Open Access Short communication

A Study of the Moisture Management Treatment on the Ultraviolet Protection Effect of Cotton Knitted Fabric

C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 248-251
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13947

This paper investigated the effect of moisture management treatment on the UV protection effect of cotton knitted fabric with different structures. UV measurement was carried out using a spectrophotometer in accordance with standard testing method and the results revealed that moisture management treatment would slightly affect the UV protection effect of cotton knitted fabrics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Is Cyber-Bullying a New form of Social Cruelty in Zimbabwean Schools?

Chrispen Chiome

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 184-193
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12508

Technology has the potential to extend the boundaries of collective intelligence. However, there are also some negatives associated with technology. This research explored the extent and forms of cyber-bullying in Zimbabwean schools. It was a mixed method survey of a purposive sample of 200 high school teenage students. The research shows that 76% of the respondents reported some form of cyber bullying. These took various forms such as sending pornographic materials; threatening messages, teasing, name calling, use of vulgar language among others. The victims experience powerfully negative effects especially on their social well-being. The research argues that cyber bullying is a new form of social cruelty that is threatening the social fabric in schools. The research recommends further researches on ways of minimizing the social effects of cyber bullying in schools. Additional research on a larger population, from a variety of age groups and cross-culturally would add another layer of understanding about cyber bullying among teens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Biogas Production from Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Stalk Waste through Its Blending with Cow Dung and Alkaline Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment

Uzodinma Eunice, Ibeto Cynthia, Okafor Gabriel

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 194-202
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/10838

Improvement of biogas production from Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) stalk waste through its blending with cow dung and alkaline sodium hydroxide pretreatment was investigated. Untreated pumpkin stalk waste (Un-PST) acted as the control. Initial verification carried out using this waste led to the present investigation. The batch digestion process anaerobically took place for 30 days under ambient atmospheric conditions. Bio-digesters of 41.00 dm3 working volume were utilized. Cumulative volume of biogas yield from the cow dung blended with pumpkin stalk (PST-cd) was 3.57 dm3/TS.kg and alkaline treated waste (PST-t) gave 4.48 dm3/TS.kg, while untreated pumpkin stalk waste (Un-PST), yielded 1.50 dm3/TS.kg. Each of these systems also produced flammable gas at different times: the Un-PST -15th day, PST-cd -5th day and PST-t-8th day, respectively. Paired sample T-Test carried out on volume of gas data indicated that t (t statistic) was 5.15 for paired sample Un-PST & PST-cd while 6.51 for Un-PST & PST-t with degree of freedom as 29; at 95% conf. interval. Hence, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in volume of gas production between the untreated and treated waste systems. Overall, results indicate that the yield of biogas from the waste through the different treatments were significantly (p<0.05) enhanced for renewable energy production, sustainable environment and wealth recovery for urban and rural dwellers of developing countries such as Nigeria, when properly harnessed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Almost Periodic Solution of a Discrete Multispecies Lotka-Volterra Competition Predator-prey System

Hui Zhang, Feng Feng, Xingyu Xie, Chunmei Chen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 203-219
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14332

In this paper, we consider an almost periodic discrete multispecies Lotka-Volterra competition predator-prey system. By the almost periodicity, sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a unique globally attractive almost periodic solution are obtained. An suitable example together with numerical simulation indicates the feasibility of the main results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Some Indigenous Wild Fruits for Anti-Nutritional Factors

B. A. Anhwange, R. L. Tyohemba, B. W. Tukura, P. Ogah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 220-227
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13899

Aim: The levels of some anti-nutritional factors of some common indigenous wild fruits were assessed in order to determine their safety, since these fruits are widely eaten by the indigenes.
Study Design: Five samples each of Chrysophyllum albidum (White Star Apple or Local Cherry), Persea americana (avocado pear) Dinnettia tripetala (pepper fruit), Diallium guineense (velvet tamarind), Annona muricata (Soursop) and Citrullus lanatus (water melon) sold in Railway market in Makurdi metropolis were collected and analysed for some anti-nutritional factors (hydrogen cyanide, phytate, tannins, alkaloids and oxalate).
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Chemistry, Benue State University Makurdi between April and May, 2014
Methodology: The analysis was conducted using standard methods.
Results: The results of hydrogen cyanide ranged between 0.01 mg/100g, to 0.31 mg/100g Tannins level in the fruits range between 0.03 mg/100g to 65.97 mg/100g. Alkaloids contents of the fruits were general very low (0.01 mg/100g to 0.11 mg/100g). The level of phytate observed in the fruits was found to be in the range 0.04 mg/100g to 0.43 g/100g. Oxalate was found to range between 0.01 mg/100g to 0.53 mg/100g.
Conclusion: The result indicates that all the fruits had varying contents of the anti-nutritional factors which should be removed during processing hence continuous consumption may lead to a cumulative effect which may be hazardous to heath.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nine-Volt Battery Life: A Failure of Quality Control

Ted R. Miller, Soma Bhattacharya, Jeffrey Levy

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 228-233
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13776

Aims: To determine the distribution of battery life for batteries that often are used to power smoke alarms.
Place and Duration of Study: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton Maryland, USA, between June 2007 and September 2009.
Methodology: We recorded the life of 167 9-volt zinc-carbon batteries and early failures among 60 alkaline batteries that we installed in ionization smoke alarms that, like all US smoke alarms, came equipped with battery test buttons and battery charge monitors. We tested two brands of batteries of each type. We also used a Radio Shack digital multimeter to test 100 unused zinc-carbon-batteries 7 months prior to their expiration date.
Results: Among zinc-carbon batteries, 25% of one brand and 12% of a second failed in less than 100 days. These batteries had a wide, disturbingly flat lifetime distribution, with 40% of the brand with the most early failures but only 1% of the second brand lasting more than 500 days. In a 9-volt battery eight-pack, one or two batteries are likely to be problem batteries that would not last for three months in a low-draw device like a smoke alarm. In this relatively undemanding application, the majority lasted less than the nominal one-year life reported by battery manufacturers. Among alkaline batteries, 2 of 60 failed within three months and 2 more failed between 21 and 24 months. Among unused batteries, 7% were dead 7 months before their expiration date.
Conclusion: Nine-volt batteries, especially zinc-carbon batteries, need better quality control. Consumer protection is lacking around this problem. Unless using longer-life batteries, changing smoke alarm batteries at every clock change makes some sense. Most will not last a year. Nevertheless, that advice may not be optimal for people pressed for cash. Depending on brand, a third of the batteries will last for 18-24 months. And alkaline batteries that are not defective should last more than two years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Guidelines for Community Participation in Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Based on the Community-as-Partner Model

O. A. Oyedele, S. C. D. Wright, T. M. M. Maja

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 234-247
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13727

Aim: The study explored the community stakeholders’ perceptions in teenage pregnancy prevention and also identified current teenage pregnancy intervention programmes in a typical South African township.
Methods: The study was contextual with an exploratory strategy. The research design is both qualitative and quantitative designs. The sample size for the study was determined by saturation of data and consisted of 75 participants. The target population were teenagers and four samples consisting of parents, teachers, professional nurses and community leaders. The qualitative data gathering method was self-report using a semi-structured interview and the data gathering instrument used for quantitative data was a questionnaire. Owing to the verbal nature of the qualitative data, template analysis style was combined with content analysis using open coding according to Tesch’s approach.
Results: The findings revealed that although teenage pregnancy initiative was in existence in the community, the majority of participants’ especially the teenagers had no knowledge of it. Teenagers in the study indicated that provision of condoms in school, preventing pregnant teenagers from schooling during pregnancy and stopping of social grants for teenage mothers as preventive strategies for the prevention of teenage pregnancy. All the participants viewed teenage pregnancy as a common occurrence in the community. The majority of the professional nurses’ sample indicated that it will be more helpful to commence sexuality education among children before the age of ten. Majority of the parent participants in the study discouraged the use of contraceptives by teenagers for pregnancy prevention instead advocated for sexual abstinence among teenagers to be more viable in the teenage pregnancy.
Conclusion: The study provided evidence of the applicability of the “Community-as-Partner” Model in the prevention of teenage pregnancy. Guidelines for the prevention of teenage pregnancy from a broad community-based perspective, using the Community-as-Partner Model and the findings of the study were developed for registered professional nurses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parliamentary Caucuses in Ghana’s Fourth Republic: Challenges and Recommendations

Isaac Owusu-Mensah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 252-264
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14119

A unique feature of the Ghanaian Parliament as compared with other democratic institutions of State is the establishment and development of recognized caucuses. The objective of these caucuses is to promote the development of the ideals of society and democratic principles within the Legislature, besides seeking the welfare of identified groups of parliamentarians. The membership dynamics of the caucuses are contingent on the name of the caucus, which varies in terms of constituency, from occupation to religion and gender. This paper using coalition theory as a framework of analysis seeks to assess the impact of parliamentary caucuses in the Fourth Republic, highlight the differences, and assess the challenges confronting their lobbying skills and the extent to which these challenges affect their propensities to achieve changes in the Ghanaian body politic, as well as the extent to which tangible outcomes are documented in the annals of parliamentary proceedings using Mixed-Method methodology. Caucuses are useful in the parliamentary development matrix, although there are challenges, such as members of multiple caucuses and inappropriate structures that hinder optimal performance.