Open Access Clinical Practice Article

Safety of Arnica/Echinacea Powder in the Care of the Umbilical Stump

Elisabetta Scurati-Manzoni, Diego Luotti, Federica Poletti, Raffaella Visentin, Gianbachisio Melis, Andrea Guala

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 435-440
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14969

The main concerns about neonates’ umbilical stump are delay in its falling, umbilical cord infections and bleeding. Optimal umbilical cord care is therefore an important issue for both nurseries’ staff and neonates’ caregivers. Many investigators have explored the optimal cord care treatment. Among current umbilical cord care options, topical application of chlorhexidine decreases omphalitis and neonatal mortality, both in primary and community care settings in developing countries; whereas dry cord care has proved to be adequate in hospital settings, in developed countries.
We here report our experience on arnica/echinacea powder, a safe method of treating the umbilical cord in developed countries.

Open Access Short communication

KinesioTape® Influence on Female Functional Ankle Instability: Preliminary Findings

Ana Duarte, Tiago Atalaia

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 507-516
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15231

Aims: The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of Kinesiotape® (KT) and exercise on functional ankle instability score measure by the Y-test in female soccer athletes.
Study Design: Interrupted time series with treatment removal.
Place and Duration of Study: Futebol Clube Benfica. Between January 2014 and March 2014.
Methodology: Six female athletes with a mean age 22.5 (+/- 3.02) years old, mean weight 59.9 (+/- 9.9) kg, height 163.3 (+/- 6.5) cm and with functional ankle instability participated. Ankle instability was measured by the Y-Test at four different times: initial measure, after two weeks without any treatment, three weeks after KT application period and three weeks after the specific exercise plan application.
Results: The sample was reduced to five participants (7 feet) with functional ankle instability. After analysis, 57.1% of the sample benefited from the use of KT in at least two of the three directions measured. On the other hand, 42.9% showed positive changes for the anterior reach direction apparently because of the specific exercise programme for ankle instability. The Wilcoxon test results revealed statistically significant differences in the composite reach distance associated with the use of KT (P = 0.01). Significant differences were reported (P< 0.05) in the anterior reach direction related to the implementation of the exercise plan.
Conclusion: A tendency for a functional improvement of the ankle instability in the study population was observed by the use of KT. Differences between the use of KT and the exercise plan were unclear.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistance to Lead of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Adolescents in San Baltazar Tetela, Puebla

R. E. Díaz Martínez, L. Cedillo-Ramírez, A. Silva-Handall, A. Muñoz-García, J. A. Yáñez-Santos

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 446-467
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/9282

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine if Streptococcus mutans have adapted to the polluted condition present among this population, adolescents 11-15 years of age with and without caries, and the resistance of this organism to grow at different concentrations of lead (Pb).
Methodology: In Diagram 1. Summary of the different stages of experimental development are briefly explained in the following paragraphs.
Results: The present investigation was made because contamination by chemical substances (heavy metals) represents an important health risk. We chose the community of San Baltazar Tetela, Puebla-México as our study site since it experiences noticeable environmental contamination because of industrial emissions and run-off generated by the storage of these polluting agents in the Manuel Avila Camacho dam (Valsequillo Lake). This study not only allowed us to quantify the concentration of lead in the blood of adolescents living in this community, but also to establish its possible association with socio-economic factors. On the other hand we isolated and identify Streptococcus mutans from saliva in teenagers.
The mean blood lead value has a value of 7.89 μg/dL of blood (Graph. 3) in the lower levels to 10 μg / dL, with lead levels greater 10 μg / dL of blood is 13. 18; not having statistically significant difference in applying the test, based on the weight and height of children with and without elevated lead, on the other hand the average value of CPO in children with normal blood lead was 3.99 (Graph.4), while children with higher lead levels to 10 μg / dL of blood, had a 7.41 CPO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Metabolic Profile in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease after Lifestyle Management

Francilene de Moraes Feitoza, Graciane Catarina Batista Magalhães, Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis, Anselmo Verlangieri Carmo, Keyla Aparecida Pontes Lopes Dias, Maria Salete Ferreira Martins, Maria Helena Gaíva Gomes-da-Silva

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 468-478
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15745

Aims: The aim of this study was investigate whether a comprehensive lifestyle management is able to promote improvements in the nutritional and metabolic profiles of obese women with NAFLD.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was developed in the nutrition outpatient clinic of Julio Muller University Hospital from Mato Grosso Federal University at Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during 6 months.
Methodology: We assessed 61 obese women who received instructional treatment to change their lifestyle, at baseline and after 6 months, by anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and ultrasound measurements including liver steatosis, visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Food intake was assessed by a qualitative food frequency questionnaire and the women were placed in NAFLD group or Control group based on the presence of liver steatosis.
Results: No difference was found in food intake, but after treatment, both groups reduced their frequency of intake of fats, sugar and sweets and to increase their consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruits. The NAFLD group reduced body weight, waist circumference and liver steatosis. Both groups improved visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) whereas leptin were elevated and adiponectin were lowered during all the study. Strong positive correlations were found in the NAFLD group between visceral adiposity and body mass index, between subcutaneous adiposity and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and between interleukin-6 and leptin. Although occurred in both groups during the study, high insulin resistance and low insulin sensitivity were more pronounced in the NAFLD group.
Conclusion: We observed that even a small management in lifestyle can play an important role in the improvement of nutritional and metabolic profiles of obese women with NAFLD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characteristics and Antibacterial Activity of Alginate Beads Coated Chitosan Polyacrylonitrile Copolymer Loaded Silver Nanocomposite

A. Hebeish, M. A. Ramadan, A. S. Montaser, I. Krupa, A. M. Farag

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 479-488
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14775

Chitosan grafted with acrylonitrile loaded silver nanocomposite coated alginate beads were successfully prepared first, alginate beads were synthesized with homogenous structures sized ranging from 1.5 to 2 mm. The alginate beads were then submitted to surface modification (coating) using the nanocomposite. The presence of nanocomposite along with the structure of materials were characterized by making use of FT-IR, XPS, EDX-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer. The nanocomposite treated samples were tested for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) as gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus) as gram positive strain. The antibacterial activity was examined by both zone of inhibition and turbidmetery test method. Biological results indicate that the newly synthesized materials have excellent antibacterial performance against all types of microbes.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of the Use of Online Social Network Sites for Enhancing Computing Students’ Academic Activities

J. O. Olaleke, O. G. Iroju, M. S. Olajide

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 489-499
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13698

Online Social Network Sites (SNSs) have no doubt contributed immensely towards communication as well as the educational pursuit of students in higher institutions of learning. Thus, SNSs enhance relationships amongst learners and their teachers, they improve learning motivation as well as facilitate collaborative exercises. In addition, the exchange of ideas, messages as well as real time communication amongst learners and teachers are facilitated. Thus, SNSs are believed to increase students’ academic activities as well as performance in educational institution. It is also believed that the use of SNSs adversely affect the academic performance of students. However, the use of online SNSs to boost students’ academic activities and performance is still at an infant stage and thus needs to be investigated.
Aim: Based on this background, this paper investigates the impact of SNSs on the academic activities of Nigerian students.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria, between August and October, 2013.
Methodology: A research questionnaire was designed for data elicitation. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 students (55 males and 45 females). Purposive sampling method was used. The respondents were chosen based on their relevance to the study, that is, only respondents that were registered with at least one social network site was allowed to participate in the study. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage.
Results: The major findings of the study were as follows: SNSs are frequently visited by students on a daily basis. The study revealed that female students use SNSs more than their male counterparts. Facebook is the most visited social networking sites among students. In addition, the study showed that SNSs are used for entertainment purposes, communication as well as academic purposes. The study showed that majority of the students use SNSs more for communication than for enhancing their academic activities. The study however revealed that SNSs can be used to enhance students’ reading skills and learning abilities through interactions with experienced professionals and colleagues.
Conclusion: The study therefore concludes that although majority of students do not use social network sites to foster their academic activities, online social networks can facilitate the academic experiences of students by helping them to improve their reading skills and also providing an enabling environment for academic discussions through diverse interactions with professionals in their field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Comparison between Amsel’s Criteria and Nugent’s Score Methods in Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginos is in Non-pregnant Women

Moallaei Hossien, Namazi Mohammad Javad, Fazaeli Yousefabad Hamid, Zargarian Mahdi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 500-506
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15033

Aim: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a poly-microbial syndrome. Amsel’s criteria or Nugent’s methods are usually used for its diagnosis. The present study was conducted to compare these two techniques regarding their reliability and possible preferences in practical use.
Study Design: A Cross-sectional research was designed. There was no time dimension while existing differences were identified and became base for grouping all cases involved in the study.
Place and Duration of Study: Sabzevar, Iran, During 2012 to 2013.
Methodology: Four hundreds and sixteen (416) non-pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharges were evaluated for the presence of BV using Amsel’s criteria and Nugent’s tests. All clinical symptoms and a standard screening questionnaire were prepared and collected for each person. For each case following examinations were practiced: pH, Whiff test, a test in which vaginal secretions are mixed with 10% KOH resulting in a fishy odor typical of bacterial vaginosis, and the presence of the clue cells on vaginal wet smear. Gram staining method was performed for Nugent’s method.
Results: Nugent’s score and Amsel’s criteria tests showed that the prevalence of BV was 8.2% and 16.4% respectively. There was no perfect inter-rater agreement between both Amsel’s and Nugent’s score (kappa = 0.58) tests. Presence of the clue cells among different diagnostic values provided the highest degree of assurance.
Conclusion: Amsel’s criteria method is a cheap and convenient means for BV diagnosis. However, Nugent's method is not always reliable due to the complexity of scoring and expertise requirements. Although we need more evidence, the results suggested that the combination of the pH and clue cells test relatively was the best practical and reliable choice in clinical set for BV diagnosis.