in living organisms, soil and earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) were used at four registered dumpsites within Lagos metropolis. Three of the dumpsites were active; Abule Egba, Olusosun and Soluos while the fourth Oke Afa was inactive. Soil and earthworms used were sampled during the wet season (July 2006), digested using concentrated HNO3, and analysed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Pb(364µg/g), Cu(428µg/g), Cd(4.2µg/g), Ni(19.3µg/g) and Zn(2110µg/g) were highest at Oke Afa while Cr(14.5µg/g) was highest at Abule Egba. Correlation between earthworms and soil was positive in all the dumpsites with the least (R2=0.59) reported at Oke Afa. The relation between metals in soil and earthworms in all the dumpsites was greatly influenced by soil organic matter, pH and metal concentrations in the soil. Our findings show that most of the metals in the dumpsites exceeded the Canadian environmental guideline and Toronto public health guide for soil. This could lead to possible heavy metal poisoning of residents living close to the dumpsite through ground water contamination by leachate.
Aim: Ziziphus mauritiana is an endemic fruit spread in the savannah region of Cameroon. The fruit, locally called Jaabi, is harvested dry and consumed as such or processed into a local cake named Yaabande, using three baking techniques (sun drying, steam baking and stifle baking). The aim of the study is to characterize the sensory profile and consumer acceptability of the fruit and its processed product, in order to evaluate the determinant of their quality attributes as influenced by ecotype, origin and processing method. Place of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon. Methodology: Physico-chemical analysis, sensory profile by a semi trained panel, and consumer acceptability of the fruits and their processed products were undergone through collection of two ecotypes of the fruit (Jaabi Dakamji and Jaabi Lammuji) from four areas (Garoua, Mora, Maroua and Mokolo). African and non African consumers were used for the consumer tests. Results: Sensory analysis differentiated the fruits by ecotype and origin, with the Dakamji ecotype appearing more homogeneous whatever the origin. The processed cakes differed mainly by their texture, depending on the baking method, with chewing texture for sun processed method, while samples from steam and stifle baking were more firm in mouth. Meanwhile, all samples were acceptable at comparable level corresponding to pleasant character, the sweet taste constituting the main criteria for consuming the products, both for African and non African consumers. In this respect Dakamji ecotype was sweeter, due to its higher sugar content, while the sweetness of Lammuji ecotype was lowered by its acid content. Conclusion: Jaabi and Yaabande samples are globally acceptable by consumers, whatever the origin and the variety. Development of products emphasising the original taste of Jaabi and standardisation of processing techniques appear as some main aspects of the market development of the fruit.
The effects of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves on biochemical indices in wistar albino rats were studied. Activity of total Protein and bilirubin (direct and indirect bilirubin) in the serum were determined colorimetrically, while lipid peroxidation products, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), were measured in liver homogenate. Histopathological studies of the liver of test and control animals were also, carried out. Rats in group1 were fed with 100% food and administered CCL4, while those in groups (2, 3 and 4) were pretreated with 10%, 30%, and 50% of dried leaves of A. Wilkesiana respectively. Rats in group5 were pretreated with 30% A. wilkesiana without administration of CCL4 (positive control), while rats in group6 were fed with 100% food without CCL4 administration (general control). The CCL4 administered (0.5 ml/kg body weight in 0.5 ml olive oil intraperitoneally) on the 28th day of study caused significant increases (p< 0.05) in the levels of biochemical indices (malondialdehyde, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin), only the total protein levels significantly decreased (p< 0.05), when compared with the controls. Pre-treatment of rats with 10% and 30% A. wilkesiana resulted in significant decreases (p< 0.05) in the levels of these biochemical indices, only the levels of total proteins significantly increased in a dose dependent manner. These biochemical indices also significantly increased in rats group 4 pretreated with 50% A. wilkesiana when compared with the controls. Histopathology of the liver showed reduced level of injury in pretreated rats while; those not pretreated were presented with varying degrees of injuries. The study suggests that at low doses, A. wilkesiana possess hepatoprotective ability, while it could be hepatotoxic at high doses.
This paper presents a risk neutral binomial process as an alternative approach for the derivation of analytic pricing equation called “Black-Scholes Partial differential Equation” in the theory of option pricing. Binomial option pricing is a powerful technique that can be used to solve many complex option-pricing problems. In contrast to the Black-Scholes model and other option pricing models that require solutions to stochastic differential equations, the binomial model is mathematically simple. Binomial model is based on the assumption of no arbitrage. The assumption of no arbitrage implies that all risk-free investments earn the risk-free rate of return and no investment opportunity exists that requires zero amounts of investment but yield positive returns. We derive Black-Scholes partial differential equation using risk neutral binomial process. We also discuss the convergence of binomial model to the analytic pricing formula, the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Binomial model has the Black-Scholes analytic formula as the limiting case as the number of steps tends to infinity. This model is much more capable of handling options with early exercise because it considers the cash flow at each time period rather than just the cash flows at expiration.