Open Access Case Report

Strategies of Sludge Management in the Gaza Strip

Abdelmajid Nassar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 419-426
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14940

The Gaza Strip is a limited area with high population density. Four wastewater treatment plants operate in the area which are overloaded and mismanaged. There are plans to construct three more wastewater treatment plants with overall capacity of 304,000 m3/day which will make use of the activated sludge technology. The current research estimated the quantities of sludge and studies the possible options for disposal based on the Gaza Strip circumstances. It is estimated that 21,000 tons of dry solids per year will be produced in the Gaza Strip. The quality of existing sludge complies with the Palestinian Standards with respect to nutrients content and absence of heavy metals. The reuse of sludge in agriculture is the most feasible option for sludge disposal but, as the area of agricultural land is limited in the Gaza Strip, farmers throughout the Gaza Strip will need to be encouraged to use sludge.

Open Access Short Research Article

Impact of Lagos Eko Secondary Education Project on Academic Performance of Students in West Africa Senior School Certificate Examinations

Mufutau B. Akinwande, Moruf A. Okunola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 410-418
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15416

This study aimed to investigate the impact of the Lagos Eko Secondary Education Project (LESEP) on the average academic performance of students in the West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in Agege Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria.
Convincing evidence was required that showed the WASSCE results of students in Pre-LESEP period differed significantly from the WASSCE results of students in Post-LESEP period in the three core subjects of Mathematics, English, and Biology.
Simple random sampling techniques were used in this study. Any student who had written WASSCE within Agege LGA was a potential respondent. Six schools were selected from among the public secondary schools existing in Agege LGA.
The WASSCE results and summary of the results were collected personally from the schools with the assistance of the Vice Principals. The data was carefully studied and checked for any omission. The analysis of the data was carried out using simple percentages and R software package which is publicly available and free. All the hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance.
The results show that the students’ average academic performances in the core subjects are significantly better in Post-LESEP than in Pre-LESEP. Also students’ performance in WASSCE rose from 7% in 2007 to 39% in 2012. In light of this significant achievement, it was recommended that Lagos Eko Project Training Programmes be extended beyond the core subjects. Teacher training must be continuous and on a regular basis for all teachers not just core subject teachers. When other teachers are given the opportunity to go through the same type of training, it should improve the overall performance of the students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bias in Recruited Sample Research on Children with Same-Sex Parents Using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

D. Paul Sullins

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 375-387
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15298

Aims: To test for the presence of bias on use of a common psychometric instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), in studies of children with same-sex parents using a recruited convenience sample.
Study Design: Non-parametric quasi-experimental two-group comparison.
Methodology: Results from five qualifying studies, two with random samples and three with recruited samples, were compared with normative population data, assessing the percent of comparisons favorable or unfavorable to children with same-sex parents for six subscale measures.
Results: In the recruited samples 79.3 % (range: 75-83) of comparisons were favorable to children with same-sex parents, compared with no favorable comparisons (0%, range 0-0) in the random samples. Two additional random samples with related measures were also adduced, also with no favorable comparisons (0%, range 0-0).
Conclusion: Evidence suggests strong bias resulting in false positive outcomes for parent-reported SDQ in recruited samples of same-sex parents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Some Petrophysical Properties of Reservoir Rocks in the Niger Delta

A. Akintola Sarah, U. Akpabio Julius, C. Nduamaka Francis

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 388-401
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15096

In formation evaluation, the knowledge of porosity, permeability and fluids saturation are very important in the determination of the hydrocarbon in place. These petro physical properties are necessary to understand the nature of the reservoir and help for proper field development planning. This was aimed at determining the petro physical properties (pore volume, bulk volume, grain volume, permeability and fluid saturation) of a reservoir from core plugs.
A total of ten core plugs were used in this work. Archimedes immersion method was used in the determination of the bulk volume. Liquid saturation method was used in the determination of the porosity. The Dean-Stark extraction method was used in the determination of fluid saturation.
From the results obtained in the core analysis, the sandstone reservoir has an average porosity of 14.9±5.1%, very good permeability with an average value of 349.77±0.3 mD and a very large water saturation value of 82±0.4%. Consequently the hydrocarbon saturation is approximately 18%.
This implies that the formation is not commercially viable to develop based on the hydrocarbon saturation. The study shows that experimental work is one of the valid tools for making informed decisions on the development of a field in the petroleum industry and highlights the importance of the basic petrophysical properties in reservoir management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medical Waste: Environmental Health Hazard in the Northern Part of Bangladesh

Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Tamanna Akhter Tanu, Masum A. Patwary

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 402-409
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11052

Introduction: This study explores the types of Healthcare Establishments (HCEs) and their amount and kind of medical waste generation and the types in 27 HCE in Rangpur City Corporation (RCC) area include hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic canters. Private HCE’s providing surgical, obstetrical, dialysis and pathological services were integrated in this survey because they may generate large amounts of transmittable waste and can major source of environmental health hazard.
Methodology: Primary data collection methodology was adopted including questionnaire survey, observational approach and formal dialogue session using a Population Proportionate to Size (PPS) stratified plan.
Results: The overall mean general waste production rate is 1.7 kg/bed/day at all the surveyed HCE in RCC area which ranged from 0.5 kg to 5 kg/bed/day. The highest amount of infectious wastes generated from the HCE which have surgical facilities about 80 kg/day. The average waste generation rate was 1.5 kg/bed/day. This study suggested that in RCC region most of the private HCE’s employee has no in-depth knowledge about medical waste management in the context of environmental hazard and its management system.
Conclusion: In addition, this study also suggested that knowledge on environmental health is a significant issue among the surveyed HCE employees to protect the threat of public health.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Few Results on Wiener Index of the kth Power of Some Specific Graphs

K. R. Udaya Kumar Reddy

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 427-434
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14639

For a simple connected undirected graph G = (V;E), the Wiener index W(G) of G is defined as half the sum of the shortest-path distances between all pairs of vertices u; v of G. The kth power of a graph G, denoted by Gk, is a graph with the same vertex set as G such that two vertices are adjacent in Gk if and only if their distance is at most k in G. Let Pn be a path on n vertices. In this paper, for the graph G = Pn2Pn, we obtain a closed form expression for W(G2). In addition, a correct closed form expression is stated forW (P3n). But we are unable to provide a proof forW (P3n) of how such expression has arrived. This may be compared with the existing result: for a graph G = Pn2Pn, W(G2) can be computed by an algorithm in linear time.

Open Access Review Article

Challenges and Opportunities for Restoring the Threatened Mangroves

Kelvin Ngongolo, Samuel Mtoka, Anna Mahulu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 352-360
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/8922

Restoration of mangrove forests has to be a continuous process. It is important to reverse the loss of mangrove ecosystem worldwide by using various approaches as this ecosystem provides important ecosystem services such as habitat for organisms, recycling of nutrients, controlling floods, trapping sediments, erosion barriers and so much more. This paper addresses issues associated with the ongoing degradation of mangroves, objectives, opportunities well as challenges for mangroves restoration. As far as the restoration of mangroves is concern, it is emphasized to conserve mangrove forest so as to continue benefiting from them. Special emphasis is placed in coordinating efforts between natural and social sciences. However, it should also be noted that, restoring mangroves is only a partial solution, protection and conservation of those important remaining ecosystems, must be a campaign for all nations before too much is lost.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Noise Suppression in Package Generators

Sunday Okerekehe Okpighe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 361-374
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12391

Review of Noise Suppression in Package Generators is reported. Shortfall in power generation, distribution and availability to the populace in developing economies has compelled the populace to embrace the usage of package generators in their domestic and commercial activities. The attendant noise pollution associated with the package generator usage has become a menace. The Review has identified materials and methods/procedures for evaluating the Noise level, Design and application of Noise Suppression Units (also known as mufflers) and evaluating the optimal noise reduction achieved. The contribution to body of knowledge hopefully stands to minimize the noise pollution of the environment which is detrimental to the health and wellbeing of the society.