Open Access Short Research Article

An Ion Pairing Approach to Enhance Oral Bioavailability of Alendronate

Basma N. AbdEl-Hamid, Ghareb M. Soliman, Mohamed A. Attia, Giovanni M. Pauletti

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 344-351
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13975

Aim: Alendronate (AL) is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate drug that exhibits limited oral bioavailability due to predominantly hydrophilic molecular properties. To enhance oral absorption of this important osteoporosis drug, a novel ion-pairing strategy using the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) was explored as an initial step of an alternate oral drug delivery strategy that attempts to prepare polymer-encapsulated ion pair nanoparticles.
Methodology: Electrostatically stabilized AL/PEI association complexes were fabricated by combining AL and PEI solutions prepared in 0.05 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0, at different AL/PEI charge ratios under stirring. The free fraction of AL after complexation with PEI was quantified spectrophotometrically at λ=300 nm using ferric chloride. Particle size distribution and zeta potential of ion pairs formed at different molar AL/PEI ratios were measured by dynamic laser light scattering.
Results: The complexation efficiency of PEI was low until an AL/PEI charge ratio of1:1.7. Increasing PEI concentrations effectively decreased the free fraction of AL implying formation of stable ion pairs between the negatively charged AL and the positively charged polymer. The lowest fraction of free AL was 18.7% measured at an AL/PEI charge ratio of 1:33. The mean hydrodynamic diameter of nanoassemblies decreased with increasing AL/PEI charge ratio reaching a limiting value of 71±1.4 nm at AL/PEI=1:33. Corresponding zeta potential measured for these association complexes was +37±2.8 mV.
Conclusion: AL/PEI charge ratio greater than 1:1.7 facilitates effective formation of electrostatically stabilized ion pairs that carry a significant positive surface charge indicative of substantial colloidal stability in aqueous solution. The small size of AL/PEI complexes fabricated at 1:33 favors these ion pairs for subsequent encapsulation into biocompatible polymers suitable for oral drug delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compacton, Peakon and Solitary Wave Solutions of the Osmosis K (3,2) Equation

Junde Chen, Jing Chen, Jiangbo Zhou

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 275-284
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14958

In this paper, the bifurcation method of planar systems and simulation method of differential equations are employed to investigate the bounded traveling wave solutions of the osmosis K (3,2) equation. Our results show that this equation admits a variety of physical solutions such as compacton, peakon and smooth solitary wave solutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Solutions of Strongly Non-linear Problems by the Iteration Perturbation Method

A. M. El-Naggar, G. M. Ismail

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 285-294
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14364

This paper applies modified He's iteration perturbation method to study periodic solutions of strongly nonlinear oscillators. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the method. The results are compared with the numerical solution and the comparison showed a proper accuracy of this method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fat Free Mass and Upper Arm Muscle Area as Measures of Muscularity in Tribal and Non-tribal Indian College Students

Sutapa Datta, Subhra Chattopadhyay, Asankur Sekhar Das, Chandan Mitra

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 295-306
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14283

Aims: Primarily, to assess fat free mass (FFM) and upper arm muscle area (UAMA) as measures of muscularity in tribal and non-tribal college students, and secondly, to examine muscularity, as an index of nutritional status, in these two populations.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Study population was undergraduate students studying at two different colleges in Tripura, India between October, 2011 and March, 2013.
Methodology: This study was undertaken in young adult college students of two different communities, tribal (n=70; 35 males; 35 females) and non-tribal (n=100; 50 males; 50 females), aged 18 to 21 years. Each subject was measured for height, weight, arm circumference and skin fold thickness at triceps and subscapular region. Mid upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated to predict muscularity and correlated with biochemical (urinary creatinine) and physical muscle (hand-grip dynamometer) variables in both genders.
Results: Among the two anthropometric measures (UAMA and FFM) used in this study for determination of muscularity, FFM was found better correlated with muscularity criterion variables creatinine and grip force in both genders of non-tribes, compared to tribes. Such correlation was found stronger with grip force than creatinine. Correlation coefficient analysis of each of these variables (either creatinine or grip force) with FFM and UAMA revealed that males are better correlated than females in both populations (tribe: male P=0.010; female P=0.014, non-tribe: male P=0.001; female P=0.004). Multiple regression analysis indicates that FFM is the most compatible predictor against both criterion variables in both populations (tribe: grip force-R2 change 0.028, P<0.001; creatinine-R2 change 0.165, P<0.01; non-tribe: grip force-R2 change 0.039, P<0.001; creatinine-R2 change 0.372, P<0.001). Pitman test confirms that FFM is the estimate with significantly better fit with creatinine in both genders of non-tribal population, when compared with UAMA.
Conclusion: In these two populations of Indian tribal and non-tribal college students, FFM was found more suitable over UAMA in predicting muscularity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pastoral Mobility in a Spatially Constrained Environment: A Case of Butana locality in Northern Gedarif State, Sudan

Yasin Abdalla Eltayeb Elhadary

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 307-319
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11344

This paper is designed to explain the main constraints that hinder pastoral mobility in arid and semi-arid lands. It aims to investigate the main factors behind the decline of herd mobility. It also determines the implications of mobility constraints on pastoral farming. The data discussed in this paper were based on fieldwork, which involved the use of questionnaires to elicit information from 300 respondents in 19 villages located at Butana, Northern Gedarif State, Sudan. The paper shows that the top down approach in policy formulation has failed to address the needs of pastoral communities. Under the pretext of land reforms, several pieces of legislation have been introduced to privatize the communal land tenure system. These laws, particularly the Unregistered Land Act 1970, have impacted negatively on pastoral mobility. This Act has led to rapid unplanned expansion of farming agriculture at the expense of pastoral land and has become a point of departure in land grabbing. Conversion of the communal land tenure system into private property has prevented pastoralists from accessing their traditional land rights and hence disrupted pastoral livelihoods. It is recommended that the bottom up approach should replace the top down approach, and that Melville Herskovits’ theory of the “East African Cattle Complex” and Hardin's theory of “the tragedy of the commons"; which have shaped planning in pastoral areas for several decades, need to be revised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of 532 nm and 671 nm Diode Lasers Irradiation on Calcium Solubility in Human Dental Enamel: An Ex-Vivo Study

Nafie A. Almuslet, Elhadi M. Awooda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 320-325
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/10185

Aim: This study aimed to measure the amount of calcium dissolved from dental enamel of extracted human teeth immersed in lactic acid solution after irradiation by 532 nm (100 mW) and 671 nm (100 mW) continuous wave diode lasers.
Methodology: One hundred and forty freshly extracted human premolar teeth were used. Samples were prepared by cutting each tooth into two cubic specimens of 4x4 mm enamel surface (one for irradiation and the other as control).The surfaces of the cube were coated by acid resistant varnish leaving the 4x4 enamel on one surface uncovered. Irradiation was done for each wavelength with 4, 8, 12 and 16 minute intervals. The control and the irradiated specimens were immersed in 3 ml lactic acid (pH 4.4) for 24 hours under a temperature of 37°C. The amount of calcium dissolved was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Comparison between variables was done by ANOVA and Chi-square tests with the level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05.
Results: The findings of this study showed that the percentages of calcium dissolved in the laser groups were less. Eight minutes irradiation time revealed the highest percentages of teeth with less calcium content (for 671 nm diode laser–81.25% and for 532 nm–78.60 %).The mean of calcium dissolved in acid decreased with increasing the irradiation time with P values of 0.013 and 0.000 for 532 nm and 671 nm, respectively.
Conclusion: Low power diode laser S of wavelengths 532 nm and 671 nm showed a decrease in calcium solubility in comparison to the control group; so it is a promising result in caries prevention. By increasing irradiation time, to a certain value, resistance to acid dissolution also increases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of a Sustainable Energy System for an Eco-Village: A Case Study of Bulindo Village

Thomas Makumbi, Samuel Baker Kucel, John Baptist Kirabira, Adam Sebbit

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 326-343
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14239

Aims: To plan and design Bulindo eco village to accommodate 10,000 residents with the main emphasis on the sustainable energy system that meets the energy demand under available constraints i.e. maximum annual capacity shortage, allowable emissions, operating reserve and the minimum renewable energy fraction
Study Design: The planning and design was accomplished by ascertaining the current state of Bulindo village as well as determining the energy requirements of this village and the available resource potential in the area. Using the above data as input to computer simulation model using HOMER software an energy system configuration that meets the energy demand for this village was obtained.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in the School of Engineering under the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology of Makerere University, Kampala-Uganda from January 2013 to May 2013.
Methodology: After gathering the relevant information for the study i.e. energy demand of the village using a field survey and the primary energy resource potential at Bulindo got from a climate file for Wakiso district provided by Meteonorm software, HOMER was used to model, simulate and optimize the energy system that meets the energy requirements of the village under available constraints. HOMER also assisted in determining both the technical and economic feasibility of the designed system.
Results: From computer modeling and simulation, it was found that Bulindo has an overall electrical energy demand of 49 MWh/day. The demand is maximum from 18:00-22:00hrs with a peak of 4.6 MW. The fresh water supply system for the village which was modeled as a deferrable load had an energy demand of 680 kWh/day. The demand is highest during the dry season i.e. from January to March and from June to September with a peak demand of 170 kW. The designed energy system consisted of a PV array, a wind generator, the grid, battery bank, a converter and a biomass generator which acts as backup. This system can meet up to 95% of the annual energy demand while the remaining 5% will be supplied by the national grid. The unit cost of the electricity is $0.028 and the project life is 50 years.
Conclusion: The sustainable energy system for Bulindo eco village to be moved in by 2025 has been designed. The designed system is believed to offer a better performance due to its sustainability as well as its ability to meet all the energy requirements of the village i.e. both energy and fresh water demand. Simulation results demonstrate that using green energy sources such as solar PV and wind generators will reduce the operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter. In addition, the system also supplies fresh water for residential, commercial and industrial usage. The amount of energy produced by the system is 63,658,616 kWh/year at a unit cost of $0.028 /kWh. 76% of the generated energy is consumed by the system i.e. AC primary load and the deferrable load while the surplus (24%) is sold to the national grid which earns crucial revenue to the village for better management of the system hence guaranteeing sustainability. However, the challenge will be getting the human resource to maintain and manage this system.

Open Access Review Article

The Relationship between Privatization and Occupational Safety in Coal Industryin Turkey; A Statistical Review of Coal Mine Accidents

Fatih Yilmaz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 265-274
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15125

Aims: The purpose of the article is to examine the causes of the increase in work-related accidents in the coal mining industry in Turkey. Furthermore, the article aims to investigate the impact of private sector employment and privatization process to occupational health and safety conditions in coal mining industry in Turkey
Study Design: The data used in the study are prepared by using the official occupational accident statistics taken from Turkish Social Security Institution and the tables that present the sectoral contribution of the insured workers. The number of recorded official occupational accidents, number of insured workers and number of workers who work for private and public sector are used to make comments on the data. Occupational accident rates per sector are calculated on the basis of years.
Methodology: In this study, occupational accidents, accident rates, standardized occupational accidents rates and changes of insured workers of private and public sector were investigated in the coal mining industry. Outsourcing, privatization and growth rates of private sector employment in coal mining sector were compared with the increase of standardized occupational accident rates, and its impact on accidents in coal mining was investigated.
Results: The rate of the employees of private sector in coal mining increased from 31% to 75% in the period of last 12 years. On the other hand, occupational accidents increased rapidly in coal mining sector since 2004 in comparison with the other sectors. Since 1992, 11 of 12 great accidents occurred in the coal mines that are operated by private sector enterprises and 937 workers died due to firedamp explosions and fires. Most of the coal mines are operated by lessee private sector enterprises, however, coal production is made without taking adequate measures in the basins. This poor conditions leads to great industrial accidents that resulting death of the workers.
Conclusion: Occupational accidents in coal mines cannot decrease unless making new regulations. Turkey needs a new mining sector strategy from the point of need for the sector and economic losses caused by occupational accidents. Thus, Turkey must sign the “Safety and Health in Mines Convention” (No. 176) of ILO firstly and an action plan, that defines the existing conditions and measures, must be developed and applied as in the USA and China. Occupational accidents and deaths is related with using modern systems and technologies used in the mines. Performing risk analysis showing the existing conditions in coal mines is very important. According the results of risk analysis, the mine pits with the poor conditions must be closed or must be taken necessary preventive measures.